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{{Infobox Stadium
| stadium_name = Fenway Park
| nickname = ''Friendly Fenway''
| image = [[Image:ALE-BOS-Fenway.PNG|100px]]<br />[[Image:Fenway from Legend's Box.jpg|275px]]
| location = 4 [[Yawkey Way]], [[Boston, Massachusetts]] 02215
| coordinates = {{Coord|42|20|47|N|71|5|51|W|type:landmark|display=inline,title}}
| broke_ground = September 25, 1911
| opened = April 20, 1912
| closed =
| owner = New England Sports Ventures (NESV) / Boston Red Sox
| operator =
| surface = Grass
| construction_cost = [[United States dollar|US$]]650,000 ($14.3 million in 2008 dollars)
| architect = [[Osborn Engineering|Osborne Engineering Corp.]]
| former_names =
| tenants = [[Boston Red Sox]] ([[Major League Baseball|MLB]]) (1912–present)<br />[[Atlanta Braves|Boston Braves]] (MLB) (1914–1915)<br />[[Boston Bulldogs (AFL)]] (1926)<br />[[Washington Redskins|Boston Redskins]] ([[National Football League|NFL]]) (1933–1936)<br />[[Boston Shamrocks (AFL)]] (1936-1937)<br />[[Boston Yanks]] (NFL) (1944–1948)<br />[[New England Patriots|Boston Patriots]] ([[American Football League|AFL]]) (1963–1968)<br />[[Boston Beacons]] ([[North American Soccer League|NASL]]) (1968)
| seating_capacity = 35,000 (1912)<br />34,824 (1953)<br />33,513 (1977)<br />33,993 (night) & 33,557 (day) (2001)<br />37,400 (night) & 36,984 (day) (2008)
| dimensions = '''Left Field''': 310&nbsp;ft (94.5&nbsp;m)<br />'''Deep Left-Center''': 379&nbsp;ft (115.5&nbsp;m)<br />'''Center Field''': 389&nbsp;ft 9&nbsp;in (118.8&nbsp;m)<br />'''Deep Right-Center''': 420&nbsp;ft (128&nbsp;m)<br />'''Right Field''': 380&nbsp;ft (115.8&nbsp;m)<br />'''Right Field''': 302&nbsp;ft (92&nbsp;m)<br />'''Backstop''': 60&nbsp;ft (18.3&nbsp;m)
'''Fenway Park''' is a [[baseball park]] near [[Kenmore Square (Boston)|Kenmore Square]] in [[Boston]], [[Massachusetts]]. Located at 4 Yawkey Way, it has served as the home ballpark of the [[Boston Red Sox]] [[baseball]] club since it opened in 1912, and is the oldest [[Major League Baseball]] [[stadium]] currently in use.
Because of the ballpark's age and constrained location in an urban neighborhood, the park has had many renovations and additions over the years not initially envisioned, resulting in unique, quirky features, including "the Triangle", "Pesky's Pole", and most notably the famous [[Green Monster]] in left field. Fenway Park is renowned for hosting dedicated Red Sox fans, collectively called "[[Red Sox Nation]]". Every Red Sox home game since May 15, 2003, has sold out; in 2008, the park sold out its 456th consecutive Red Sox game, breaking a Major League record.
Fenway Park has also been the site of many other sporting and cultural events, including professional football games for the [[Washington Redskins|Boston Redskins]] and the [[New England Patriots]], concerts, and political campaigns.
[[Image:Fenwaypark1.jpg|thumb|left|Fenway Park in 1914]]
The Red Sox moved to Fenway Park from the old [[Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds]]. In 1911, owner [[John I. Taylor]] sold the team at the same time he developed land bordered by Brookline Avenue, Jersey Street, Van Ness Street and Lansdowne Street into a larger baseball stadium.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ballparkwatch.com/stadiums/past/huntington_avenue.htm |title=Huntington Avenue Grounds / Boston Red Sox / 1901-1911. |author=Knight, Graham |publisher=Ballparkwatch.com |accessdate=2008-10-09}}</ref>
Former owner [[John I. Taylor]] claimed the name Fenway Park came from its location in the [[Fenway-Kenmore|Fenway district]] of Boston, which was partially created late in the nineteenth century by filling in marshland or "[[fen]]s".<ref>{{cite book |title=Boston's Ballparks & Arenas |author=Foulds, Alan E. |page=48 |date=2005 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=dQWzRxP-a7sC&pg=PA48 |publisher=UPNE |isbn=1584654090}}</ref> However, given that Taylor's family also owned the Fenway Realty Company, the promotional value of the naming at the time has been cited as well.<ref>{{cite book |title=Boston's Royal Rooters |author=Nash, Peter J. |date=2005 |publisher=Arcadia Publishing |isbn=0738538213 |page=45 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Fa4xVOCgtt4C&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45}}</ref> Like many classic ballparks, Fenway Park was constructed on an asymmetrical block, with consequent asymmetry in its field dimensions.
