Female sex tourism
|Destination map of female sex tourism:
Female tourists' home countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States
Destination countries: Balkans, Cambodia, Caribbean, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Greece, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, Morocco, Philippines, Portugal, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam
Female sex tourism refers to sex tourism by females, who travel intending to engage in sexual activities with a sex worker. Female sex tourists may seek aspects of the sexual relationship not shared by their male counterpart, such as perceived romance and intimacy. Women – especially wealthy, single, older white women – plan their holidays to have romance and sex with a companion who knows how to make them feel special and give them attention. The prevalence of female sex tourism is significantly lower than male sex tourism.
Female sex tourism occurs in diverse regions of the world. The demographics of female sex tourism vary by destination, but in general female sex tourists are usually classified as women from a developed country, who travel to less developed countries in search of romance or sexual outlets.
Female sex tourists can be grouped into three types:
- Traditional sex tourists, who have similar characteristics and motives as male sex tourists.
- Situational sex tourists, who do not intentionally put themselves in a sex tourist position, but find themselves involved in a sexual encounter with local men. Situational sex tourists may fall into the category of either being businesswomen, students, women in overseas conferences or other women who have different agendas that are non-sexual.
- Romance tourists, who plan to fulfil their travel with romantic experiences that they cannot experience in their native country.
Within the realm of female sex tourism, male sex workers are vital for the satisfaction of these women, whether physical or emotional. Without the employment of local sex workers, sex tourism for both men and women would not exist. Sex tourism is becoming a global phenomenon. With this movement of different populations to different countries, problems concerning health increase, especially ailments involving sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. Women involved with sex tourism do not find themselves using barrier contraceptives during the majority of their visit, leaving them unprotected against STIs.
There is an ongoing debate on terminology regarding female sex tourism. Pruitt and LaFont argue that the term female sex tourism is not representative of the relationship that female tourists have with local men. They argue that female sex tourism oversimplifies the motives of these women and that romance tourism explains the complex nature of what these women are engaging themselves in while involved in romance tours. They also state that the expression female sex tourism "serves to perpetuate gender roles and reinforce power relations of male dominance and female subordination, romance tourism in Jamaica provides an arena for change".
Scholars such as Klaus de Alburquerque counter that the term romance tourism overcomplicates what the motives of sex tourists are. de Albuquerque stated that concepts like "romance tourism" are only representative of small niches, like that of Jamaica and its cultural beliefs. Through his research, he concludes that the majority of female sex tourists are solely touring for physical encounters and not romance. He also says that the "tourist and beach boys may define their relationships as one of romance, [but] in reality, the relationship is one of prostitution".
Researcher Jacqueline Sanchez-Taylor argues that the term female sex tourism and even the term romance tourism undermine what is actually happening in these situations. She compares female and male sex tourism and shows how each relationship is based upon sexual-economic relationships. She also explores whether or not female sex tourism is based on romance and if there is some sort of sexual-economic relationship occurring between the two parties. She added, "The fact that parallels between male and female sex tourism are widely overlooked reflects and reproduces weaknesses in existing theoretical and commonsense understandings of gendered power...[and] sex tourism."
A number of countries have become popular destinations for female sex tourism, including Southern Europe (mainly in Greece, Italy, Malta, Cyprus, Spain and Portugal); the Caribbean (led by Jamaica, Barbados and the Dominican Republic); Brazil, Egypt, Turkey, Southeast Asia, and Phuket (in Thailand); and Gambia, Senegal and Kenya in Africa. Other popular destinations include Bulgaria, Croatia, Lebanon, Morocco, Jordan, Armenia, Albania, Fiji, Colombia and Costa Rica. The evidence suggests that notional stereotypes among Western women about countries that are 'reputed' to have an abundance of conventionally sexually attractive and visually and aesthetically pleasing young men, become popular destinations for female sex tourism. Thus, countries of the Mediterranean region, which have the reputation of men resembling the Latin Lover stereotype, figure prominently among female sex tourism destinations
Motives for travel
Traditional sex tourism
Traditional female sex tourists have the same intentions as their male counterparts, and travel to foreign countries that have lower wages, and take advantage of cheap prostitution at a level unaffordable in their own countries.
Examples of these sexual-economic relationships can be found in countries like Kenya, Africa, where women from the United Kingdom travel to Kenya to enjoy the sun and enjoy the “company of young men” in a sexual manner.
