|King of Spain |
|Reign||19 June 2014 – present|
|Enthronement||19 June 2014|
|Predecessor||Juan Carlos I|
|Prime ministers||Mariano Rajoy|
|Born||30 January 1968|
|Father||Juan Carlos I of Spain|
|Mother||Sophia of Greece and Denmark|
|Service/|| Spanish Army|
Spanish Air Force
|Years of service||1986–2014 |
(end of active service)
|Rank||Captain General (See list)|
Felipe VI or Philip VI (Spanish: [feˈlipe];[b] Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Grecia; born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain. He ascended the throne on 19 June 2014 upon the abdication of his father, Juan Carlos I. His mother is Queen Sofía, and he has two elder sisters, Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo, and Infanta Cristina. In 2004, Felipe married TV news journalist Letizia Ortiz with whom he has two daughters, Leonor (his heir presumptive) and Sofía.
In accordance with the Spanish Constitution, as monarch, he is head of state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces with military rank of Captain General, and also plays the role of the supreme representation of Spain in international relations.
Early life and family
He was born at Our Lady of Loreto Hospital at Madrid, the third child and only son of Infante Juan Carlos and Princess Sofía of Greece and Denmark. He was baptised on 8 February 1968 at the Palace of Zarzuela by the Archbishop of Madrid, Casimiro Morcillo, with water from the Jordan River. His full baptismal name, Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos, consists of the names of the first Bourbon king of Spain (Felipe V), his grandfathers (Infante Juan of Spain and King Paul of Greece), his great-grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain, and de Todos los Santos ("of all the Saints") as is customary among the Bourbons. His godparents were his paternal grandfather Juan and his paternal great-grandmother, Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain. Additionally, he is the third cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II, King Harald V, Queen Margrethe II, and King Carl XVI Gustav of the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden respectively.
Shortly after his birth he was styled infante. The dictator Francisco Franco died just more than two months before Felipe's eighth birthday, and Felipe's father ascended the throne, as the latter had been appointed as Prince (heir presumptive of Franco) back in 1969. In his first official appearance, Felipe attended his father's proclamation as king on 22 November 1975.
|Spanish royal family|
In 1977, Felipe was formally proclaimed Prince of Asturias. In May, nine-year-old Felipe was made an honorary soldier of the 1st King's Immemorial Infantry Regiment. The occasion was marked on 28 May and was attended by the king, the prime minister and several other ministers in a ceremony at the infantry's barracks. On 1 November the same year, he was ceremoniously paid homage as Prince of Asturias in Covadonga. In 1981 Felipe received the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece from his father, the Chief and Sovereign of the Order. On his 18th birthday on 30 January 1986, Felipe swore allegiance to the Constitution and to the King in the Spanish Parliament as required by the constitution, fully accepting his role as successor to the Crown.
Education and military training
Felipe attended school at Santa María de los Rosales, which his daughters currently attend. Felipe attended high school at Lakefield College School in Ontario, Canada, and studied at the Autonomous University of Madrid, where he graduated with a degree in Law; he also completed several courses in Economics. He completed his academic studies by obtaining a Master of Science in Foreign Service degree from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, where he was the roommate of his cousin, Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece.
As the heir to the throne, a carefully regulated and structured plan was laid out for Felipe's military training. In August 1985, a Royal Decree named Felipe as officer at the General Military Academy in Zaragoza. He began his military training there in September. He completed the first phase of his formation in October. In July 1986, he was promoted to Cadet 2nd Lieutenant. He was also named as Midshipman. In September 1986, he began his naval training at the Escuela Naval Militar in Marin (Pontevedra), joining the Third Brigade. In January 1987, he continued his naval training on board the training ship Juan Sebastián Elcano. In July, he was named as Student Ensign at the Academia General del Aire in Murcia. In September 1987, he began his air force training there where he learned to fly aircraft. In 1989, he was promoted to lieutenant in the Army, ensign in the Navy, and lieutenant in the Air Force. In 1992, he was promoted to captain in the Air Force. In 1993, he was promoted to lieutenant in the Navy and captain in the Infantry of the Army.