Attendance at the park has not always been great, and reached its low point late in the 1965 season with two games having paid attendance under 500 spectators.<ref>[http://www.baseball-reference.com/teams/BOS/1965_sched.shtml Baseball-Reference.com] 1965 Boston Red Sox Schedule, Box Scores and Splits.</ref> Its fortunes have risen since the Red Sox' 1967 "[[The Impossible Dream (1967)|Impossible Dream]]" season, and on September 8, 2008 with a game versus the [[Tampa Bay Rays]], Fenway Park broke the all-time Major League record with its 456th consecutive sellout, surpassing the previous record held by Jacobs Field (now [[Progressive Field]]) in Cleveland, Ohio.<ref>[http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2008-09-08-1185934874_x.htm USAToday.com] Fenway sells out for record 456th straight time.</ref> On Wednesday, June 17, 2009 the park celebrated its 500th consecutive Red Sox sellout. According to WBZ-TV, the team joined three NBA teams which achieved 500 consecutive home sellouts; one of those teams was the [[Larry Bird]]-era [[Boston Celtics]] of the 1980s.<ref name="wbz-500sellout">{{cite web|url=http://wbztv.com/sports/redsox/red.sox.florida.2.1049303.html|title=Boston Red Sox Beat Florida Marlins In Fenway Park's 500th Sellout|last=[[Associated Press]]|date=June 17, 2009|publisher=[[WBZ-TV]]|accessdate=2009-06-21}}</ref><ref name="herald-500sellout">{{cite web|url=http://www.seacoastonline.com/articles/20090618-SPORTS-906180416|title=Fenway sellout streak hits 500|last=Silverman|first=Michael|date=June 18, 2009|publisher=[[The Boston Herald]] on seacoastonline.com|accessdate=2009-06-21}}</ref> Former pitcher [[Bill Lee (left-handed pitcher)|Bill Lee]] has called Fenway Park "a [[shrine]]".<ref>[http://www.fenwayparkwriters.org/fenway_park_writer_quotes.asp fenwayparkwriters.org] The Great Fenway Park Writers Series - Writers Speaking About the Books They Write.</ref>
[[Image:Fenway-park-1914-world-series.jpg|thumb|left|500px|Fenway Park during the [[1914 World Series]]]]
===Changes to Fenway Park===
[[Image:Fenway Grandstands.jpg|thumb|right|The old wooden seats of Fenway's Grandstand section.]]
Some of the changes include:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ballparktour.com/Fenway.html|title=www.ballparktour.com/Fenway.html<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
*In 1934, the scoreboard was added, with what was then considered high technology lights representing balls and strikes. <ref>{{cite weblurl=http://www.redsoxdiehard.com/fenway/unique.html}}</ref> The score is still updated by hand today from behind the wall (except the National League scores which need to be changed out on the field).<ref>{{cite weblurl=http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/industry/4277444.html}}</ref>
*In 1946, upper deck seats were installed; Fenway Park is essentially the first double-tiered ballpark in Boston since the [[South End Grounds]] of the 1880s.
*In 1947, arc lights were installed at Fenway Park. The Boston Red Sox were the third-to-last team out of 16 major league teams to have lights in their home park.
*In 1976, metric distances were added to the conventionally-stated distances because it was thought that the [[Metrication in the United States|United States would adopt the metric system]]. Today, few American ballparks have metric distances posted. Fenway Park retained the metric measurement until mid-season 2002, when they were painted over. Also, Fenway's first message board was added over the center field bleachers.
*In 1999 the auxiliary press boxes were added atop the roof boxes along the first and third base sides.
*Before the 2003 season, seats were added to the [[Green Monster]].
*Before the 2004 season, seats were added to the right field roof, above the retired numbers, called the [[Budweiser (Anheuser-Busch)|Budweiser]] Right Field Roof.
*Before the 2005 season, a new drainage system was installed on the field. The system, along with new sod, was installed to prevent the field from becoming too wet to play on during light to medium rains, and to reduce the time needed to dry the field adequately. Work on the field was completed only weeks prior to spring training.
*After the 2005 season, the Red Sox completed their plans for the .406 Club area, which became the EMC Club. The construction resulted in 852 pavilion club seats, 745 pavilion box seats, and approximately 200 pavilion standing-room seats along the left- and right-field lines, resulting in approximately 1300 additional seats.
*The winter of 2006 renovations focused on renovating the luxury boxes as well as adding a new food concourse area and renovated bathrooms behind the third base grandstands.
*Before the 2008 season, the temporary luxury boxes installed for the 1999 All-Star Game were removed and permanent ones were added to the State Street Pavilion level. Seats were also added down the left field line called the [[Coca-Cola]] Party-Deck. 100 standing-room tickets were also added to the pavilion increasing capacity to just under 40,000 people. The Coke bottles, installed in 1997, were also removed to return the light towers to their original state. All bleacher seats were replaced and the seating bowl water-proofed as well.
*Before the 2009 season, the right field roofbox seating area was renovated and expanded and the original 1912 seating bowl was water-proofed and seats replaced.
===Proposed new Fenway Park===
On May 15, 1999 then Red Sox CEO John Harrington announced plans for a new Fenway Park to be built near the existing structure.<ref>[http://www.ballparks.com/baseball/american/bosbpk.htm New Fenway Park] Ballparks.com.</ref> It was to have the same dimensions on the field, include a new [[Green Monster]], basically be a replica of the current park, but be modernized to replace some of the old features of Fenway Park. Some sections of the old Fenway Park were to be preserved (mainly the original Green Monster and the third base side of the park) as part of the overall new layout. Most of the old park was to be demolished to make room for new development, with one section remaining to house a baseball museum and public park. This was a highly controversial idea, as most Boston area sports fans consider Fenway Park to be sacred ground, and demolishing the old park would have caused a significant outcry. Several groups sprang up, such as "Save Fenway Park" to try and block the move.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.savefenwaypark.com/news.cfm|title=www.savefenwaypark.com/news.cfm<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
All involved parties wrangled for several years on the details of the new stadium. One plan even involved building a "Sports Megaplex" in South Boston, where a new Fenway would be located next to a new stadium for the [[New England Patriots]]. The Patriots ultimately built a [[Gillette Stadium|new stadium]] in [[Foxborough, Massachussetts|Foxboro]], and that plan was abandoned. Even after several more rounds of deliberations, the Red Sox could not reach an agreement with the city of Boston for a new stadium. In 2005, the Red Sox ownership group announced that the team would stay in the current Fenway Park indefinitely.<ref>[http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/news/press_releases/press_release.jsp?ymd=20050323&content_id=974608&vkey=pr_bos&fext=.jsp&c_id=bos Sox make commitment to Fenway Park] Boston Red Sox.</ref>
[[File:Fenway Park01.jpg|thumb|right|The front of Fenway Park facing [[Yawkey Way]].]]
[[Image:Fenway Park.jpg|thumb|right|A view of Fenway Park and the surrounding neighborhood.]]
