Feminization (activity)

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A picture of a standing woman, seen from the neck and down, wearing high-heeled boots and an open jacket with a see-through bra underneath, and holding a leash connected to a collar around a kneeling, cross-dressing man's neck; his attire includes a bra, a corset, jewelry and make-up.
A dominant woman and a submissive man practicing feminization.

Feminization or feminisation (see spelling differences), sometimes forced feminization (shortened to forcefem or forced femme),[1][2] and also known as sissification,[3] is a practice in dominance and submission or kink subcultures, involving reversal of gender roles and making a submissive partner take on a feminine role, which may include cross-dressing. The feminized partner is sometimes called a "sissy". Subsets of the practice include "sissy training" and variations thereof, where the submissive partner is trained over time in femininity.

Forced feminization is a very common sexual fantasy. Reasons for engaging in it as a submissive partner include having an outlet for femininity without feeling guilt over it, in a society that pressures men to be traditionally masculine, reinforcing their role in a BDSM role-play scenario through feeling vulnerable, or exploring their sexuality; dominant partners may enjoy bringing out their partner's "female persona". Feminization as a sexual fetish is not the same thing as being a transgender woman, and the submissive partners engaging in it are typically heterosexual, cisgender men.

As a theme in art, forced feminization appears in literature, including erotic such, and in visual art such as photography and illustration. There also exists a combination of the two, where forced feminization captions are added to pictures to give them a new context. Forced feminization is also a popular theme in manga, wherein the feminization often happens as part of a curse or joke.


Feminization is a practice in dominance and submission or kink subcultures, which involves reversing gender roles, making a submissive partner – typically a man – take on a feminine role, often for humiliation-based sexual pleasure.[4][3] This may include them cross-dressing in feminine clothing such as lingerie, acting in a feminine manner, getting referred to by a feminine name, having anal sex as the receptive partner,[3][5] wearing prosthetic breasts, or tucking.[6]

People participating in feminization often role-play different scenarios based around the submissive partner's femininity or feminine clothes; these may include role-playing being caught in the act of trying on panties or lipstick, being discovered to be wearing frilly lingerie under their clothes, being a princess,[6] being a "damsel in distress" and treated like a helpless woman,[7] or being hired "as a woman" for a female-coded job like a nurse, cheerleader, sex worker, or businesswoman.[6] HuffPost described one dominatrix's sissification sessions as involving humiliating the submissive by "parading them around" in high heels, make-up and lingerie; another dominatrix does her sessions by "cheerleading" men into exploring femininity.[4]

Despite being labeled as "forced" feminization, as the role-played scenario may involve that the submissive partner supposedly is feminized against their will, it is a fantasy that is agreed upon by its participants.[5] Whereas not all participants are interested in BDSM aspects of the practice, and only enjoy dressing up, it may also include things such as spanking, pegging, bondage,[3] and humiliation such as making fun of the submissive for having a small and soft penis, and referring to it as a clitoris.[6] The feminized partner is sometimes called a "sissy",[3] and may be said to have been "sissified".[8]

Sissy, sissy maid, and slut training[edit]

A man standing in a doorway, wearing a latex maid uniform and make-up.
In "sissy maid training", the submissive partner may wear a maid uniform.

A subset of feminization is "sissy training", wherein the dominant partner slowly over time trains the submissive in being a sissy, making them take on "ultra-feminine" behaviors and participate in feminine activities.[9] As part of this, it is common for the sissy to cross-dress; to shave their body,[9] including their genitals; wear make-up; and wear women's underwear,[8] to appear more womanly. In extreme cases, the sissy may take medication or undergo surgery to become more feminine. Activities in sissy training involve non-sexual ones, such as applying make-up or cleaning the house, as well as sexual ones.[9]