Further promotions in 2000 were commandant in the Army, corvette captain in the Navy, and commandant in the Air Force. Promotions in 2009 were lieutenant colonel in the Army, frigate captain in the Navy, and lieutenant colonel in the Air Force.
Activities in Spain and abroad
This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (August 2020)
Felipe undertook his constitutional duties as heir to the throne, hosting many official events in Spain and participating in all events of different sectors and aspects of Spanish public life. Since October 1995, Felipe has represented Spain on a series of official visits to the Spanish Autonomous Communities, starting with Valencia. Felipe has held regular meetings with constitutional bodies and state institutions keeping up-to-date with their activities. He also attends meetings of the various bodies of the Central Administration and of the Autonomous Communities as required by his national and international constitutional obligations. In particular, he has held meetings with people of his generation who have built successful careers in political, economic, cultural and media circles. As part of his military training, Felipe trained as a military helicopter pilot. On occasions when King Juan Carlos I was unable to attend, Felipe presided over the annual presentation of dispatches to officers and non-commissioned officers in the Armed Forces as well as participating in military exercises held by the three Armed Services.
Since January 1996, Felipe has represented the Spanish State at many Latin American presidents' inauguration ceremonies. As Prince, he visited every country in Latin America except Cuba, which he visited as Felipe VI in 11–14 November 2019. He made over 200 foreign trips in total. Felipe has also played an active role in promoting Spain's economic, commercial and cultural interests and the Spanish language abroad. He frequently represents Spain at world economic and trade events (e.g. Expotecnia, Expoconsumo, and Expohabitat), and is especially interested in promoting the creation of Centres and University Chairs to advance the study of Spain both historically and in the present-day at major foreign universities.
In addition to his official activities, Felipe serves as Honorary President of several associations and foundations, such as the Codespa Foundation, which finances economic and social development in Ibero-America and other countries, and the Spanish branch of the Association of European Journalists, comprising outstanding communications professionals. Most noteworthy is the Príncipe de Asturias Foundation, where he presides annually at the international awards ceremony of the highly prestigious Princess of Asturias Awards (formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards).
Felipe was appointed a "UN-Eminent Person" by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan in 2001, during its International Year of Volunteers, and continues to make contributions internationally towards enhancing the importance of voluntary work.
Felipe is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution due to his patriot ancestor Charles III of Spain. In 2019 he received the World Peace & Liberty Award from the World Jurist Association at the World Law Congress in Madrid.
Sports and participation in the Olympics
Felipe was a member of the Spanish Olympic sailing team at the Barcelona Games in 1992. Felipe took part in the opening ceremony as the Spanish team's flag bearer. The Spanish crew finished in sixth place in the Soling class and obtained an Olympic diploma. He is an honorable member of the International Soling Association. Both his mother and uncle, King Konstantínos II of the Hellenes, were on the Greek sailing team at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome (his mother as a substitute), and Felipe's father and sister were also Olympic sailors for Spain.
On 2 June 2014, King Juan Carlos announced his intent to abdicate in Felipe's favour. As required by the Constitution of Spain, the Spanish Cabinet began deliberations the following day on an organic law to give effect to the abdication. The law had to be passed by a majority of all members of the Congress of Deputies, the lower house of the Cortes Generales (Parliament). According to Jesús Posada, the President of the Congress of Deputies, Felipe could have been proclaimed king as early as 18 June. On 4 June, El País of Madrid reported that Felipe would indeed be proclaimed king on 18 June.
Felipe ascended the throne at the stroke of midnight on 19 June; his father had given his sanction to the organic law effecting his abdication just hours earlier. The next morning, after receiving the Captain General's sash from his father, he was formally sworn in and proclaimed king in a low-key ceremony held in the Cortes. He swore to uphold the Constitution before formally being proclaimed king by Posada. Upon his accession, he became the youngest monarch in Europe, being nine months younger than King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.