Its location in the Kenmore Square area includes many buildings of similar height and architecture, causing it to blend in well with its surroundings. This results in the park appearing smaller and less imposing than other major outdoor sports venues in the country. When pitcher [[Roger Clemens]] arrived in Boston for the first time in 1984, he took a taxi from [[Logan Airport]] and was sure the driver had misunderstood his directions when he announced their arrival at the park. Clemens recalled telling the driver "No, Fenway Park, it's a baseball stadium&nbsp;... this is a warehouse." Only when the driver told Clemens to look up and he saw the light towers did he realize he was in the right place.<ref>Nowlin, Bill and Prime, Jim (2005). ''Blood Feud: The Red Sox, the Yankees and the Struggle of Good Vs. Evil''. [http://books.google.com/books?id=m9-oC_bVnC0C&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=%22roger+clemens%22+fenway+warehouse&source=web&ots=lfTpGMvhnd&sig=0rBsDQeoJEB8ARNyd7I1wmcJ0uw&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result Google Books]</ref>
Fenway Park is one of the two remaining classic parks still in use in major league baseball (the other being [[Wrigley Field]]), and both have a significant number of obstructed view seats, due to pillars supporting the upper deck. These are sold as such, and are a reminder of the architectural limitations of older ballparks.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2005/06/17/the_worst_seats_at_fenway/|title=www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2005/06/17/the_worst_seats_at_fenway/<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
[[Image:FenwayPark 1917.jpg|thumb|left|Map showing Fenway Park in 1917.]]
As discussed by [[George Will]] in ''Men at Work'' (MacMillan, 1990), Fenway Park is a "hitters' ballpark", with its short right-field fence (302&nbsp;feet), narrow foul ground, and generally closer-than-normal outfield fences. By Rule 1.04, Note(a),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mlb.mlb.com/NASApp/mlb/mlb/official_info/official_rules/foreword.jsp|title=official rules}}</ref> all parks built after 1958 have been required to have foul lines at least 325&nbsp;feet long and a center-field fence at least 400&nbsp;feet from home plate. Regarding the narrow foul territory, Will writes (p.175):
<blockquote>The narrow foul territory in Fenway Park probably adds 5 to 7 points onto [[Batting average|batting averages]]. Since World War II, the Red Sox have had 18 batting champions (through 1989)... Five to 7 points are a lot, given that there may be only a 15- or 20-point spread between a good hitting team and a poor hitting team.</blockquote>
Some observers might feel that these unique aspects of Fenway give the Red Sox an advantage over their opponents, given that the Red Sox hitters play 81 games at the home stadium, while each opponent plays only a handful (9 for AL East teams, 6 for some AL teams, and only 3 for other AL teams and the NL teams which play at Fenway for interleague games). Will does not share this view (p.117).
<blockquote>Question: When you hear the phrase 'hitters' park', which parks come to mind? Wrigley Field and Fenway Park. Which two teams have not won a World Series since 1908 and 1918, respectively? The Cubs and the Red Sox. Moral: It is bad to play in a park that is beastly to your pitchers.</blockquote>
Will's book pre-dates the smaller retro ballparks and the home run barrage that began in the early/mid-1990s, as well as the Red Sox World Series wins of 2004 and 2007.
Historically, Fenway Park has been decidedly unfriendly to left-handed pitchers, [[Babe Ruth]] being one of the few [[southpaw]] exceptions. Ruth started his career as a pitcher (mostly during the "[[dead-ball era]]"), and had a career record of 94 wins, 46 losses (.671 winning percentage). Ruth also set a [[World Series]] record by pitching 29⅔ scoreless innings, a record that lasted until broken by [[Whitey Ford]] of the [[New York Yankees]] in 1961.
[[Image:Green Monster Seats.jpg|thumb|right|The seats atop the [[Green Monster]]]]
Fenway Park had the smallest seating capacity in the major leagues for a number of years, but that is no longer the case. A number of the classic ballparks had seating capacities under 40,000, and some were smaller than Fenway. Montreal's [[Jarry Park Stadium|Jarry Park]] was smallest of all the modern ballparks, at about 28,000. At the time of Jarry Park's closing in 1977, the other old ballparks were gone, and Fenway's capacity was listed (according to ''Sporting News Baseball Guides'') at 33,513, making it the smallest in the majors at that point. Fenway began to grow incrementally over the next three decades, as pockets of seating areas were added from time to time.
Before the 2008 season, Fenway Park's capacity was increased to 39,928, where it remains following additional renovations for the 2009 season<ref name = "vqzreb">[http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2008/11/07/change_up_a_nip_tuck_for_fenway/]Boston Glove</ref> rendering Fenway as the fourth smallest, behind the [[Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum]], [[Tropicana Field]] and [[PNC Park]]. Renovations prior to the 2009 season now allow the Sox to sell roughly 350 more tickets each game, though the official capacity has not increased.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.projo.com/redsox/content/red_sox_fenway_0402.977925bc.html |title=Lucchino: Fenway is good for next 40 to 50 years |accessdate=2009-04-03 |author=Daniel Barbarisi |date=2008-04-02 |publisher= The Providence Journal}}</ref>
There have previously been proposals to increase the [[seating capacity]] to as much as 45,000 through the expansion of the upper decks, while others (notably former team owners, the [[JRY Trust]]) have called for razing the historic ballpark entirely and building a similar, but larger and more modern, scalable facility nearby. These proposals are now effectively moot as a result of the alternative modernization plan undertaken by the current ownership.
===The Green Monster===
{{main|Green Monster}}
[[Image:Green Monster.jpg|thumb|right|The Green Monster measures 37&nbsp;feet, 2&nbsp;inches tall.]]
The Green Monster is the nickname of the thirty-seven-foot, two-inch (11.3&nbsp;m)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.insidesocal.com/tomhoffarth/archives/2008/08/a-southern-cali.html |author=Hoffarth, Tom |publisher=Los Angeles Daily News |date=August 5, 2008 |accessdate=2008-11-09 |title=A Southern California guide to Fenway Park}}</ref> left field wall in the park. Only 304-310&nbsp;feet to home plate, it is a popular target for right-handed hitters.
