This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Feminine psychology is an approach that focuses on social, economic, and political issues confronting women all throughout their lives. It can be considered a reaction to male-dominated theories such as Sigmund Freud's view of female sexuality. The groundbreaking works of Karen Horney argued that male realities cannot describe female psychology or define their gender because they are not informed by girls' or women's experiences. Theorists therefore claimed this new approach was required, and that women's social existence is crucial in understanding their psychology. For instance, it is claimed that some characteristics of female psychology emerge to comply with the given social order defined by men and not necessarily because it is the nature of their gender or psychology.
The "feminine psychology" approach is often attributed to the pioneering work of Horney, who was the first woman to present a paper on feminine psychology at an international meeting. She famously contradicted Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory, arguing that it is male-dominated and, therefore, harbored biases and phalocentric views. For this reason, the theory, Horney claimed, cannot describe femininity because it is informed by male reality and not by actual female experience. For instance, there is Freud's proposition that the female personality tends to exhibit penis envy, whereby a girl interprets her failure to possess a penis as a punishment for wrongdoing and later blames her mother . As Freud stated, "she has seen it and knows that she is without it and wants to have it." Horney argued that it is not penis envy but basic anxiety, hostility, and anger towards the opposite-sex parent, whom she views as competition for the affection of the same-sex parent, and thus views her as a direct threat to her safety and security. Her view, which formed a significant part of her feminine psychology theory, is that this aspect should be resolved based on interpersonal dynamics (e.g. differences in social power) than sexual dynamics.
Horney countered the Freudian concept with her own "womb envy" theory where men envy women's capability to bear children and they compensate for it with achievement and success. She deconstructed penis envy and described it as nothing more than women wanting to express their own natural needs for success and the security that is characteristic of both sexes. There is an analogy that describes Horney's feminine psychology as optimistic of the world and life affirmation in comparison with Freud's pessimism oriented towards world and life negation. In the fourteen papers she wrote about feminine psychology, Horney offered a new way of thinking about women, underscoring how they should not gain value through their husbands, children, and family.
Motherhood vs. career
One dynamic outlined by feminine psychologists is the balancing act between the more traditional role of motherhood and the more modern role of a career woman. The roles do not necessarily contradict each other: additional income helps provide for the family, and working mothers may feel as though they are making a contribution to society beyond the family.
Mothers and fathers both feel the pressure of balancing both work and family life, and fathers spend more time at home and engage in child care and housework more than they did a century ago. A study conducted by the Pew Research Center indicates that 42% of respondents believe that a mother who works part-time is an ideal scenario while 16% think that working full-time is ideal for mothers, and the rest think that mothers should stay at home. 46% of fathers also reported that they felt they were not spending enough time with their children: fathers who responded to this Pew research survey were spending about half as much time providing child care as the mothers. 15% of working fathers state that it is very difficult to balance work and take care of their children. The same study found that 50% of working fathers say that it is at least somewhat difficult to balance work and child care responsibilities. However, fathers who are able to do child care report that they like doing so, often even moreso than mothers . The Pew Research Center also asked parents to rate how good of a job they are doing as parents. It was found that most mothers and women rated themselves as doing an excellent or very good job, but that working mothers rated themselves a lot higher than non-working mothers did--despite the fact that parents who felt they spent too little time with their children were less likely to rate themselves as doing an excellent job.
According to a study conducted by Dr. Jennifer Stuart, sometimes the history of the woman affects how she chooses to balance the two roles, or if she will balance them at all. Specifically, Stuart asserts that the primary determinant is a woman's "quality of her relationship with her mother. Women whose mothers fostered feelings of both warm attachment and confident autonomy may find ways to enjoy their children and/or work, often modifying work and family environments in ways that favor both".
Working women sometimes make compromises in their careers so that they can balance paid work and motherhood responsibilities. These compromises include cutting back hours and accepting lower pay or a lower job status, which can prevent women from becoming the top performers in a workplace.
According to Dr. Ramon Resa, what mothers have to remember is that "children are fairly resilient and will adapt to whatever changes are required. They are also astute at sensing unhappiness, disappointment and apathy".
- Miletic, Michelle Price (October 2013). "The Introduction of a Feminine Psychology to Psychoanalysis". Contemporary Psychoanalysis. 38 (2): 287–299. doi:10.1080/00107530.2002.10747102. ISSN 0010-7530.
- Roazen, Paul (2003). Cultural Foundations of Political Psychology (Clt). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. p. 259. ISBN 978-0765801821.
- Berger, Milton (1994). Women Beyond Freud: New Concepts Of Feminine Psychology. New York: Brunner/Mazel. p. 150. ISBN 978-0876307090.