A further sub-set is "sissy maid training",[9] a common scenario,[7][10] where the sissy takes on the role of a maid, taking care of housework or serving drinks and food at a party while behaving submissively and wearing an often frilly and revealing maid uniform,[10][9] such as a French maid or rubber maid dress. The dominant partner in a sissy maid training scenario, overseeing the sissy's housework, may role-play punishing them with things such as spanking, humiliation or bondage,[8] whether the infraction was real or made up;[6] a reward for good behavior might be allowing the submissive to orgasm.[11]

Another common sub-set is "slut training", where the submissive partner is made to wear "slutty" feminine clothing[7] that may reveal a lot of bare skin and show off the submissive's curves,[12] while being teased or chided for being promiscuous or overly sexual.[7] The training involves making the submissive – who often may be shy and embarrassed – overcome those emotions, shifting their mindset so that they instinctively act more provocatively and uninhibitedly. The training may include training the submissive to pose provocatively, such as spreading their buttocks or exposing their genitals, and making them instinctively assume certain such positions in certain situations.[12]


According to a HuffPost feature where sex workers were interviewed, including dominatrixes and escorts, forced feminization is one of the most common sexual fantasies among sex workers' clients: one dominatrix said that a vast majority of her clients want to be sissified.[4] In Danielle J. Lindemann's Dominatrix, about a third of a sample of 305 sex worker clients were interested in being made to cross-dress.[7] The fantasy is to a large degree practiced by heterosexual, cisgender men as the submissive partners, although Vice noted that there were also bisexual and pansexual men present at a feminization meet-up they reported on, as well as some genderfluid and transgender people.[3] In slut training scenarios, the submissive partner is most commonly a woman.[12] The dominant partner may likewise be of any gender;[5] in sissy maid training scenarios, they are typically a woman.[8]

Kinkly describes the appeal of feminization as coming from the societal pressure on men to be traditionally masculine, and how being feminine can give men a feeling of guilt. When a man who is drawn to femininity does things considered feminine as part of a scenario where he is supposedly "forced" to do them, this may provide an outlet for his feelings while also giving him a relief of the guilt, since it within the fantasy is an outside force that caused him to do it;[5] because of the stigma, it may still be difficult for either partner to bring up the subject, however, not knowing how the other will react to it.[10] Some people also use feminization as a way to explore their sexuality.[11] As a BDSM role-play practice, being feminized may appeal to the submissive through making them feel vulnerable and reinforcing their role.[8] Dominant partners may enjoy feminization for getting to bring their submissive partner's "female persona" out,[2] or for getting to erotically humiliating them for their lack of masculinity.[10]

In her book Fetish Sex, writer Violet Blue says that although the kink may seem like it is devaluing women from an outsider's perspective, submissive partners engaging in it often have a lot of respect for women.[6] In Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures, Sabrina P. Ramet writes that although the fantasy may seem contradictory in its treatment of femininity as a source of humiliation, since it often is combined with femdom – as one could assume that the submissive's feminine clothing would be a symbol of the female superiority within a femdom–feminization role-play scenario – the two fantasies are independent even within the role-play, with the humiliation coming from the cultural taboo of wearing women's clothing as a man.[13]

Feminization, as a sexual fetish, is very different from being a transgender woman;[6] Ana Valens, writing for The Daily Dot, still describes forced feminization as a common fantasy among trans women, as the stigmatized need of trans women to be women, through feminization fantasies, can be met before a trans woman has admitted to having that need.[14]

As a theme in art[edit]

Feminization has been used as a theme in fiction,[15] which is commonly about a male character being forcibly feminized by a woman – typically his wife or girlfriend, and typically as punishment for something – before being forced by her into a situation where he needs to pass as a woman; variations include magical, bodily transformations rather than only cross-dressing. In erotic fiction, stories often involves situations where feminized characters are expected to perform fellatio. Feminization fiction is commonly published on the internet; FictionMania is an example of a popular website for the genre.[16] It is also published in magazines, such as Forced Womanhood!, which is dedicated to publishing erotic forced feminization fiction and illustrations.[15] Another form of feminization fiction is forced feminization captions added to pictures, which is sometimes done without the consent or approval of women whose photographs have been used.[14] Some writers of feminization fiction use subscription services on the internet to finance their works, although this is sometimes met with resistance by the providers of the services due to the type of content; in 2019, Patreon was reported to have banned some types of erotic content from their services, including feminization and sissification stories where the transformation is depicted as forced.[17]

