Jump to content

European wildcat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Felis silvestris)

European wildcat
CITES Appendix II (CITES)[1]
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Felis
F. silvestris
Binomial name
Felis silvestris
Distribution of the European wildcat[1]

The European wildcat (Felis silvestris) is a small wildcat species native to continental Europe, Scotland, Turkey and the Caucasus. It inhabits forests from the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, Central and Eastern Europe to the Caucasus. Its fur is brownish to grey with stripes on the forehead and on the sides and has a bushy tail with a black tip. It reaches a head-to-body length of up to 65 cm (26 in) with a 34.5 cm (13.6 in) long tail, and weighs up to 7.5 kg (17 lb).

In France and Italy, the European wildcat is predominantly nocturnal, but also active in the daytime when undisturbed by human activities. It preys foremost on small mammals such as lagomorphs and rodents, but also on ground-dwelling birds.


European wildcat in a zoo in Děčín, Czech Republic

Felis (catus) silvestris was the scientific name proposed in 1778 by Johann von Schreber when he described a wild cat based on texts from the early 18th century and before.[2] In the 19th and 20th centuries, several wildcat type specimens were described and proposed as subspecies, including:

As of 2017, two subspecies are recognised as valid taxa:[8]

  • F. s. silvestris in continental Europe, Scotland and Sicily
  • F. s. caucasica in Turkey and the Caucasus.

Zoological specimens of cats that originated on Mediterranean islands are not considered native but introduced, including:[9][10][11]


Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear DNA in tissue samples from all Felidae species revealed that the evolutionary radiation of the Felidae began in Asia in the Miocene around 14.45 to 8.38 million years ago.[15][16] Analysis of mitochondrial DNA of all Felidae species indicates a radiation at around 16.76 to 6.46 million years ago.[17]

The European wildcat is part of an evolutionary lineage that is estimated to have genetically diverged from the common ancestor of the Felis species around 1.62 to 0.59 million years ago, based on analysis of their nuclear DNA.[16][18] Analysis of their mitochondrial DNA indicates a genetic divergence from Felis at around 4.14 to 0.02 million years ago.[17] Both models agree in the jungle cat (F. chaus) having been the first Felis species that diverged, followed by the black-footed cat (F. nigripes), the sand cat (F. margarita), the African wildcat (F. lybica) and then the European wildcat.[16][17]

Fossil remains of small wild cats found in Europe indicate that the European wildcat probably descended from Felis lunensis in the Villafranchian more than 1 million years ago, a transition that was completed by the Holstein interglacial about 340,000 to 325,000 years ago.[7]


Skull of a European wildcat

The European wildcat's fur varies in colour from brownish to grey with paler contour hairs. It has five stripes on the forehead, which are broken up into small spots. A dark stripe behind the shoulders expands into a spinal stripe running up to the base of the tail. On the sides, it has irregular dark stripes, which break up on the hind legs, thus forming a blotched pattern. Its tail is bushy with two to three black, transverse rings and rounded at the black tip.[19]

The top of the head and the forehead bear four well-developed dark bands that split into small spots. Two short and narrow stripes are usually present in the shoulder region, in front of the dorsal band. Some individuals have a few light spots on the throat, between the forelegs, or in the inguinal region. The dorsal surface of the neck and head are the same colour as that of the trunk, but is lighter grey around the eyes, lips, cheeks, and chin. A slight ochreous shade is visible on the undersides of the flanks.[20]

A black and narrow dorsal band starts on the shoulders, and runs along the back up to the base of the tail. In some animals, the summer coat is ashen coloured. The patterns on the head and neck are as well-developed as those on the tail, though the patterns on the flanks are almost imperceptible. Guard hairs measure 7 cm (3 in), the tip hairs 5.5–6 cm (2+182+38 in), and the underfur 11–14 cm (4+125+12 in). Corresponding measurements in the summer are 5–6.7 cm (2–2+58 in), 4.5–6 cm (1+342+14 in), and 5.3 cm (2+18 in).[20]

Large males in Spain reach 65 cm (26 in) in length, with a 34.5 cm (13+12 in) long tail, and weigh up to 7.5 kg (17 lb). They also have a less diffuse stripe pattern, proportionally larger teeth, and feed more often on rabbits than the wildcats north of the Douro-Ebro, which are more dependent on small rodents.[21]

