In boating, a fender is a bumper used to absorb the kinetic energy of a boat or vessel berthing against a jetty, quay wall or other vessel. Fenders, used on all types of vessels, from cargo ships to cruise ships, ferries and personal yachts, prevent damage to vessels and berthing structures. To do this, fenders have high energy absorption and low reaction force. Fenders are typically manufactured out of rubber, foam elastomer or plastic. Rubber fenders are either extruded or made in a mold. The type of fender that is most suitable for an application depends on many variables, including dimensions and displacement of the vessel, maximum allowable stand-off, berthing structure, tidal variations and other berth-specific conditions. The size of the fender unit is based on the berthing energy of the vessel which is related to the square of the berthing velocity.
Historically, fenders were woven from rope in a variety of patterns. Fenders of woven rope are still used today by historic boat owners.
Yachts, small leisure craft and support vessels typically have mobile fenders which are placed between the boat and the dock as the boat approaches the dock. Docks and other marine structures, such as canal entrances and bases of bridges, have permanent fenders placed to avoid damage from boats. Old tires are often used as fenders in such places.
Fendering is also used on ports and berths as well. The fendering systems act as elastic buffer devices that are used to slow ships down and prevent damage to the ship or dock structure in the mooring process.
- 1 Types
- 2 Fender shape, function and application
- 3 Fender design
- 4 References
Ship to Berth (STB) Fendering
Marine fenders are used at ports and docks on quay walls and other berthing structures. They absorb the kinetic energy of a berthing vessel and thus prevent damage to the vessel or the berthing structure. There are 2 major categories of fenders for port applications: Fixed and Floating. Fixed fenders are mounted to the berth structure and compose of buckling fenders such as cell fenders, V-type fenders, and non-buckling fenders such as cylindrical fenders. Floating fenders are placed between the berth structure and ship, and include pneumatic fenders and foam-filled fenders.
Fender spacing should be determined by the smallest ship using the berth, as well as the design ships' hull radius of curvature. To ensure all ships can be accommodated at the berth, fender spacing should be about 5%-10% of the ship's length for vessels up to 20,000 dwt. Berths handling larger ships can should have a fender spacing of about 25%-50% of the ship's length.
Design life of port fenders will vary by ship type, berthing frequency, temperature, saltwater content, and other environmental factors. Fender manufacturers recommend a design life of 5–15 years on berths accepting general cargo, while 10–20 years for more specialized berths such as those accepting tanker ships.
Damaged fendering equipment is the responsibility of either the port owner or ship owner. Port owner responsibility includes damages by ordinary wear and tear by ships, weathering, faulty mounting, incorrect fender type, etc. Ship owner responsibility includes any damages to the fendering system caused by the ship, such as crashing into the berth structure during berthing.
Ship to Ship (STS) Fendering
For bunkering operations between two vessels, floating fenders such as pneumatic or foam elastomer fenders are typically used.
Fender shape, function and application
Cylindrical fenders are commonly used fenders which ensure a safe and linear berthing for different kinds of vessels. Cylindrical (extruded) fenders are an economical solution to protect most berthing structures, and offer ease of installation. In France, professional mariners call them "bougnafles".
Arch fenders were introduced to improve upon the performance of Cylindrical fenders. Arch fenders have a better Energy / Reaction force ratio and recommended for all types of applications. The shape of these fenders helps to dissipate the stresses evenly. These extruded fenders are very easy to install and are maintenance free. Generally preferred for small to medium range vessels.
Cell fenders are best employed for small or large vessels where reaction force is an important criterion. Among all types of fenders, cell fenders offer minimum reaction per ton-meter energy absorbed. The very geometric shape gives it sturdiness, shear resistance, compact structure and the capacity to absorb energy equally from all directions. The Cylindrical buckling column absorbs axial loads effectively and buckles radially. This results in multi-directional dispersion of energy. Cell fenders are the most durable rubber fenders available and are currently the largest moulded fenders made. 2000–2500 mm high cell fenders are typically used for LNG berths. In order to distribute the reaction force, cell fenders are typically supplied with large fender panels, which keeps the hull pressure low.
Cone fenders are an improved version of Cell type Fender recently introduced and recommended for all types of applications including high tidal variation sites. This advanced feature of lesser height of fenders improves material handling capabilities of Deck / Vessel Cranes which reduces overall cost of the project. Due to the geometrical shape of the fenders it can deflect more and it can absorb more energy from any direction. Maintaining reaction force, but doubling energy absorption, can be achieved by using two identical cone fenders in a back-to-back arrangement. In order to distribute the reaction force, cone fenders are typically supplied with large fender panels, which keeps the hull pressure low.