As king, Felipe has fairly extensive reserve powers on paper. He is the guardian of the Constitution and is responsible for ensuring it is obeyed and followed. It was expected that he would follow his father's practice of taking a mostly ceremonial and representative role, acting largely on the advice of the government. He indicated as much in a speech to the Cortes on the day of his enthronement, saying that he would be "a loyal head of state who is ready to listen and understand, warn and advise as well as to defend the public interest at all times". While he is nominally chief executive, he is not politically responsible for exercising his powers. Per the Constitution, his acts are not valid unless countersigned by a minister, who then assumes political responsibility for the act in question.
A poll conducted by El País, however, indicates that a majority of Spaniards wish Felipe would play a greater role in politics, with 75% of the 600 people surveyed stating they would approve if he personally pushed the political parties to reach agreements on national problems. According to an El Mundo newspaper poll, Felipe had a greater approval than his father prior to his reign.
In June 2014, Felipe and Letizia became the first Spanish king and queen to receive and recognize LGBT organisations at the Palace. Felipe also changed the protocol in order to allow people to take the oath of office without a crucifix or Bible. In their first overseas trip as king and queen, Felipe VI and Letizia met Pope Francis in the Apostolic Palace on 30 June 2014. They subsequently met with Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Parolin, accompanied by Mgsr. Antoine Camilleri, under-secretary for Relations with States. The visit followed one by King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofía on 28 April. On 18 July, the new king chaired his first meeting of the Council of Ministers.
In February 2015, Felipe announced he would cut his annual salary by 20% as a result of the economic recession and hardships continuing to hamper Spain.
The elections in 2015 resulted in no party winning enough seats to form a government. No agreements with the different parties were successful. After months of talks with the different party leaders, and with there being no apparent candidate in a position of support in forming a government, a royal decree was issued dissolving parliament with new elections being called in June. This marked the first time since the transition to democracy that an election was called under Article 99.5 of the Constitution, wherein the initiative for issuing the dissolution of the Cortes belonged to the King and not to the Prime Minister.
On 3 October 2017, as huge protest rallies and a general strike took place in Catalonia following the 2017 Catalan independence referendum that was deemed illegal by Spanish authorities, Felipe delivered an unusually strongly worded televised address in which he condemned the actions of the referendum organizers for acting "outside the law", accusing them of "unacceptable disloyalty" and of "eroding the harmony and co-existence within Catalan society itself". He also warned the referendum could put the economy of the entire north-east region of Spain at risk. Reactions to his speech were mixed. Party officials from the PP and Ciudadanos acclaimed the King's "commitment to legality", whereas leaders from Unidos Podemos and Catalunya en Comú criticised it as "as unworthy as it was irresponsible", paving the way for a harsh intervention of the Catalan autonomy. As for the PSOE, its leaders showed their support to the King's words in public, but were unofficially upset that the King had not made any call to understanding or dialogue between both the Spanish and Catalan governments.
In March 2020, following the revelation in The Telegraph that Felipe VI appeared as second beneficiary (after his father) of the Lucus Foundation, the entity on the receiving end of a €65 million donation by Abdullah bin Abdulaziz, King of Saudi Arabia, the Royal Household issued a statement on 15 March 2020 declaring that Felipe VI would renounce any inheritance from his father to which he could be entitled and that Juan Carlos would lose his public stipend from the part of the State's General Budget dedicated to the Royal Household.[excessive citations] The renunciation of the inheritance is a mere declaration of intent, since the Spanish Civil Code prevents accepting or rejecting an inheritance until the death of the person who bequeaths takes place.
The Royal Household also implied that Felipe VI already had prior knowledge of the Fundación Lucus and his condition as beneficiary of the latter since April 2019.
A widespread cacerolada from the balconies of cities across Spain took place on 18 March counterprogramming the TV discourse of Felipe VI on the ongoing COVID-19 pandemics, intending to force Juan Carlos to donate to public healthcare the €100M he had allegedly obtained through kickbacks from Saudi Arabia, which was ultimately dismissed.