The European wildcat is on average bigger and stouter than the domestic cat, has longer fur and a shorter non-tapering bushy tail. It has striped fur and a dark dorsal band.[22] Males average a weight of 5 kg (11 lb) up to 8 kg (18 lb), and females 3.5 kg (8 lb). Their weight fluctuates seasonally up to 2.5 kg (6 lb).[23]

European wildcats have proportionately shorter cheek tooth rows with smaller teeth, but a broader muzzle than African wildcats.[24] Since European wildcats and domestic cats opportunistically interbreed, it is difficult to distinguish wildcats and striped hybrids correctly on the basis of only morphological characteristics.[25]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

European wildcat in a German game park

The European wildcat lives primarily in broad-leaved and mixed forests. It avoids intensively cultivated areas and settlements.[26] The northernmost population lives in northern and eastern Scotland.[27] It has been extirpated in England and Wales.[1]

There are two disconnected populations in France. The one in the Ardennes in the country's north-east extends to Luxembourg, Germany and Belgium. The other in southern France may be connected via the Pyrenees to populations in Spain and Portugal.[28]

In the Netherlands, European wildcats were recorded in 1999 near Nijmegen and in 2004 in North Brabant; these individuals had possibly dispersed from Germany.[29] In Germany, the Rhine is a major barrier between the population in Eifel and Hunsrück mountains west of the river and populations east of the river, where a six-lane highway hampers dispersal.[30]

In Switzerland, European wildcats are present in the Jura Mountains.[31] Three fragmented populations in Italy comprise one in the country's central and southern part, one in the eastern Alps that may be connected to populations in Slovenia and Croatia. The Sicilian population is the only Mediterranean insular population that has not been introduced.[32]

The population in the Polish Carpathian Mountains extends to northern Slovakia and western Ukraine.[33][34]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

In France and Italy, the European wildcat is active foremost at night; in undisturbed sites, it is also active by day.[35][36]

In Sicily, an individual was photographed in 2009 and again in 2018 at about the same location. It was probably at least 10 years old at the time of recapture.[37]

Hunting and diet[edit]

In Western Europe, the wildcat feeds on hamsters, brown rats, dormice, water voles, voles, and wood mice. From time to time, it also preys on small carnivores like martens, European polecat, stoat, and least weasel (Mustela nivalis), as well as fawns of red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). In the Carpathians, the wildcat feeds primarily on yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus), Tatra pine vole (Microtus tatricus), and occasionally also European hare (Lepus europaeus). In Transcarpathia, the wildcat's diet consists of mouse-like rodents, galliformes, and squirrels. In the Dnestr swamps, it preys on Microtus, water voles, and birds, while those living in the Prut swamps primarily target water vole, brown rat, and muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).[20]

Birds taken by Prut wildcats include warblers, ferruginous duck, Eurasian coot, spotted crake, and gadwall. In Moldavia, the wildcat's winter diet consists primarily of rodents, while it preys on birds, fish, and crayfish in summer. Brown rats and water voles, as well as muskrats and waterfowl are the main sources of food for wildcats in the Kuban River delta. Wildcats in the northern Caucasus feed on mouse-like rodents and edible dormice, as well as birds, young chamois and roe deer on rare occasions. Wildcats on the Black Sea coast are thought to feed on small birds, shrews, and hares. On one occasion, the feathers of a white-tailed eagle and the skull of a kid were found at a den site. In Transcaucasia, the wildcat's diet consists of gerbils, voles, birds, and reptiles in the summer, and birds, mouse-like rodents, and hares in winter.[20]

The Scottish wildcat mainly preys on European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), field vole (Microtus agrestis), bank vole (Myodes glareolus), wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and birds.[38]


In most European countries, European wildcats have become rare. Although legally protected, they are still shot by some people mistaking them for feral cats. In the Scottish Highlands, where approximately 400 were thought to remain in the wild in 2004, interbreeding with feral cats is a significant threat to the wild population's distinctiveness.[39] The population in Portugal and Spain is also threatened by interbreeding with feral cats and loss of habitat.[40][41] The extent of hybridization is low in Germany, Italy and Luxembourg.[42][43]