Situational sex tourism
The background of the situational sex tourist consists of first time tourists who do not plan on being involved intimately with local men. The majority of these first time tourist will become involved in relationships where the tourist becomes romantically involved with the local men rather than being exclusively physical with the sex workers.
Situational sex tourism occurs when foreign tourists are lured in by male sex workers, known as either beach boys in the Caribbean, gringueros in Costa Rica or local men. According to the tourists, they are usually lured in due to the exotic appeal that these men emulate. The exotic appeal can come from the ethnic differences between the sex worker and the sex tourist or the foreign lifestyle that these men live
Romance tourism refers to a different relationship than female sex tourism.
The concept of romance tourism came from researchers' observations in Jamaica; it appeared to them that the female tourist and local males viewed their relationship with each other solely based on romance and courtship rather than lust and monetary value. Romance tourism is an issue of gender identification: “gender identity is a relational construct, the Western women who seek to break from conventional roles require a different kind of relationship with men in order to realize a new gender identity”. With increasing independence and financial self-reliance, women are able to travel, showing their independence from men of their culture, “female tourists have the opportunity to explore new gender behavior”. Like traditional sex tourists, romance tourists have a motive for travel, romance tourists travel to underdeveloped countries to find romantic relationships.
Background and intentions
Similar to the sex tourists, sex workers have their own intentions. Just as some Western women may consider the local men exotic, the local men may consider Western women to be exotic. Popular characteristics that appeal to a majority of sex workers are women with blonde hair and light colored eyes. Some of the sex workers will specifically target this type of exotic woman for their own personal pleasure with no guarantee of monetary gain.
On the other side of the spectrum, most sex workers have the intention of making some form of monetary gain. Such a sex worker typically profiles tourists, in hopes of increasing his monetary wealth the fastest. While profiling he will look for older women, over the age of forty or young, overweight women. The sex worker considers these women vulnerable and will play on their vulnerability to get the tourists to obtain feelings for the sex worker. Once the tourist and sex worker obtain a relationship the sex worker finds it easy for them to have an open relationship regarding monetary exchange.
Defined by the tourist
Romance tourists do not label their sex workers “prostitutes”. The local men and the tourists understand their roles in the relationship. The primary difference in definition of a local man to a romance tourist and a local man to a sex tourist is the emphasis the romance tourist places on passion instead of a transaction of goods or money for sexual favors.
The rate of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, may be relatively high in some countries which are popular destinations for female sex tourism, particularly in comparison to the home countries of many sex tourists. Little or no research has been done into the transmission rates of HIV and other STDs pertaining to sex tourism. Neither has there been reliable research done into whether or not condom use is prevalent among female sex tourists. However, writer Julie Bindel speculates, in an article for the Guardian, that HIV infection figures for the region suggest that condom use by the "beach boys" in the Caribbean may be sporadic, yet female sex tourists do not appear especially preoccupied by the potential risks.
Women seeking to experience sex with foreign men put themselves at a higher risk for STIs. Condom use during sex tours is relatively low. It is often cited that women have the intention to have safe sex with their casual sex partners while on vacation, but at some point during the initiation of the condom, the women do not follow through.
The lack of barrier contraceptives increases the risk of the tourist obtaining a sexually transmitted infection from their foreign partner especially when their partner has been with multiple women.
With sex tourism, women report that, given the atmosphere and the exoticness of their lover; condoms are rarely used or discussed prior to engaging in sexual activities.
It has been found that in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica data researched by Nancy Romero Daza, has shown that female tourists in the region engage in some form of unprotected sexual activity with local men known as Gringueros. The women in the study were found to not be traditional sex tourists but situational sex tourists.
- Opperman, Martin (1999). "Sex Tourism". Annals of Tourism Research. 26 (2): 251. doi:10.1016/s0160-7383(98)00081-4.
- Matty Silver (February 8, 2013). "Ladies, your holiday romance awaits". Sydney Morning Herald.
- Taylor, Jacqueline (2000). Tourism and 'embodied' Commodities: Sex Tourism in the Caribbean. London: Pinter.
- Reuters (25 November 2008). "Sex Tourism for Women". Contemporary Sexuality. 42 (1): 9–10.
- Pruitt, Deborah; LaFont (1999). "For Love and Money Romance Tourism in Jamaica". Annals of Tourism Research. 22 (2): 422–440.
- Ragsdale, Kathleen; DifranceiscoI, Pinkerton (April 2006). "Where the boys are: Sexual expectations and behaviour among young women on holiday". Culture, Health and Sexuality. 8 (2): 86–98. doi:10.1080/13691050600569570.