Part of the original ballpark construction of 1912, the wall is made of wood, but was covered in tin and concrete in 1934 when [[Green_Monster#Scoreboard|the scoreboard]] was added. The wall was covered in hard plastic in 1976. The [[scoreboard]] is still manually updated throughout the game today. Despite the name, the Green Monster was not painted green until 1947; before that it was covered with [[advertisements]]. The ''Monster'' designation is relatively new. For most of its history it was simply called '''the wall'''. In recent years, terrace-style seating has been added on top of the wall.
==="The Triangle"===
[[Image:Fenway Park03.jpg|thumb|left|The triangle]]
"The Triangle" is a region of center field where the walls form a triangle whose far corner is 420&nbsp;feet (128&nbsp;m) from home plate. That deep right-center point is conventionally given as the center field distance. True center is unmarked, 390&nbsp;feet from home plate, to the left of "The Triangle" when viewed from home plate.
There was once a smaller "triangle" at the left end of the bleachers in center field, posted as 388&nbsp;feet (118.3&nbsp;m). The end of the bleachers form a right angle with the [[Green Monster]] and the flagpole stands within that little triangle. That is not the true power alley, but deep left-center. The true power alley distance is not posted. The foul line intersects with the Green Monster at nearly a right angle, so the power alley could be estimated at 336&nbsp;feet (102.4&nbsp;m), assuming the power alley is 22.5 degrees away from the foul line as measured from home plate.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://vault.sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1077374/1/index.htm|title=vault.sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1077374/1/index.htm<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
"Williamsburg" was the name, invented by sportswriters, for the bullpen area built in front of the right-center field bleachers in 1940. It was built there primarily for the benefit of [[Ted Williams]], to enable him and other left-handed batters to hit more [[home run]]s, since it was 23&nbsp;feet closer than the bleacher wall. The name was inspired both by [[Colonial Williamsburg]] and [[Yankee Stadium (1923)|Yankee Stadium]]'s hitter-friendly right field area that was often called "[[Babe Ruth|Ruthville]]".
"The Belly" is the sweeping curve of the box-seat railing from the right end of "Williamsburg" around to the right field corner. The box seats were added when the bullpens were built in 1940. The right field line distance from the 1934 remodeling was reduced by some 30&nbsp;feet.
===The Lone Red Seat===
[[Image:williamsredseat-.jpg|thumb|right|The Lone Red Seat]]
The lone red seat in the right field bleachers (Section 42, Row 37, Seat 21), signifies the spot where the longest measurable home run ever hit inside Fenway Park's 1934 configuration landed. [[Ted Williams]] hit the home run on June 9, 1946 off [[Fred Hutchinson]] of the [[Detroit Tigers]]. Williams' bomb was officially measured at 502&nbsp;feet (153&nbsp;m)—well beyond "Williamsburg". According to Hit Tracker Online, the ball, if unobstructed, would have flown 520 to 535&nbsp;feet.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hittrackeronline.com/historic.php?id=1946_2|title=HitTracker :: Hit Tracker Highlight Home Runs<!-- Bot generated title -->}}</ref>
The ball landed on Joseph A. Boucher, who was supposedly taking a nap at the time, penetrating his large straw hat and hitting him in the head. A confounded Boucher was later quoted as saying,
{{Cquote2|How far away must one sit to be safe in this park? I didn't even get the ball. They say it bounced a dozen rows higher, but after it hit my head, I was no longer interested. I couldn't see the ball. Nobody could. The sun was right in our eyes. All we could do was duck. I'm glad I did not stand up.}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.boston.com/sports/redsox/williams/archives/long_ago_it_went_far_away+.shtml|title=www.boston.com/sports/redsox/williams/archives/long_ago_it_went_far_away+.shtml<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
No other player at Fenway Park has ever hit the seat since, although on June 23, 2001 [[Manny Ramírez]] hit two home runs; one estimated at 463&nbsp;feet and another one with an official estimate of 501&nbsp;feet. The latter blast struck a light tower above the Green Monster denying it a true landing point, to which the official estimate deferred to Williams' record placing Ramirez's home run exactly one foot short.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/baseball/mlb/news/2001/06/23/ramirez_homers_ap/|title=sportsillustrated.cnn.com/baseball/mlb/news/2001/06/23/ramirez_homers_ap/<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
As noted in the 2007 book ''[[The Year Babe Ruth Hit 104 Home Runs]],'' researcher Bill Jenkinson found evidence that on May 25, 1926, [[Babe Ruth]] hit one in the pre-1934 bleacher configuration which landed five rows from the top in right field, an estimated 545&nbsp;feet from home plate. Ruth also hit several other "Ruthian" blasts at Fenway that landed across the street behind straightaway center field, estimated at 500&nbsp;feet.
===Foul poles===
[[Image:Dsc 6431 Pesky's Pole.jpg|thumb|right|Although it is only 302&nbsp;feet to "Pesky's Pole", the fence directly behind it sharply curves away.]]
[[Pesky's Pole]] is the name for the pole on the right field foul line, which stands a mere 302&nbsp;feet from home plate, the shortest porch (left or right field) in Major League Baseball. Oddly, this distance has never been posted on the foul pole. Despite the short wall, home runs in this area are relatively rare, since the fence curves away from the foul pole sharply. For comparison's sake, the much larger [[Comiskey Park|"Old" Comiskey Park]] in [[Chicago]] had several dozen home runs hit over its roof, yet no one has ever hit one over Fenway's much shorter right field roof. The pole was named after [[Johnny Pesky]], a light-hitting shortstop and long-time [[Coach (baseball)|coach]] for the Red Sox, who hit some of his six home runs at Fenway Park around the pole but never off the pole. Pesky and the Red Sox give credit to pitcher [[Mel Parnell]] for coining the name. The most notable for Pesky is a two-run homer in the eighth inning of the 1946 Opening Day game to win the game (in his career, Pesky hit 17 home runs). In similar fashion, [[Mark Bellhorn]] hit what proved to be the game-winning home run off of [[Julián Tavárez]], in Game 1 of the [[2004 World Series]] off that pole's screen.