In the 1990s, the easternmost population in Ukraine, Moldova, and the Caucasus was threatened by destruction of broad-leaved forests, entailing a reduction of their range. Only small numbers occur in protected areas.[44]

Conservation efforts[edit]

A closeup of a European wildcat, Germany

The European wildcat is protected in most European range countries. It is listed in CITES Appendix II, in Appendix II of the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and in the European Union's Habitats and Species Directive.[1]


In 2004, the Friends of the Earth Germany initiated the project "Safety Net for the European Wildcat". This project aimed at relinking Germany's forests by planting bushes and trees between areas inhabited by and suitable for European wildcat, and which are larger than 500 km2 (190 sq mi). They developed the "Wildcat Routing Map", a map depicting the 20,000 km (12,000 mi) long network of corridors.[45] An Action Plan for the Protection of the European Wildcat in Germany was developed in 2009, aiming at doubling the area inhabited by European wildcat and linking populations within Germany and with neighbouring countries until 2019.[46]


Scottish wildcat at the British Wildlife Centre

In 2013, the Scottish Wildcat Conservation Action Group developed the Scottish Wildcat Conservation Action Plan. With this plan, the group set national action priorities and defined responsibilities of agencies and funding priorities for conservation efforts between 2013 and 2019. Its implementation is coordinated by Scottish Natural Heritage (now NatureScot).[47] However, the population has been deemed no longer viable.[48]

In 2023 a license was approved by NatureScot to release captive-bred wildcats into the Cairngorms region in June of that year.[49][50] 22 cats were released in early June 2023, with a further 40 expected to follow in 2024 and 2025.[51][52]


In 2023, it was announced that beginning in 2024 wildcats would be reintroduced in Devon and Cornwall for the first time in 500 years as part of a conservation project.[53]


The European wildcat population has been protected since 1963. After a period of population decline, it appears to be increasing or stabilizing once again. It is unknown whether it was truly on the verge of extinction, if it has returned from France, or if it was reintroduced by private individuals or official services.[54]

In the 21st century, it has appeared in new locations, such as the shores of Lake Neuchâtel.[55] Its distribution and population size is assessed using hair traps: stakes coated with Valerian are placed in potential habitats, and the collected hairs are sorted and analyzed. Out of 655 hair samples, 525 were from cats, including 136 from wild cats. Photos also contribute to the investigation, with 716 portraits, including 268 of wild cats or their look-alikes.[56] These results highlight the challenge of close coexistence between populations of wild cats and domestic cats, and the resulting hybridization. It is estimated that 15 to 20% of Jura cats are hybrids.[57][58]


In mainland France, the wildcat species used to be widespread from ancient times until the Middle Ages. However, its populations began to decline during that period. Although it almost disappeared in the 20th century, there has been a slow resurgence in recent years.[59]

As of 2012, the presence of wildcats has been confirmed in 44 departments across metropolitan France. However, they are considered rare in 9 of those departments. In the Vosges and Jura departments, they are slightly more commonly found.[59] In mainland France, as of 2012, wildcats inhabit two distinct areas: the northeastern region of the country and the Pyrenean region. They are primarily observed in the foothills and can be found at altitudes of up to 1,700-1,800 meters. This population extends further south into Spain and Portugal.[59]

A small remaining population of wildcats is believed to survive in the Var department, particularly in the Esterel Massif. In 2022, there was a notable reappearance of wildcats in the Bauges Massif (Savoie department) after being absent for a century.[60]

In captivity[edit]

The European wildcat has the reputation for being effectively impossible to raise as a pet. Naturalist Frances Pitt wrote "there was a time when I did not believe this ... my optimism was daunted" by trying to keep a wildcat she named Beelzebina.[61]

In England, conservationists plan to start a captive breeding programme in 2019 with the aim to reintroduce cats into the wild by 2022.[62][needs update]