- "Karen Horney". faculty.webster.edu. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- Miletic, Michelle Price (2002). "The Introduction of a Feminine Psychology to Psychoanalysis". Contemporary Psychoanalysis. 38 (2): 287–299. doi:10.1080/00107530.2002.10747102. ISSN 0010-7530.
- Erwin, Edward (2002). The Freud Encyclopedia: Theory, Therapy, and Culture. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 179. ISBN 978-0415936774.
- Klages, Mary (2017). Literary Theory: The Complete Guide. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 9781472592750.
- Carducci, Bernardo (2009). The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Research, and Applications. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 184. ISBN 9781405136358.
- Kelman, Harold (1967). "Karen Horney on feminine psychology". The American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 27 (1–2): 163–183. doi:10.1007/bf01873051. ISSN 0002-9548.
- "Nothing found for 2013 03 14 Modern Parenthood Roles Of Moms And Dads Converge As They Balance Work And Family %3E". Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Connelly, R; Kimmel, J (2015). "If You're Happy and You Know It: How Do Mothers and Fathers in the US Really Feel about Caring for Their Children?". Feminist Economics. 21. doi:10.1080/13545701.2014.970210.
- Stuart, Jennifer J. (7 October 2008). "Work and motherhood: a clinical study". The American Psychoanalyst. Vol.42, No.1. Pp.22–23. Reprinted by Wellsphere (Archived version available here via Internet Archive. Archive date 5 October 2011.) Access date 9 February 2015.
- Kapur, M (5 August 2005). "Balancing motherhood and a career". CNN.com International.
- Resa, R (8 December 2009). "Give up a career or give up motherhood". The Huffington Post.
- Brinjikji, Hiam. (1999). Property Rights of Women in Nineteenth Century England. Unpublished manuscript, Department of English, University of Maryland, College Park, M.D. Retrieved from: http://www.umd.umich.edu/casl/hum/eng/classes/434/geweb/PROPERTY.htmhttp://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/horney.html[permanent dead link]
- Engler, Barbara. (2009). Personality Theories. 8th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Print.
- Horney & Humanistic Psychoanalysis: Major Concepts. International Karen Horney Society. N.p., 18JUN2002. Web. 21 October 2010. Retrieved from: https://web.archive.org/web/20110523100527/http://plaza.ufl.edu/bjparis/horney/fadiman/04_major.html
- Perron, Roger. Inferiority, Feeling of. Encyclopedia.com. N.p., 2005. Web. 21 October 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3435300700.html.
- Lambert, Tim. (n.d.). 16th Century Women. Retrieved from http://www.localhistories.org/women.html
- Lowe, Maggie. (1989). Early College Women: Determined to be Educated. Unpublished manuscript, Department of History, State University of New York, Potsdam, NY. Retrieved from: https://web.archive.org/web/20101207145451/http://www.northnet.org/stlawrenceaauw/college.htm
- The Woman Suffrage Timeline. (2007). Retrieved from: http://www.thelizlibrary.org/suffrage/
- Women in the Senate. (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/briefing/women_senators.htm
- Horney, K. (1967). The Flight from Womanhood: The masculinity-complex in women as viewed by men and by women. In H. Kelman (Ed.) Feminine psychology. New York: Norton
- Schultz, D., Schultz, S. (2009). Theories of Personality (9th Ed.) New York: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
- Hansen, R., Hansen, J., Pollycove, R. (2002). Mother nurture: a mother’s guide to health in body, mind and intimate relationships. New York: Viking Penguin.
- Kapur, M. (5 August 2005). Balancing motherhood and a career. CNN.com International. Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/08/04/maternity.leave/index.html
- Resa, R. (8 December 2009). Give up a career or give up motherhood. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ramon-resa-md/give-up-a-career-or-give_b_383645.html
- Parker, Kim. "Modern Parenthood." Pew Research Center's Social Demographic Trends Project RSS. Social and Demographic Trends, 13 March 2013. Web. 15 February 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/03/14/modern-parenthood-roles-of-moms-and-dads-converge-as-they-balance-work-and-family/
- Livingston, Gretchen. “For most highly educated women, motherhood doesn’t start until the 30s.” Pew Research Center’s Social Demographic Trends Project RSS. Social and Demographic Trends, 15 January 2015. Web. 15 February 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/01/15/for-most-highly-educated-women-motherhood-doesnt-start-until-the-30s/
- Jorge M. Agüero and Mindy S. Marks, “Motherhood and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Infertility Shocks,” The American Economic Review 98, no. 2 (2008): 500–504.