Marriage and issue
Felipe's bachelor years were a source of interest to the Spanish press for several years. His name was linked with several eligible women, but only two notable girlfriends: Spanish noblewoman Isabel Sartorius, around 1989 to 1991, daughter of the Marquess of Mariño, who was viewed unfavourably by the Royal Family due to her mother's cocaine addiction, and Norwegian model Eva Sannum, who modelled underwear. When Felipe finally began a serious relationship, nothing was suspected before the official announcement of the Prince's engagement on 1 November 2003 to Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano, a television journalist who had been married previously. The couple were married on the morning of 22 May 2004 in the Almudena Cathedral, Madrid, with representatives of royal families from all over the world and most heads of state from Latin America present.
Titles, styles and arms
Titles and styles
Juan Carlos became king in 1975, but no title was conferred on Felipe as heir apparent until 1977, when he was created Prince of Asturias, the traditional title normally held by the heir to the Spanish throne. The royal decree granting him this title also entitled him to use "the other historical titles corresponding to the heir of the Crown". Felipe started using the Aragonese title of Prince of Girona publicly on 21 April 1990, during a trip around Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia, becoming the first Bourbon to use this title.
Upon ascending the throne, Felipe assumed the same titles held by his father. If the former Kingdoms of Aragon and Navarre had separate naming styles, he would also be known as Felipe V of Aragon and Felipe VII of Navarre along with Felipe VI of Castile.
As heir to the Spanish throne, Felipe's arms were the Spanish arms differenced with a label of three points azure (blue). The first quarter represents Castile, the second León, the third Aragon, and the fourth Navarre; below are the arms of Granada. In the centre, on an inescutcheon, were the ancestral arms of the sovereign House of Bourbon-Anjou. Surrounding the shield was the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and surmounting it was the heraldic crown of the heir to the throne, decorated with four half-arches.
Following his accession to the throne, the label on his arms was removed and the crown of the heir was changed to that of the monarch's (eight half-arches instead of four). These arms differ from those of his father's as king, as they omit the Cross of Burgundy, the yoke, and the sheaf of five arrows.
- History of Spain
- Politics of Spain
- Line of succession to the Spanish throne
- List of honours of the Spanish Royal Family by country
- List of state visits received by King Felipe VI of Spain
- List of titles and honours of the Spanish Crown
- Princess of Asturias Awards
- The English-language version of the Official Royal Family website is rendered as "Borbon", while in Spanish it is rendered as "Borbón". In English, the house is traditionally called House of Bourbon.
- Most English-language media refer to the king as Felipe VI, although a few sources have rendered his name as Philip VI. In the languages of Spain, his name is:
- "His Majesty the King Juan Carlos". The Royal Household of His Majesty the King. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011.
- e.g. New Statesman
- "Felipe takes over as king of Spain". BBC News. 18 June 2014.
- Govan, Fiona (13 June 2014). "Spain will have two kings and two queens". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Garea, Fernando; Fabra, María (3 June 2014). "Coronation of Prince Felipe to take place on June 18". El Pais.
- (in Spanish) Título II. De la Corona. Es.wikisource.org. Retrieved on 21 June 2014.
- Title II, Article 56, Subsection 1, Text:
The King is the Head of State, the symbol of its unity and permanence. He arbitrates and moderates the regular functioning of the institutions, assumes the highest representation of the Spanish State in international relations.
El Rey es el Jefe del Estado, símbolo de su unidad y permanencia, arbitra y modera el funcionamiento regular de las instituciones, asume la más alta representación del Estado español en las relaciones internacionales, especialmente con las naciones de su comunidad histórica, y ejerce las funciones que le atribuyen expresamente la Constitución y las leyes
- "La princesa doña Sofia dio a luz ayer su primero hijo varon". ABC (in Spanish). 31 January 1968. p. 43. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "Casa de Su Majestad el Rey de España – Actividades y Agenda – Hitos más importantes de Su Alteza Real el Príncipe de Asturias". Casareal.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Royal christenings around the world". The Telegraph. 9 November 2015. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Apadrinado por don Juan y la Reina Doña Victoria, recibo ayer las aguas bautismales el infante don Felipe". ABC (in Spanish). 9 February 1968. p. 23. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "Casa de Su Majestad el Rey de España – S.M. el Rey Don Felipe VI". Casareal.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Don Felipe de Borbón, principe de Asturias". El Pais (in Spanish). 22 January 1977. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- Boletín Oficial del Estado: no. 19, p. 1542 Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 22 January 1977. (in Spanish)
- In addition, he was also allowed to use "other titles and designations traditionally used by the heir to the throne" (i.e. Prince of Girona and Prince of Viana).