  1. ^ a b c d e Gerngross, P.; Ambarli, H.; Angelici, F.M.; Anile, S.; Campbell, R.; Ferreras de Andres, P.; Gil-Sanchez, J.M.; Götz, M.; Jerosch, S.; Mengüllüoglu, D.; Monterosso, P. & Zlatanova, D. (2022). "Felis silvestris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2022: e.T181049859A181050999. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2022-1.RLTS.T181049859A181050999.en. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  2. ^ a b Schreber, J.C.D. (1778). "Die wilde Kaze" [The wild Cat]. Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen (Dritter Theil) [Mammals illustrated from nature with descriptions]. Erlangen: Expedition des Schreber'schen Säugthier - und des Esper'schen Schmetterlingswerkes. pp. 397–402.
  3. ^ Satunin, K. A. (1905). "Die Säugetiere des Talyschgebietes und der Mughansteppe" [The Mammals of the Talysh area and the Mughan steppe]. Mitteilungen des Kaukasischen Museums (2): 87–402.
  4. ^ a b Miller, G. S. (1907). "Some new European Insectivora and Carnivora". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Seventh Series. 20 (119): 389–401. doi:10.1080/00222930709487354.
  5. ^ Miller, G. S. (1912). "Felis silvestris grampia Miller". Catalogue of the Mammals of Western Europe in the collection of the British Museum. London: British Museum (Natural History). pp. 464–465.
  6. ^ Purroy, F. J. & Varela, J. M. (2003). Guía de los Mamíferos de España. Península, Baleares y Canarias. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
  7. ^ a b Kurtén, B. (1965). "On the evolution of the European Wild Cat, Felis silvestris Schreber" (PDF). Acta Zoologica Fennica. 111: 3–34.
  8. ^ Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z. & Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11): 17−20.
  9. ^ Groves, C.P. (1989). "Feral mammals of the Mediterranean islands: documents of early domestication". In Clutton-Brock, J. (ed.). The Walking Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation (2015 ed.). London and New York: Routledge. pp. 46–58. ISBN 9781317598381.
  10. ^ Gippoliti, S. & Amori, G. (2006). "Ancient introductions of mammals in the Mediterranean Basin and their implications for conservation". Mammal Review. 36 (1): 37–48. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2006.00081.x.
  11. ^ a b Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O’Brien, S. J. & Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication" (PDF). Science. 317 (5837): 519–523. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..519D. doi:10.1126/science.1139518. PMC 5612713. PMID 17600185.
  12. ^ Lataste, F. (1885). "Étude de la Faune de Vertébrés de Barbarie (Algérie, Tunisie et Maroc)" [Studies on the vertebrate Fauna of the Barbary Coast (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco)]. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux. Quatrième Série. 39: 129–296.
  13. ^ Lavauden, L. (1929). "Sur le Chat sauvage de la Corse" [On the Wildcat of Corsica]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences. 189 (7): 1023–1024.
  14. ^ Haltenorth, T. (1953). "Felis silvestris cretensis nom. nov.". Die Wildkatzen der Alten Welt: Eine Übersicht über die Gattung Felis [The wildcats of the Old World: An overview of the genus Felis]. Leipzig: Geest und Portig. pp. 29−31.
  15. ^ Johnson, W. E. & O'Brien, S. J. (1997). "Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Felidae Using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 Mitochondrial Genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44 (S1): S98–S116. Bibcode:1997JMolE..44S..98J. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018. S2CID 40185850.
  16. ^ a b c d Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146. S2CID 41672825.
  17. ^ a b c d Li, G.; Davis, B. W.; Eizirik, E. & Murphy, W. J. (2016). "Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)". Genome Research. 26 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1101/gr.186668.114. PMC 4691742. PMID 26518481.
  18. ^ a b Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D. W. & Loveridge, A. J. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.
  19. ^ Pocock, R.I. (1951). "Felis silvestris, Schreber". Catalogue of the Genus Felis. London, UK: Trustees of the British Museum. pp. 29−50.
  20. ^ a b c d Heptner, V.G. & Sludskii, A.A. (1992) [1972]. "Wildcat Schreber, 1777". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union]. Vol. II, Part 2. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 398–498. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  21. ^ Garcia-Perea, R. (2006). "Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777" (PDF). Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos Terrestres de España. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Madrid, ES: Gobierno de Espagna. pp. 333–338. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2012.