On September 27, 2006, on Pesky's 87th birthday, the Red Sox organization officially dedicated the right field foul pole as '''Pesky's Pole''' with a commemorative plaque placed at its base.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.truveo.com/Peskys-Pole-Ceremony/id/3528387500|title=www.truveo.com/Peskys-Pole-Ceremony/id/3528387500<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
In a ceremony before the Red Sox's 2005 [[Interleague play|interleague]] game against the [[Cincinnati Reds]], the pole on the left field foul line atop the [[Green Monster]] was named Fisk Foul Pole, in honor of [[Carlton Fisk]]. Fisk provided one of baseball's most enduring moments in Game 6 of the [[1975 World Series]] against the Reds. Facing Reds right-hander Pat Darcy in the 12th inning with the score tied at 6, Fisk hit a long fly ball down the left field line. It appeared to be heading foul, but Fisk, after initially appearing unsure of whether or not to continue running to first base, famously jumped and waved his arms to the right as if to somehow direct the ball fair. It ricocheted off the foul pole, winning the game for the Red Sox and sending the series to a seventh and deciding game the next night, which Cincinnati won.
NBC-TV director Harry Coyle had wanted to aim the camera on the ball. But legend has it that a rat in the left field camera booth had frightened the cameraman, causing him to stay focused on Fisk's "waving it fair". This play clinched an Emmy award for Coyle and NBC's coverage of the Series.
==="Duffy's Cliff"===
From 1912 to 1933, there was a {{convert|10|ft|adj=on}} high incline in front of the then {{convert|25|ft|adj=on}} high left field wall at Fenway Park, extending from the left-field foul pole to the center field flag pole. As a result, a left fielder in Fenway Park had to play part of the territory running uphill (and back down). Boston's first star left fielder, [[Duffy Lewis]], mastered the skill so well that the area became known as "Duffy's Cliff".
The incline served two purposes:
# it was a support for a high wall;
# it was built to compensate for the difference in grades between the field and Lansdowne Street on the other side of that wall.
It also served as a spectator-friendly seating area during the dead-ball era when overflow crowds would sit on the incline behind ropes. It is often compared to the infamous left field "terrace" at [[Cincinnati|Cincinnati's]] [[Crosley Field]], but, in truth, the 15-degree all-grass incline there served an entirely different purpose as an alternative to an all dirt warning track found in most other ballparks. It was a natural feature of the site on which Crosley Field and its predecessors were located; slightly less severe inclines were deliberately built in center and right fields to compensate. The incline in center field of [[Minute Maid Park]] has been considered a tribute to Duffy's Cliff.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/articles/2005/10/25/a_baseball_showcase_in_football_land/|title=www.boston.com/sports/baseball/articles/2005/10/25/a_baseball_showcase_in_football_land/<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
As part of the 1934 remodeling of the ballpark, the bleachers and the wall itself, Red Sox owner [[Tom Yawkey]] arranged to flatten the ground along the base of the wall, so that Duffy's Cliff no longer existed, and thus became part of the lore of Fenway Park. Thus the base of the left field wall is several feet below the grade level of Lansdowne Street, accounting for the occasional rat that might spook the scoreboard operators. (''"The Fenway Project"'', ISBN 1-57940-091-4.)
For decades there was considerable debate about the true left field distance, which was posted as 315&nbsp;feet (96&nbsp;m). For years, Red Sox officials refused to remeasure the distance. Reportedly, ''[[The Boston Globe]]'' was able to sneak into Fenway Park and remeasure the line. When the paper's evidence was presented to the club in 1995, the line was finally remeasured by the Red Sox and restated at 310&nbsp;feet (94.5&nbsp;m). The companion 96 meters sign remained unchanged, until 1998, when it was corrected to 94.5 meters. A theory about the incorrect foul line distance is that the former 315&nbsp;ft (96&nbsp;m) measurement came from the Duffy's Cliff days. That measurement likely included the severity of the incline, and when the mound was leveled, the distance was never corrected.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/bos/ballpark/facts.jsp|title=boston.redsox.mlb.com/bos/ballpark/facts.jsp<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
===EMC Club===
In 1983, private suites were added to the roof behind home plate. In 1988, 610 stadium club seats enclosed in glass and named the "600 Club", were added above the home plate bandstand, replacing the existing press box. The press box was then added to the top of the 600 Club. The 1988 addition is largely credited with changing the air currents in Fenway Park to the detriment of hitters.
In 2002, the organization renamed the club seats the ".406 Club" (in honor of Ted Williams' batting average in 1941), six days after his death. (Williams is the last player to hit .400 or better to finish a season in the major leagues.)
During the 2005/06 offseason, as part of the continuing expansion efforts at Fenway Park, the existing .406 club was rebuilt. The second deck now features two open-air levels: the bottom level is the new "[[EMC Corporation|EMC]] Club" featuring 406 seats and [[Concierge|concierge services]], and above that, the State Street Pavilion, with 374 seats and a dedicated standing room area. The added seats are wider than the previous seats.
==Stadium usage==
The Red Sox's one-time cross-town rivals, the [[Atlanta Braves|Boston Braves]] used Fenway Park for the [[1914 World Series]] and the 1915 season until [[Braves Field]] was completed.
Since 1990 (except in 2005 when, because of field work, it was held in a minor league ballpark), Fenway Park has also played host to a baseball version of Boston-area intercollegiate sports' prestigious [[Beanpot (Ice Hockey)#Other Beanpots|Beanpot]] tournament. The [[UMass Minutemen|University of Massachusetts]] joins the traditional Beanpot trio of Boston College, Harvard University, and Northeastern University in the four-team tournament.
