Ferae

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Ferans
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous - present
Pangolin borneo.jpg
Pangolin
Serengeti Lion 1.jpg
Lion
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Clade: Fereuungulata
(unranked): Ferae
Orders

The Ferae are a clade of mammals, consisting of the orders Carnivora (over 260 species, around the globe) and Pholidota (eight species of pangolins in tropical Africa and Asia). Pangolins do not look much like carnivorans (wolves, cats, seals, and so on), and were thought to be the closest relatives of Xenarthra (armadillos, sloths, and so on), but recent DNA research found the close relationship to carnivorans. Several extinct orders, relatives of the Pholidota, such as Creodonts[1], are members of Ferae as well. An alternate name, Ostentoria, has also been proposed for a grouping of the Carnivora and Pholidota.[2]

According to recent studies (reflected in the diagram below), the closest relatives of Ferae are Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinos) and Cetartiodactyla (which combines Artiodactyla—camels, pigs, ruminants and hippos—with Cetacea—whales and dolphins).[3][4] An alternate phylogeny (less supported) holds that the closest relatives to the Ferae are the Perissodactyla and Chiroptera (bats), not Cetartiodactyla.[5] Ferae together with Perissodactyla has been called Zooamata. Ferae, Perissodactyla, and Chiroptera together has been called Pegasoferae.

Boreoeutheria
Laurasiatheria

 Eulipotyphla (hedgehogs, shrews, moles, solenodons)Puerto Rican shrew.jpg


Scrotifera

 Chiroptera (bats and flying foxes) Flying fox at botanical gardens in Sydney (cropped and flipped).jpg


Fereuungulata
Ferae

 Pholidota (pangolins) Manis javanica - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - UBA01 IZ21000019.tif



 Carnivora (cats, hyenas, dogs, bears, seals) Crocuta crocuta sideview.jpg  Lion de mer Amnéville 01.jpg



Euungulata

 Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, rhinos) Hartmann zebra hobatere S.jpg



 Cetartiodactyla (camels, pigs, ruminants, hippos, whales) Walia ibex illustration white background.png Parc Asterix 20.jpg







 Euarchontoglires (primates, colugos, treeshrews, rodents, rabbits) Ring tail lemur leaping.JPG



References[edit]

  1. ^ Halliday, Thomas J. D.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali (2015). "Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals". Biological Reviews: n/a–n/a. ISSN 1464-7931. doi:10.1111/brv.12242. 
  2. ^ Amrine-madsen, H.; Koepfli, K.P.; Wayne, R.K.; Springer, M.S. (2003). "A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, provides compelling evidence for eutherian relationships". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 28 (2): 225–240. PMID 12878460. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00118-0. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  3. ^ Beck, Robin MD; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf RP; Cardillo, Marcel; Liu, Fu-Guo; Purvis, Andy (13 November 2006). "A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 6 (1): 93. PMC 1654192Freely accessible. PMID 17101039. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-93. 
  4. ^ Zhou, X.; et al. (2011). "Phylogenomic analysis resolves the interordinal relationships and rapid diversification of the Laurasiatherian mammals". Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 150–64. PMC 3243735Freely accessible. PMID 21900649. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr089. Retrieved 3 October 2011.  (Advance Access; published online 7 September 2011)
  5. ^ Nishihara, H.; Hasegawa, M; Okada, N (2006). "Pegasoferae, an unexpected mammalian clade revealed by tracking ancient retroposon insertions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (26): 9929–34. PMC 1479866Freely accessible. PMID 16785431. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603797103.