These fenders are extensively used for ship to ship transfers at mid seas, double banking operations, and as vessel-to-berth at dock/jetties. The special property of a pneumatic fender is its low reaction force at low deflection. This property of pneumatic fenders makes them the most suitable fender for liquid cargo vessels and defense vessels with very sensitive equipment. These fenders have excellent energy absorption characteristics and linear load deflection characteristics. Pneumatic fenders should comply to the ISO 17357 standard. The pneumatic fender is also known as the Yokohama fender or floating fender. There are four basic types of pneumatic fenders that comply with the international standard: Type I (Chain&Tyre Net Type), Type II (Sling Type), Type III (Rib Type) and Type IV (Rope Net Type). It has become an ideal ship protection medium used extensively by large tankers, LPG vessels, ocean platforms etc. The most appropriate type will depend on its application and the requirements of the equipment.
The submarine hydro-pneumatic fender (SHPF), first developed in the 1980s, is a unique fender system designed to provide minimal hull pressure loads and soft compression during berthing and a large stand-off to accommodate the large bulbous shape of the submarine. Its pneumatic fenders body is stronger than standard pneumatic fenders and is equipped with a specially designed counter weight to keep the fender vertical in water. Each SHPF system is customised specially for each type or class of submarine, depending on its water-air ratio, shape of the hull, berthing-type, energy absorption and jetty design.
Foam elastomer fenders
These fenders are typically made of a closed-cell Polyethylene foam core, which is encapsulated in a nylon or Kevlar reinforced Polyurethane skin. The performance of foam elastomer fenders is comparable to that of a pneumatic fender, but the fenders will not lose their function in case the skin gets punctured. Foam elastomer fenders cannot deflate.
D-type fenders are commonly used on vessels as well as small jetties. They are compression-moulded with steel inserts if required.
Square fenders are commonly used on vessels as well as small jetties. They are compression-moulded fenders generally used on tugs, boats and ships.
Wing fenders are compression moulded fenders and are generally used on tugs, boats and ships. Easy to install and replace. Do have excellent sea water resistance and resistance to ozone ageing and ultra violet rays.
Keyhole fenders are the most versatile bow, stem fenders used on tugboats and small port craft/ferries. They offer maximum protection to tugs/ferries with their typical profile and load-absorbing capabilities.
These fenders are made of high-abrasion-resistance rubber with good resilience properties. They are very popular with small port craft owners and tug owners. These fenders are compression moulded in high-pressure thermic-fluid-heated moulds and have excellent seawater resistance.
Solid rubber fender
Solid rubber fender dock ship application long history and wide range of anti-collision equipment. Can be divided according to the rubber fender force to shear, rotation and compression type and so on; according to the fender structure, solid rubber fender can be classified as type D type, Cone type, drum type, fan-shaped, rectangular type, cylinder fender and so on.Solid rubber fender with high energy absorption and reaction force, and has low cost, long service life, easy installation and maintenance advantages, dock, dock installed more protective device.
Floating rubber fender
Floating rubber fender is newer protecting shipboard equipment, solid rubber fender relative than its main features are: large compressive deformation energy absorption, low reaction force, since floating, easy installation, etc. and for and. Due to its self-flotation characteristics especially suitable for large changes in the terminal installation in tide
There are a number of different standards used worldwide to design fender systems. The most commonly used one, is the PIANC "Guidelines for the design of fender systems, 2002", which is the update of its predessecor from 1984. In Japan the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) are commonly used, whereas in the United Kingdom and the United States of America, the British Standard BS 6349:part 4 still used quite regularly.
Designing a fender system basically is determining what the berthing energy of a vessel or range of vessels will be, then determine what capacity the fender needs to have to absorb that kinetic energy and finally how to find a way to avoid the reaction force creating too much hull pressure. In principle, a berthing energy calculation is a simple kinetic energy calculation, adjusted for specific behaviour of a berthing vessel or the specific characteristics of the berthing location or structure.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fenders.|
- Thoresen, Carl A. (2014). Port Designer's Handbook (3rd Edition). ICE Publishing.
- PIANC - Technical Report article
- BS 6349-4:1994 - Maritime structures. Code of practice for design of fendering and mooring systems – BSI British Standards