Beginning in 2006, the Red Sox have hosted the "[[Futures at Fenway]]" event, where two of their minor-league affiliates play a regular-season doubleheader as the "home" teams. In 2006, the [[Lowell Spinners]] and [[Pawtucket Red Sox]] played, with both winning. The 2007 event featured Lowell and the [[Portland Sea Dogs]] as the two featured farm clubs, again with both teams winning. Before the Futures day started, the most recent minor-league game held at Fenway had been the [[Eastern League (U.S. baseball)|Eastern League]] All-Star Game in 1977.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/content/printer_friendly/bos/y2005/m12/d15/c1282437.jsp|title=boston.redsox.mlb.com/content/printer_friendly/bos/y2005/m12/d15/c1282437.jsp<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>
The 2009 [[ACC Baseball Tournament|Atlantic Coast Conference]] baseball tournament was scheduled to be held at Fenway Park, but a scheduling conflict has caused the 2010 tournament to be scheduled at Fenway Park instead.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://bostonherald.com/sports/college/general/view/2008_09_11_Fenway_Park_on_hold_for_ACC_tourney|title=ACC Tourney on Hold}}</ref> Due to economic reasons, the ACC elected to move the 2010 tournament from Fenway Park to NewBridge Bank Park in Greensboro, NC, but is still looking to host a tournament at Fenway Park in the future.<ref name="ACC Tourney on Hold">{{cite web|url=http://www.theacc.com/sports/m-basebl/spec-rel/050509aaa.html|title=bostonherald.com/sports/college/general/view/2008_09_11_Fenway_Park_on_hold_for_ACC_tourney|title=ACC Tourney on Hold}}</ref>
Fenway Park is currently the smallest stadium in the Majors; just smaller than [[PNC Park]] in Pittsburgh.
Despite its relatively small size, Fenway Park's [[oblong|oblong-esque]] layout actually makes it a reasonably viable facility for various forms of football.
In 1926, the [[AFL I|first American Football League's]] [[Boston Bulldogs (AFL)|Boston Bulldogs]] played at both Fenway and [[Braves Field]]; the [[Boston Shamrocks (AFL)|Boston Shamrocks]] of [[AFL II|the second AFL]] did the same in 1936 and 1937. The [[National Football League|National Football League's]] [[Washington Redskins|Boston Redskins]] (later becoming the Washington Redskins) played at Fenway for four seasons, 1933 to 1936, after playing their inaugural season in 1932 at [[Braves Field]] as the Boston Braves; the [[Boston Yanks]] (now the Indianapolis Colts) played there in the 1940s; and the [[American Football League|American Football League's]] [[New England Patriots|Boston Patriots]] called Fenway Park home from 1963 to 1968 after moving there from [[Nickerson Field]], the direct descendant of Braves Field. At various times in the past, [[Dartmouth College]], [[Boston College]] and [[Boston University]] teams have also played football games at Fenway Park.
===Other sports===
On May 30, 1931, 8,000 fans came out to Fenway Park to see the [[New York Yankees (soccer)|New York Yankees]] of the [[American Soccer League]] beat [[Celtic F.C.|Celtic]] 4&ndash;3. The Yankees goalkeeper, [[Johnny Reder]], would later return to play for the [[Boston Red Sox]]. Fenway Park was also used by the [[North American Soccer League|NASL]] team, [[Boston Beacons]], as their home field for the 1968 season.
The [[National Hockey League]] has given the [[Boston Bruins]] permission to host a [[NHL Winter Classic|Winter Classic]] game at Fenway Park on January 1, 2010, against the [[Philadelphia Flyers]]. The [[2010 NHL Winter Classic|2010 Winter Classic]] will be the third in the NHL's current series of [[New Year's Day]] games.<ref name="Flyers in Winter Classic">{{cite web|url=http://www.philly.com/philly/sports/homepage/49025696.html?cmpid=15585797/|title=Sources: Flyers will play at Fenway Park|last=Moran|first=Ed|date=June 24, 2009|publisher=[[Philadelphia Daily News]]|accessdate=2009-07-17}}</ref> Bruins, Red Sox and city officials made the official announcement on July 15, 2009 at an impromptu stage constructed over the Red Sox dugout along the first base line of Fenway Park. The NHL anticipates a more than week-long event surrounding the game to include events at [[TD Garden]], the Bruins home venue, as well and public skating and additional games possibly involving men's and women's college teams from [[Boston College]] and [[Boston University]] at Fenway Park.<ref name="nhl-rosen">{{cite web|url=http://www.nhl.com/ice/news.htm?id=442699|title=Flyers-Bruins to hit the ice at Boston's Fenway Park|last=Rosen|first=Dan|date=July 15, 2009|publisher=NHL.com|accessdate=2009-07-17}}</ref>
===Non-sporting events===
Irish rebel and future President of [[Ireland]], [[Eamonn_De_Valera|Éamon de Valera]] addressed Boston's Irish asking for their support in the effort to form an Irish republic before a crowd of 40,000 at Fenway Park on June 29, 1919.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=dnudkswMjAwC&pg=PA37&lpg=PA37&dq=de+valera+fenway&source=bl&ots=PMyEs9SNrq&sig=EaveIxMplob9SMMdZSl02bj9BBY&hl=en&ei=FxrpSbGJLpm4sgPf6ZjqAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPA37,M1|title=Hidden History of the Boston Irish|By Peter F. Stevens}}</ref> [[President of the United States|President]] [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] gave the last campaign speech of his political career at Fenway Park in 1944.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/print.php?pid=16468 |title=Franklin D. Roosevelt: Address at Fenway Park, Boston, Massachusetts. - November 4, 1944 |accessdate=2008-09-08 |publisher=University of California at Santa Barbara }}</ref><ref>{{cite book| last = Black| first = Conrad| authorlink = Conrad Black| title = Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Champion of Freedom| publisher = [[PublicAffairs]]| year = 2003| url = http://books.google.com/books?id=GL3DaSEZO34C&printsec=frontcover#PPA1018| pages = 1018| isbn = 1586481843 }}</ref>
Although Fenway Park was not previously a frequent venue for [[concerts]], the Red Sox new ownership has used the venue for two concerts each year, starting in 2003 with [[Bruce Springsteen|Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band's]] [[The Rising Tour]], the first major concert since 1973 when there were concerts on consecutive evenings with [[Stevie Wonder]] and [[Ray Charles]] as the headliners. Following Springsteen were [[Jimmy Buffett]] in 2004, and [[The Rolling Stones]] who kicked off their 2005 [[A Bigger Bang Tour]] with two consecutive shows at Fenway Park. On July 7&ndash;8, 2006 the [[Dave Matthews Band]] played at the stadium, with [[Sheryl Crow]]. In the summer of 2007, [[The Police]] played two of their shows on their 30th anniversary reunion tour at Fenway. [[Neil Diamond]] announced a concert at Fenway Park on August 23, 2008 as part of his world tour, on the big screen during the Red Sox home opener on April 8.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2008/04/08/neil_diamond_to_perform_at_fenway_park/ |title=Neil Diamond to perform at Fenway Park |publisher=[[Boston.com]] |date=2008-04-08 |accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> In March 2009, the [[Dave Matthews Band]] announced they will be playing two nights at Fenway on May 29 & May 30, with [[Willie Nelson]] as the opening act both nights. On April 6, 2009, improvisational rock band [[Phish]] announced<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.phish.com/tourdates/detail.php?ID=58#date429 |title=Phish Tour Schedule for Fenway Park |publisher=[[phish.com]] |date=2009-04-06 |accessdate=2009-04-06}}</ref> a sole engagement scheduled for the 31st of May. [[Paul McCartney]] is scheduled to play at Fenway Park on August 5th and August 6th of 2009.