Visual artist Río Sofia created a series of self portraits themed around forced feminization, influenced by the Forced Womanhood! magazine and sharing its name, which was well received; she was unsettled by the response, as her school used it to show how safe students supposedly felt to express themselves, whereas she had felt insecure and alienated there.[15] Forced feminization was featured in an episode of the television drama series Law & Order: Criminal Intent, where a character was portrayed as a "weirdo transvestite"; in her book My Husband Betty, author Helen Boyd described it as completely different from how forced feminization fantasies and men who are interested in it are in reality.[18]

In Asia[edit]

The logo for Ranma ½, written in a curvy, red font; its lower-case letters are padded by yellow circles.
The logo for Boku Girl, written in an angular, tilted font, in both katakana (cyan and magenta) and the Roman alphabet (black).
Feminization is popular in manga, with popular series including Ranma ½ and Boku Girl.

Forced feminization is a highly popular theme in manga and sells well across gender demographics, according to Japanese book retailer Hōrindō Takadanobaba.[19] In these, the transformation is typically portrayed as the imposing of female gender roles on a character initially portrayed as male, as a joke or a curse, such as in Ranma ½ and Boku Girl, two popular series whose protagonists' bodies are magically feminized against their will.[20][19] These works often have transgender themes, and are sometimes referred to as TS manga (Japanese: TSマンガ, short for "transsexual"); although this label also includes masculinization stories, feminization makes up the majority.[21]

Feminization stories where the transformation takes the form of cross-dressing are called otokonoko, and are popular in Japan; erotic manga on the theme have been around since the 1990s, but remained a small niche until seeing a growth through the 2000s and 2010s. In a 2019 report by Otapol, they described the genre as being smaller in China than in Japan, but still developing there.[22] Erotic sissy stories in particular are still rare in manga, however, although Otapol expect the genre to grow as more people become comfortable with being open with their sexuality.[23][24]

Feminization and otokonoko are popular in Japanese video games, and have an international audience; according to Hajime Nishida, developer of the Josou line of otokonoko games, the international release of his Josou Jinja sold "amazingly well", with nearly half of buyers being from China.[22] The fighting video game SNK Heroines: Tag Team Frenzy, which features an all-female roster, has the character Terry Bogard appear after being feminized, with feminine clothing options for the player to pick from for him.[25]