- Herold, Edward; Garcia, DeMoya (2001). "Female Tourist and Beach Boys". Annals of Tourism. 28 (4): 978–997. doi:10.1016/s0160-7383(01)00003-2.
- Taylor, Jacqueline (2006). "Female Sex Tourism: A Contradiction in Terms?". Feminist Review. 83 (1): 42–59. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fr.9400280.
- Clarke, Jeremy (2007-11-25). "Older white women join Kenya's sex tourists". Reuters. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Women going on sex tours look for big bamboos and Marlboro men, Pravda.Ru
- Bali Beach Gigolos Under Fire. Asia Sentinel, 4 May 2010
- Daily Mail
- Los Angeles Times
- Fox News
- Canada.com[dead link]
- The Independent
- The Independent
- Romero-Daza, Nancy; Freidus (2008). "Female Tourists, Casual Sex, and HIV Risk in Costa Rica.". Qualitative Sociology. 31 (2): 169–187. doi:10.1007/s11133-008-9096-y.
- "HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%) 2013 country comparisons, ranks, By Rank". Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- "Sex tourism as economic aid". The Sydney Morning Herald. July 12, 2003.
Major academic publications
- Jacobs, Jessica. 'Sex, tourism and the Postcolonial Encounter: Landscapes of Longing in Egypt' 2010 Aldershot Ashgate
- Bloor, Michael, et al. "Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviour between Young Men and Women Travelling Abroad from the UK." [Contains only random survey of young sex travelers.] The Lancet 352 (1998): 1664–68.
- Cohen, Erik. "Arab Boys and Tourist Girls in a Mixed Jewish-Arab Community." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 12 (1971): 217–233.
- de Albuquerque, Klaus. "Sex, Beach Boys and Female Tourists in the Caribbean." Sexuality & Culture. Ed. Barry M. Dank. Vol. 2. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1998. 87–111. 2.
- de Albuquerque, Klaus. "In Search of the Big Bamboo: How Caribbean Beach Boys Sell Fun in the Sun." The Utne Reader, Jan.-Feb. 2000: 82–86.
- Gorry, April Marie. Leaving Home for Romance: Tourist Women’s Adventures Abroad. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1999. Ann Arbor: UMI 9958930, 2000
- Herold, Edward, Rafael Garcia and Tony DeMoya. "Female Tourists and Beach Boys: Romance or Sex Tourism?" Annals of Tourism Research 28.4 (2001): 978–997.
- Meisch, Lynn A. "Gringas and Otavaleños: Changing Tourist Relations" [a description of sex and romance tourism in Ecuador]. Annals of Tourism Research 22.2 (1995): 441–62.
- Pruitt, Deborah, and Suzanne Lafont. "For Love and Money: Romance Tourism in Jamaica". Annals of Tourism Research 22(2): 422–440.
- Thomas, Michelle. "Exploring the Contexts and Meanings of Women’s Experiences of Sexual Intercourse on Holiday."
- Clift, Stephen, and Simon Carter, ed. Tourism and Sex: Culture, Commerce and Coercion. London: Pinter, 2000. 200-20.
- Vorakitphokatorn, Sairudee, et al. "AIDS Risk in Tourists: A Study on Japanese Female Tourists in Thailand." Journal of Population and Social Studies 5.1–2 (1993–94): 55–84.
- Wagner, Ulla. "Out of Time and Space — Mass Tourism and Charter Trips." Ethnos 42.1–2 (1977): 39–49. (This article describes sex tourism in the Gambia, West Africa, as does a follow-up article: Wagner, Ulla, and Bawa Yamba. "Going North and Getting Attached: The Case of the Gambians." Ethnos 51.3 (1986): 199–222.)
- Romance on the Road: Traveling Women Who Love Foreign Men
- Kenya Cracking Down on Beach Boys, Gigolos Serving Tourists, The New York Times
- 80,000 women travel to Jamaica each year in search of the big bamboo, Rent-a-Rasta.com
- Sex tourism: When women do it, it's called 'romance travelling'[dead link]
- Sex tourism in full boom[dead link], Ottawa Citizen, Ottawa Citizen, Monday, January 8, 2007
- The Jordanian Desert's Other Delight: Sex Tourism
- Senegal Draws Tourists with Sun, Sea...and Sex
- Sadie Nicholas, "Sun, sea, sex and bitter regrets – middle-class girls and their holiday secrets", Mail Online, August 17, 2007