On September 17, 2008, Fenway Park was consecrated as a temporary federal court to host a naturalization ceremony. 3,032 immigrants from 140 countries sat in the box and loge seats along the first base line, stretching from right field in to home plate. The ceremony was led by US District Judge Patti Saris and lasted about an hour. The greatest number to become citizens were from the [[Dominican Republic]], the homeland of Red Sox slugger [[David Ortiz]] and former Red Sox outfielder [[Manny Ramirez]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2008/09/fenway_becomes.html
|title= Fenway Park becomes federal court for citizenship ceremony|accessdate= 2008-09-17 |author= Maria Sacchetti and Andrew Ryan |date= 2008-09-17|publisher= The Boston Globe}}</ref>
==Public address announcers==
[[Image:Fenway Park04.jpg|thumb|right|The press box]]
Fenway Park has had four public address announcers in the over forty years dating back to the Impossible Dream season of 1967, with veteran composer and radio announcer [[Sherm Feller]] serving for 26 of those years. The most recent announcer, [[Carl Beane]], began his career in radio in 1972 and has handled duties at Fenway since 2003.
{| class="wikitable" style="width:300px"
! Announcer
! Years
|[[Sherm Feller]]
|Leslie Sterling
|Ed Brickley
|[[Carl Beane]]
==Retired numbers==
[[File:Fenway_retired_numbers.jpg|thumb|right|Retired numbers along Fenway Park's right field roof at dusk.]]
|Image = BosRet06.png
|Name = Johnny Pesky
|Number = 6
|Team = Boston Red Sox
|Year = 2008
There are seven [[List of Major League Baseball retired numbers|retired numbers]] above the right field grandstand. All of the numbers retired by the Red Sox are red on a white circle. [[Jackie Robinson]]'s 42, which was retired by Major League Baseball, is blue on a white circle. The two are further delineated through the font difference; Boston numbers are in the same style as the Red Sox jerseys, while Robinson's number is in the more traditional "block" numbering found on the Dodgers jerseys.
Until the late 1990s, the numbers originally hung on the right-field facade in the order in which they were retired: 9-4-1-8. It was pointed out that the numbers, when read as a date (9/4/18), marked the eve of the first game of the 1918 World Series, the last championship series that the Red Sox won before 2004. After the facade was repainted, the numbers were rearranged in numerical order.
The Red Sox policy on retiring uniform numbers was once one of the most stringent in baseball&mdash;the player had to be elected to the [[National Baseball Hall of Fame]], play at least 10 years with the team, and retire as a member of the Red Sox. The final requirement was waived for Carlton Fisk as he had finished his playing career with the [[Chicago White Sox]]. However, Fisk was assigned a Red Sox front office job and effectively "finished" his baseball career with the Red Sox in this manner. In 2008, the current ownership relaxed the requirements further with the retirement of [[Johnny Pesky]]'s number 6. Pesky has not been inducted into the Hall of Fame, but in light of his over fifty years of service to the club, the management made an exception.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2008/09/24/pesky_makes_honor_roll/ |publisher=The Boston Globe |author=Vega, Michael |date=2008-09-24 |accessdate=2008-09-25 |title=Pesky makes honor roll}}</ref> The latest number retired was 14, worn by [[Jim Rice]]. Rice met the original requirements, retiring as a Red Sox after playing sixteen seasons and entering the Hall of Fame in 2009.<ref name="dzen-rice14retired">{{cite web|url=http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/extras/extra_bases/2009/07/sox_to_retire_r.html|title=Sox to retire Rice's number|last=Dzen|first=Gary|date=July 22, 2009|publisher=The [[Boston Globe]]|accessdate=2009-07-23}}</ref>
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%"
|colspan=6 style="text-align:center"|'''Red Sox Retired Numbers'''<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.baseball-almanac.com/feats/feats10.shtml |title=Retired Uniform Numbers in the American League |publisher=Baseball Almanac |accessdate=2008-09-26}}</ref>
! Number
! Player
! Position
! Red Sox Years
! Date Retired
! Notes
|align="center" style="color:#ed171f; background-color:#fff;"|'''1'''
|[[Bobby Doerr]]
|1937&ndash;44, 46&ndash;51
|US Army, 1945
|align="center" style="color:#ed171f; background-color:#fff;"|'''4'''
|[[Joe Cronin]]
|align="center" style="color:#ed171f; background-color:#fff;"|'''6'''
|[[Johnny Pesky]]
|SS, 3B, 2B
|1942, 46&ndash;52
|US Navy, 1943&ndash;45
|align="center" style="color:#ed171f; background-color:#fff;"|'''8'''
|[[Carl Yastrzemski]]
|LF, 3B, 1B
|align="center" style="color:#ed171f; background-color:#fff;"|'''9'''
|[[Ted Williams]]
|1939&ndash;42, 46&ndash;60
|US Marines, 1943&ndash;45, 52&ndash;53
|align="center" style="color:#ed171f; background-color:#fff;"|'''14'''
|[[Jim Rice]]
|align="center" style="color:#ed171f; background-color:#fff;"|'''27'''
|[[Carlton Fisk]]
|1969, 71&ndash;80
|align="center" style="color:#083884; background-color:#fff;"|'''42'''
|[[Jackie Robinson]]
|colspan=4 align="center"|[[Brooklyn Dodgers]] 1947-1956, retired by Major League Baseball 1997-04-15
==Ground rules==
(all ground rules based on<ref>{{cite web|url=http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/bos/ballpark/groundrules.jsp|title=The Official Site of The Boston Red Sox: Ballpark: Ground Rules<!-- Bot generated title -->}}</ref>)
*Foul poles are inside the field of play.
