Fengtian clique

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Fengtian clique
Fèng Xì Jūnfá
Flag of Fengtian clique.svg
Flag of Fengtian clique (until December 1928)
Country Republic of China
AllegianceBeiyang Government (1911–1927)
TypeWarlord faction
EngagementsFirst Zhili-Fengtian War
Second Zhili-Fengtian War
Northern Expedition
Overall commander (1920–1928)Zhang Zuolin
Overall commander (1928–1928)Zhang Xueliang

The Fengtian Clique (simplified Chinese: 奉系军阀; traditional Chinese: 奉系軍閥; pinyin: Fèng Xì Jūnfá) was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's Warlord Era. It was named for Fengtian Province (now Liaoning) and operated from a territorial base comprising the three northeastern provinces that made up Manchuria.[1] Warlord Zhang Zuolin, known as the "Grand Marshal," led the clique with support from Japan.[2] Between 1920 and 1921 the Fengtian Clique exercised control of Beijing jointly with the Zhili Clique.[1] Tensions soon began building between the two, resulting in clashes for control of Beijing known as the First (1922) and Second (1924) Zhili–Fengtian Wars. The power of the Fengtian Clique began to decrease in the midst of the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition. In 1928, while he was retreating North, Zhang Zuolin's Japanese sponsors blew up his train, killing him. After the assassination, his son, Zhang Xueliang, took over the leadership of the clique, later pledging himself and his army to the Kuomintang government in Nanking. The Northeastern Army was built after unification.[1]

Fengtian commanders[edit]

Zhang Zongchang's commanding Zhili-Lu allied army artillery.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Fengtien Clique; The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979).
  2. ^ Historical Dictionary of Modern China (1800-1949) by James Z. Gao; Scarecrow Press, 16 jun. 2009; p.115