  22. ^ Condé, B. & Schauenberg, P. (1963). "Le chat sauvage – dernier félin de France" [The wildcat – last feline of France]. Éditions Font-Vive (in French) (8): 1–8.
  23. ^ Condé, B. & Schauenberg, P. (1971). "Le poids du chat forestier d ́Europe (Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777)" [Weight of the European forest wildcat]. Revue Suisse de Zoologie (in French). 78: 295–315.
  24. ^ Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C. & Nussberger, B. (2004). "Craniological differentiation between European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African wildcats (F. lybica) and Asian wildcats (F. ornata): Implications for their evolution and conservation" (PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 83: 47–63. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2004.00372.x. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  25. ^ Krüger, M.; Hertwig, S.T.; Jetschke, G. & Fischer, M.S. (2009). "Evaluation of anatomical characters and the question of hybridization with domestic cats in the wildcat population of Thuringia, Germany". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 47 (3): 268–282. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2009.00537.x. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  26. ^ Nowell, K. & Jackson, P. (1996). "European wildcat, Felis silvestris, silvestris group Schreber, 1775". Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. pp. 110−113.
  27. ^ Davis, A. R. & Gray, D. (2010). The distribution of Scottish wildcats (Felis silvestris) in Scotland (2006-2008). Perth, Scotland: Scottish Natural Heritage.
  28. ^ Say, L.; Devillard, S.; Leger, F.; Pontier, D. & Ruette, S. (2012). "Distribution and spatial genetic structure of European wildcat in France". Animal Conservation. 15 (15): 18–27. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2011.00478.x. S2CID 82155636.
  29. ^ Canters, K.; Thissen, J. B. M.; Diepenbeek, M. A. J.; Jansman, H. A. H. & Goutbeek, K. (2005). "The wildcat (Felis silvestris) finally recorded in the Netherlands". Lutra. 48 (2): 67−90.
  30. ^ Hartmann, S. A.; Steyer, K.; Kraus, R. H. S.; Segelbacher, G. & Nowak, C. (2013). "Potential barriers to gene flow in the endangered European wildcat (Felis silvestris)" (PDF). Conservation Genetics. 14 (2): 413–426. doi:10.1007/s10592-013-0468-9. S2CID 18056286.
  31. ^ Weber, D.; Roth, T. & Huwyler, S. (2010). Die aktuelle Verbreitung der Wildkatze (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) in der Schweiz. Ergebnisse der systematischen Erhebungen in den Jurakantonen in den Wintern 2008/09 und 2009/10. Bern: Hintermann & Weber AG, Bundesamt für Umwelt.
  32. ^ Mattucci, F.; Oliveira, R.; Bizzarri, L.; Vercillo, F.; Anile, S.; Ragni, B.; Lapini, L.; Sforzi, A.; Alves, P. C.; Lyons, L. A. & Randi, E. (2013). "Genetic structure of wildcat (Felis silvestris) populations in Italy". Ecology and Evolution. 3 (8): 2443–2458. doi:10.1002/ece3.569.
  33. ^ Okarma, H. & Olszańska, A. (2002). "The occurrence of wildcat in the Polish Carpathian Mountains". Acta Theriologica. 47 (4): 499–504. doi:10.1007/BF03192474. S2CID 40346205.
  34. ^ Zagorodniuk, I.; Gavrilyuk, M.; Drebet, M.; Skilsky, I.; Andrusenko, A. & Pirkhal, A. (2014). "Wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777) in Ukraine: modern state of the populations and eastwards expansion of the species". Біологічні студії. 8 (3−4): 233–254.
  35. ^ Stahl, P. (1986). Le chat forestier d'Europe (Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777): Exploitation des resources et organisation spatiale [The European forest wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777): Resource exploitation and spatial organization]. Nancy: University of Nancy.
  36. ^ Genovesi, P. & Boitani, L. (1993). "Spacing patterns and activity rhythms of a wildcat (Felis silvestris) in Italy". Seminar on the biology and conservation of the wildcat (Felis silvestris), Nancy, France, 23–25 September 1992. Environmental encounters No. 16. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. pp. 98–101.
  37. ^ Anile, S.; Devillard, S.; Nielsen, C.K. & Valvo, M.L. (2020). "Record of a 10-year old European Wildcat Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) from Mt. Etna, Sicily, Italy". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 12 (2): 15272–15275. doi:10.11609/jott.5484.12.2.15272-15275.