*A ball going through the scoreboard, either on the bounce or fly, is a [[ground rule double]].
*A fly ball striking left-center field wall to right of or on the line behind the flag pole is a home run.
*A fly ball striking wall or flag pole and bouncing into bleachers is a home run.
*A fly ball striking line or right of same on wall in center is a home run.
*A fly ball striking wall left of line and bouncing into bullpen is a home run.
*A ball sticking in the bullpen screen or bouncing into the bullpen is a ground rule double.
*A batted or thrown ball remaining behind or under canvas or in tarp cylinder is a ground rule double.
*A fly ball that strikes the top of the ladder on the Green Monster and then bounces out of play is two bases.
*A fly ball that lands above the red line on top of the Green Monster and bounces onto the field of play is ruled a home run.
==Access and transportation==
*Fenway Park can be reached by the [[Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority]] (MBTA) [[Green Line (MBTA)|Green Line]] subway's [[Kenmore (MBTA station)|Kenmore Station]] on the "B", "C" & "D" branches, as well as the [[Fenway (MBTA station)|Fenway Station]] on the "D" branch.<ref name="access-subway">{{cite web|url=http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/bos/ballpark/directions_subway.jsp|title=Directions to Fenway Park - Subway|publisher=redsox.com|accessdate=2009-07-16}}</ref>
*[[Yawkey (MBTA station)|Yawkey Station]] is served by the MBTA [[Framingham/Worcester Line]] commuter rail trains.<ref name="access-yawkey">{{cite web|url=http://www.mbta.com/schedules_and_maps/rail/lines/stations/?stopId=239|title=MBTA Schedules and Maps - Commuter Rail - Yawkey|publisher=[[Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority]]|accessdate=2009-07-16}}</ref>
*Although the [[Massachusetts Turnpike]] passes close to Fenway Park there is no direct connection. Motorists are directed to use local streets or [[Storrow Drive]] to access the park.<ref name="access-auto">{{cite web|url=http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/bos/ballpark/directions_automobile.jsp|title=Directions to Fenway Park - Automobile|publisher=redsox.com|accessdate=2009-07-16}}</ref>
==External links==
{{Commonscat|Fenway Park}}
*[http://www.ballparkdigest.com/visits/index.html?article_id=795 Fenway Park info, including information on visiting]
*[http://www.ballparks.com/baseball/american/fenway.htm Fenway Park facts, photos, statistics and trivia]
*[http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/bos/ballpark/history.jsp Boston Ballpark History]. ''MLB.com''.
*[http://www.andrewclem.com/Baseball/FenwayPark.html Fenway Park dynamic diagram] at Clem's Baseball
*[http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=42.346458,-71.097261&spn=0.005536,0.007693&t=k&hl=en Google Maps Aerial view]
*[http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/NASApp/mlb/bos/ballpark/minifenway/index.jsp Mini-Fenway Park]
{{succession box
| title = Home of the [[Boston Red Sox]]
| years = 1912 &ndash; present
| before = [[Huntington Avenue Grounds]]
| after = Current
{{succession box
| title = Home of the [[Atlanta Braves|Boston Braves]]
| years = 1914 &ndash; 1915
| before = [[South End Grounds]]
| after = [[Braves Field]]
{{succession box
| title = Home of the [[Washington Redskins|Boston Redskins]]
| years = 1933 &ndash; 1936
| before = Braves Field
| after = [[Griffith Stadium]]
{{succession box
| title = Home of the [[New England Patriots|Boston Patriots]]
| years = 1963 &ndash; 1968
| before = [[Nickerson Field]]
| after = [[Alumni Stadium]]
{{succession box |
before = [[Forbes Field]]<br />[[Candlestick Park]]<br />[[Coors Field]]|
after = [[Wrigley Field]]<br />[[Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium|RFK Stadium]]<br />[[Turner Field]]|
title = Host of the [[Major League Baseball All-Star Game|All-Star Game]] |
years = {{Baseball Year|1946}}<br />{{Baseball Year|1961}}<br />{{Baseball Year|1999}}|
{{succession box
| title = Host of the [[NHL Winter Classic]]
| years = [[2010 NHL Winter Classic|2010]]
| before = [[Wrigley Field]]
| after = TBD
{{end box}}
{{Atlanta Braves}}
{{Boston Red Sox}}
{{Boston Yanks}}
{{New England Patriots}}
{{Washington Redskins}}
{{MLB Ballparks}}
{{AFL I}}
{{AFL II}}
{{NHL Winter Classic}}
[[Category:1912 establishments]]
[[Category:American Football League venues]]
[[Category:Boston Red Sox]]
[[Category:American Football League (1926) venues]]
[[Category:Defunct National Football League venues]]
[[Category:Landmarks in Boston, Massachusetts]]
[[Category:Major League Baseball venues]]
[[Category:Sports venues in Boston, Massachusetts]]
[[Category:Baseball venues in the United States]]
[[Category:Jewel Box parks]]
[[Category:National Hockey League venues]]
[[Category:Temporary National Hockey League venues]]
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[[is:Fenway Park]]
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[[he:פנוויי פארק]]
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Revision as of 21:59, 31 July 2009

I want to be blocked . Could I please be for 24 hours.