  1. ^ Parks-Ramage, Jonathan (2016-08-08). "Das geheime Leben von Crossdressern". Vice (in German). Vice Media. Archived from the original on 2020-09-16. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
  2. ^ a b Fischer, Nancy L.; Seidman, Steven (2016). Introducing the New Sexuality Studies (3 ed.). Routledge. p. 351. ISBN 9781317449188.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Parks-Ramage, Jonathan (2016-07-28). "'I Cross-Dress. Do You Still Love Me?': The Secret Lives of Sissies". Vice. Vice Media. Archived from the original on 2020-09-16. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
  4. ^ a b c Borresen, Kelsey (2018-10-24). "6 Of The Most Common Sexual Fantasies, According To Sex Workers". Huffington Post. Verizon Media. Archived from the original on 2020-04-24. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  5. ^ a b c d "Forced Feminization". Kinkly. 2019-10-28. Archived from the original on 2019-11-07. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Blue, Violet (2006). "7: Cross-Dressing and Sissies". Fetish Sex: An Erotic Guide For Couples. Daedalus Publishing. pp. 119–140. ISBN 1-881943-23-2.
  7. ^ a b c d e Lindemann, Danielle J. (2012). Dominatrix: Gender, Eroticism, and Control in the Dungeon. University of Chicago Press. pp. 167–169. ISBN 9780226482569.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Maid Training". Kinkly. 2017-05-09. Archived from the original on 2020-06-28. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Sissy Training". Kinkly. 2017-10-02. Archived from the original on 2019-11-07. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
  10. ^ a b c d Varrin, Claudia (1998). The Art of Sensual Female Dominance: A Guide for Women. Carol Publishing Group. pp. 53–61. ISBN 1-55972-447-1.
  11. ^ a b Boyd, Helen (2003). My Husband Betty: Love, Sex, and Life with a Crossdresser. Seal Press. pp. 176–179. ISBN 978-1-56025-515-4.
  12. ^ a b c "Slut Training". Kinkly. 2017-09-04. Archived from the original on 2020-07-07. Retrieved 2020-07-07.
  13. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. (1996). Gender reversals and gender cultures: anthropological and historical perspectives. Routledge. pp. 12–14. ISBN 978-0-415-11482-0. Archived from the original on 2014-06-17. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  14. ^ a b Valens, Ana (2020-02-28). "Trans/Sex: Kink is affirming—and complicated—for trans women". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on 2020-05-24. Retrieved 2020-07-02.
  15. ^ a b c Walker, Harron (2019-04-25). "Making Work in Her Own Image". Out. Pride Media. Archived from the original on 2020-05-28. Retrieved 2020-07-02.
  16. ^ Boyd, Helen (2003). My Husband Betty: Love, Sex, and Life with a Crossdresser. Seal Press. pp. 163–165. ISBN 978-1-56025-515-4.
  17. ^ Valens, Ana (2019-06-26). "Patreon is cracking down on more adult content creators, artists claim". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on 2020-07-29. Retrieved 2020-09-16.
  18. ^ Boyd, Helen (2003). My Husband Betty: Love, Sex, and Life with a Crossdresser. Seal Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-1-56025-515-4.
  19. ^ a b "【あの書店に聞く!!】 学生の街・早稲田。目ききのいる書店のオススメは、ちょっとBLの香りも…!? 芳林堂高田馬場店". Kono Manga ga Sugoi! (in Japanese). Takarajimasha. 2014-06-12. Archived from the original on 2019-05-20. Retrieved 2020-05-18.
  20. ^ Finn, Charlotte (2015-09-08). "Lost in Transition: On 'Ranma 1/2′ and Owning Your Identity". ComicsAlliance. Townsquare Media. Archived from the original on 2019-06-05. Retrieved 2020-07-07.
  21. ^ "女体化から入れ替わりまで! 「TS(性転換)マンガ」8選". IT Media (in Japanese). 2015-07-09. Archived from the original on 2020-05-20. Retrieved 2020-09-16.
  22. ^ a b Hiruma, Takashi (2019-07-07). "中国でも急成長する男の娘ジャンル エロのフロンティアはまだ有望な鉱脈だ!". Otapol (in Japanese). Cyzo, Inc. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  23. ^ Hiruma, Takashi (2018-09-16). "『雌化調教の夜』(SWEETTABOO) 「流石ホモだな」……いちいち言葉が突き刺さる至高な作品". Otapol (in Japanese). Cyzo, Inc. Archived from the original on 2019-05-12. Retrieved 2020-09-16.
  24. ^ Hiruma, Takashi (2019-04-28). "『雌堕ちビデオレター』(SWEETTABOO) マイナーとはいわせない。"女装マゾホモ浮気セックス"を告白する快感". Otapol (in Japanese). Cyzo, Inc. Archived from the original on 2019-05-11. Retrieved 2020-09-16.
  25. ^ "「テリー・ボガード」が女体化!? 「SNKヒロインズ」に参戦決定". IT Media (in Japanese). 2018-08-03. Archived from the original on 2020-07-23. Retrieved 2020-07-23.

Further reading[edit]