- "Incoporación del principe Felipe al ejercito como soldado honorario". ABC (in Spanish). 22 May 1977. p. 7. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "El Príncipe Felipe será desde hoy soldado honorario". El País (in Spanish). 28 May 1977. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- García, Sebastian (29 May 1977). "El Príncipe de Asturias, soldado de honor del regimiento Inmemorial del Rey". El País. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Homenaje a don Felipe como Príncipe de Asturias". ABC (in Spanish). 2 November 1977. p. 5. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Boletín Oficial del Estado: Real Decreto 865/1981
- Schumacher, Edward (31 January 1986). "Spanish Prince, 18, Sworn in as the Heir Apparent". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Eilers, Marlene (1997) Queen Victoria's Daughters. Rosvall Royal Books, Falkoping, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-5964-9
- Yárnoz, Carlos (3 August 1985). "Don Felipe de Borbón ingresará en la Academia Militar de Zaragoza el 2 de septiembre". El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado". Boe.es. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- Yárnoz, Carlos (3 September 1985). "El Príncipe de Asturias comienza su formación militar". El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Valdecantos, Camilo (11 October 1985). "Príncipe Felipe concluye la primera fase de su formación en la Academia de Zaragoza". El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado". Boe.es. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "El Príncipe de Asturias, guardia marina en la Escuela Naval". El Pais (in Spanish). 2 September 1986. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Camilo, Valdecantos (8 January 1987). "El Príncipe inicia su periodo de instrucción en el buque escuela 'Elcano'". El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado". Boe.es. 13 July 1987. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- Reverte, Paloma (3 September 1987). "El Príncipe de Asturias inicia en San Javier su último curso de formación militar". El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "El Príncipe de Asturias realiza su primer vuelo en San Javier". El Pais (in Spanish). 15 September 1987. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "El príncipe Felipe, capitán". El Pais (in Spanish). EFE. 28 July 1992. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "El príncipe Felipe asciende a capitán de Infantería". El Pais (in Spanish). EFE. 3 February 1993. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "King Felipe VI gets to work by holding first meeting with PM". El Pais. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Barcelona – A Viewer's Guid: The Sports; Felipe Hoists Flag for Spain." The New York Times (19 July 1992). Retrieved on 21 June 2014.
- Fundación Príncipe de Asturias. casareal.es
- Premios Príncipe de Asturias – Fundación Príncipe de Asturias. Fpa.es. Retrieved on 21 June 2014.
- "Marking End of International Year of Volunteers, General Assembly Encourages All People To Become More Engaged in Voluntary Activities". Un.org. 2001. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Spain Society Sons of the American Revolution". Spain Society Sons of the American Revolution.
- Admin, World Jurist. "World Law Congress Madrid 2019". Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- Cuyàs, Romà (1992). Official Report of the Games of the XXV Olympiad Barcelona 1992, Volume V The Results (PDF). Plaça de la Font Màgica, s/n 08038 Barcelonal: COOB'92 S.A. Retrieved 20 June 2014.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Evans, Hilary; Gjerde, Arild; Heijmans, Jeroen; Mallon, Bill; et al. "Felipe, Crown Prince de Borbón". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Simón, Pedro (6 June 2014). "Un atlético en la corte del Rey Felipe" [An Atlético in King Felipe's court]. El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Gorgorni, Evita (28 May 2016). "Atlético de Madrid Trivia: 25 facts about the football club". Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- Cup, Rugby World (11 March 2018). "King Felipe VI of Spain was in attendance at the @ferugby v @DRVRugby match earlier, seen here with the Webb Ellis Cup #RWC2019pic.twitter.com/J2IOXSNMOb". @rugbyworldcup. Event occurs at 10:26 AM. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- per article 57.5
- "Spanish politicians lay out abdication timetable". BBC News. 3 June 2014.