  38. ^ Hobson, K. J. (2012). An investigation into prey selection in the Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) (Doctoral dissertation). London: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London. CiteSeerX
  39. ^ Macdonald, D. W.; Daniels, M. J.; Driscoll, C. A.; Kitchener, A. C. & Yamaguchi, N. (2004). The Scottish Wildcat: analyses for conservation and an action plan. Oxford, UK: The Wildlife Conservation Research Unit.
  40. ^ Cabral, M. J.; Almeida, J.; Almeida, P. R.; Dellinger, T.; Ferrand de Almeida, N.; Oliveira, M. E.; Palmeirim, J. M.; Queiroz, A. I.; Rogado, L. & Santos-Reis, M. (2005). Livro Vermelho dos Vertebrados de Portugal. Lisboa: Instituto da Conservação da Natureza.
  41. ^ Palomo, L. J. & Gisbert, J. (2002). Atlas de los mamíferos terrestres de España. Madrid, Spain: Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza SECEM-SECEMU.
  42. ^ Steyer, K.; Tiesmeyer, A.; Muñoz-Fuentes, V. & Nowak, C. (2018). "Low rates of hybridization between European wildcats and domestic cats in a human-dominated landscape". Ecology and Evolution. 8 (4): 2290–2304. doi:10.1002/ece3.3650. PMC 5817136. PMID 29468044.
  43. ^ Oliveira, R.; Godinho, R.; Randi, E. & Alves, P.C. (2008). "Hybridization versus conservation: are domestic cats threatening the genetic integrity of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Iberian Peninsula?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 363 (1505): 2953–2961. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0052. PMC 2606743. PMID 18522917.
  44. ^ Belousova, A.V. (1993). "Small Felidae of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and the Far East: survey of the state of populations". Lutreola. 2: 16–21.
  45. ^ Vogel, B.; Mölich, T. & Klar, N. (2009). "Der Wildkatzenwegeplan – Ein strategisches Instrument des Naturschutzes" [The Wildcat Infrastructure Plan – a strategic instrument of nature conservation] (PDF). Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung. 41 (11): 333–340. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2019.
  46. ^ Birlenbach, K. & Klar, N. (2009). "Aktionsplan zum Schutz der Europäischen Wildkatze in Deutschland". Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung. 41 (11): 325−332.
  47. ^ Scottish Wildcat Conservation Action Group (2013). Scottish Wildcat Conservation Action Plan. Retrieved 25 November 2018. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  48. ^ Breitenmoser, U.; Lanz, T. & Breitenmoser-Würsten, C. (2019). Conservation of the wildcat (Felis silvestris) in Scotland: Review of the conservation status and assessment of conservation activities (PDF) (Report). IUCN Cat Specialist Group. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  49. ^ "Scottish wildcats to be released in Cairngorms". BBC News. 2023. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  50. ^ "First-ever Scottish wildcat release approved". NatureScot. 2023n. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  51. ^ "Historic milestone reached as critically endangered wildcats released into the Cairngorms National Park". NatureScot. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  52. ^ "Wildcats bred in captivity released into Cairngorms". BBC News. 15 June 2023. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  53. ^ Reporters, Telegraph (16 February 2023). "Wildcats to be released in England for first time in 500 years". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  54. ^ "Le chat sauvage est l'Animal de l'année 2020". Pro Natura (in French). Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  55. ^ "Le chat forestier à la reconquête de la Suisse". 20 minutes (in French). 18 April 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  56. ^ "Hintermann & Weber Projets". www.hintermannweber.ch. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  57. ^ "Couleurs locales - Le chat sauvage fait son retour en Suisse - Play RTS" (in French). Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  58. ^ Nguồn gốc giống chó Dingo đông dương. "BestForPets". vtv.vn. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
  59. ^ a b c Romain Sordello., Le chat forestier Felis silvestris. MNHN-SPN. Janvier 2012.
  60. ^ "Savoie. Le chat sauvage fait son retour dans le massif des Bauges, une première depuis un siècle". Ouest-France..
  61. ^ Bradshaw, J. (2013). "The Cat at the Threshold". Cat Sense: The Feline Enigma Revealed. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-0-241-96046-2.
  62. ^ Weston, Phoebe (25 May 2019). "Return of England's wildcats: animals to be reintroduced after being declared extinct in 19th century". The Independent.

External links[edit]