- "King Felipe VI calls for 'new Spain' as he is sworn in". BBC News. 19 June 2014.
- O'Leary, Elisabeth (22 June 2014). "Spaniards want new king to play greater role in politics: poll". Reuters.
- "Spanish king abdicating so more popular 'new generation' Crown Prince Felipe can take over". Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "Los reyes reciben por primera vez a colectivos gays en el Palacio del Pardo [The monarchs receive gay organisations for the first time at the Pardo Palace]" (in Spanish). La Sexta. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- "Felipe VI cambia el protocolo y permite la jura del cargo sin Biblia ni crucifijo [Felipe VI changes the protocol and permits the oath of office without a Bible or crucifix]". El País (in Spanish). 9 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- "Comunicato della Sala Stampa: Udienza alle Loro Maestà il Re Felipe VI e la Regina Letizia di Spagna, 30.06.2014" (in Italian). Vatican City. 30 June 2014.
- Junquera, Natalia (18 July 2014). "Felipe VI preside por primera vez el Consejo de Ministros". El Pais. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Spanish King cuts his salary by 20 %". Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- "King Felipe of Spain Dissolves Parliament, Clearing Way for New Elections". New York Times. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "The King dissolves the Cortes for the first time in democracy". El Mundo (in Spanish). 3 May 2016.
- "Catalan referendum: Vote illegal – Spain's King Felipe". BBC News. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- Jones, Sam (3 October 2017). "King Felipe: Catalonia's authorities have 'scorned' all Spaniards with referendum". The Guardian. Barcelona. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Clarke, Hillary; Rebaza, Claudia; Soares, Soa (3 October 2017). "King of Spain accuses Catalan leaders of 'unacceptable disloyalty'". CNN. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "El PP destaca que el rey 'se ha vuelto a comprometer con la legalidad'". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 3 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Gil, Andrés (3 October 2017). "El discurso del rey enciende a Unidos Podemos y los 'comunes'". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Dirigentes socialistas echan en falta una llamada al entendimiento en las palabras del rey". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 3 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Felipe VI es el segundo beneficiario de la fundación que recibió los 100 millones de Arabia Saudí, según The Telegraph". eldiario.es. 14 March 2020.
- "Spain's King Felipe VI renounces father's inheritance". BBC. March 2020.
- "El Rey renuncia a la herencia de don Juan Carlos y le retira su asignación pública". El Confidencial. 15 March 2020.
- "El Rey renuncia a la herencia de Don Juan Carlos". ABC. 15 March 2020.
- Escolar, Ignacio (15 March 2020). "El rey hijo mata al padre para intentar salvar la corona". eldiario.es.
- Herrera, Marcos Pinheiro, Elena (3 August 2020). "La presión judicial y política aboca al rey emérito a irse de España para tratar de salvar la monarquía de sus propios escándalos". elDiario (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 August 2020.
- "El discurso del rey es contestado desde los balcones con una cacerolada masiva". eldiario.es. 18 March 2020.
- "Caceroladas por toda España piden que los 100 millones saudíes del rey emérito se destinen a la Sanidad". La Sexta. 18 March 2020.
- (in Spanish) Isabel Sartorius se desnuda en un libro de memorias: Mi madre me mandaba a comprar cocaína. www.lavanguardia.com (21 February 2012). Retrieved on 21 June 2014.
- (in Spanish) Eva Sannum, así es su vida quince años después. www.diezminutos.es (4 October 2012). Retrieved on 21 June 2014.
- Badía, Juan Ferrano. Dictamen sobre el título de Príncipe de Gerona (PDF), Cultural Council of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, 1990. (in Spanish)
- "Los expertos no dan por seguro que el nuevo rey se llame Felipe VI: "Sería conveniente un nombre aséptico como Felipe Juan I"". La Sexta. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado". Boe.es. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado". Boe.es. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
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