A feral cat is an un-owned domestic cat (Felis catus) that lives outdoors and avoids human contact: it does not allow itself to be handled or touched, and usually remains hidden from humans. Feral cats may breed over dozens of generations and become an aggressive apex predator in urban, savannah and bushland environments. Some feral cats may become more comfortable with people who regularly feed them, but even with long-term attempts at socialization, they usually remain aloof and are most active after dusk.
Feral cats are devastating to wildlife, and conservation biologists consider them to be one of the worst invasive species on Earth. Attempts to control feral cat populations are widespread but generally of greatest impact within purpose-fenced reserves.
Some animal-rights groups advocate trap-neuter-return programs to prevent the cats from continuing to breed, as well as feeding the cats, socializing and adopting out young kittens, and providing healthcare. Others advocate euthanasia. Feral cats may live outdoors in colonies: these are regarded as managed colonies by animal rights advocates when they are provided with regular food and care by humans.
The meaning of the term feral cat varies between professions and countries, and is sometimes used interchangeably with other terms such as free-roaming, street, alley, or community cat. Some of these terms are also used to refer to stray cats, although stray and feral cats are generally considered to be different by rescuers, veterinarians, and researchers. The lines between stray and feral cat are diffuse. The general idea is that owned cats that wander away from their homes may become stray cats, and stray cats that have lived in the wild for some time may become feral.
In the United Kingdom, a feral cat is defined as a cat that chooses not to interact with humans, survives with or without human assistance, and hides or defends itself when trapped rather than allowing itself to be handled. Animal rescuers and veterinarians consider cats to be feral when they had not had much human contact particularly before eight weeks of age, avoid humans, and prefer to escape rather than attack a human. Feral cats are distinguished from domesticated cats based on their levels of socialization, ownership, and confinement, and on the amount of fear of, interaction with, and dependence upon humans. However, veterinarians and rescuers disagreed on whether a feral cat would tend to hiss and spit at or attack a human during an encounter, and disagreed on whether adult feral cats could potentially be tamed.
In Italy, feral cats have been protected since 1991, and it is illegal to kill them. In Rome, they are surgically neutered by veterinarians of the Veterinary Public Services. Programs for sterilization of stray cats are also implemented in the Padua and Venice Provinces.
A survey of rescue and veterinarian facilities in the United States revealed that no widely accepted definition of a feral cat exists. Many facilities used waiting periods to evaluate whether a cat was feral by observing whether the cat became less afraid and evasive over time. Other indicators included the cat's response to touch with an inanimate object, and observation of the cats' social behavior in varying environments such as response to human contact, with a human nearby, or when moved to a quieter environment. The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals defines community cats as either cats that were born and raised in the wild, or domestic cats that have been abandoned or lost and turned feral in order to survive.
The Australian government categorizes cats who have no interaction with or assistance from humans as feral, and unowned cats who rely on humans as semi-feral or stray. However, even these so-called 'managed colonies' often have a devastating impact on wildlife as demonstrated in the decimation of native mammals in adjacent reserves, such as occurred with numbats and woylies in Western Australia.
A farm cat is a free-ranging domestic cat that lives in a cat colony on agricultural farms in a feral or semi-feral condition. Farm cats primarily live outdoors and usually shelter in barns. They are partially supplied with food and milk, but mainly subsist on hunting rodents such as black rat, brown rat, common vole and Apodemus species. In England, farm cat colonies are present on the majority of farms and consist of up to 30 cats. Female farm cats show allomothering behaviour; they use communal nests and take care of kittens of other colony members.
Some animal rescue organizations maintain Barn Cat Programs and rehome neutered feral cats to people who are looking for barn cats.
Domestic cats have been members of ship crews since the beginning of commercial navigation. Phoenician and Etruscan traders probably carried cats on board their trading vessels to Italy and the Mediterranean islands.
Cats in ancient Egypt were venerated for killing rodents and venomous snakes. The need to keep rodents from consuming or contaminating grain crops stored for later human consumption may be the original reason that cats were domesticated. The spread of cats throughout much of the world is thought to have originated in Egypt. Scientists do not agree on whether cats were domesticated in Ancient Egypt or introduced there after domestication. Phoenician traders brought them to Europe for control of rat populations, and monks brought them further into Asia. Roman armies also contributed spreading cats and eventually brought them to Britain. Since then, cats continued to be introduced to new countries, often by sailors or settlers. Cats are thought to have been introduced to Australia in either the 1600s by Dutch shipwrecks, or the late 1700s by English settlers. These domesticated cats began to form feral populations after their offspring began living away from human contact.
- Felis lybica var sarda proposed by Fernand Lataste in 1885 was a skin and a skull of a male cat from Sarrabus in Sardinia that looked like an African wildcat (Felis lybica), but was more reddish, gray and brown and had longer hair on the back. In the 1980s, Colin Groves assessed values of Schauenberg's index of cat skulls of zoological specimens that originated in the Mediterranean islands. Based on these values, he concluded that Sardinian wild cats are descendants of African wildcats that were introduced from North Africa's Maghreb region. Results of zooarchaeological research indicate that Sardinian wild cats descended from domestic cats that were introduced around the beginning of the first millennium during the Roman Empire, and probably originated in the Near East.
- Felis reyi proposed by Louis Lavauden in 1929 was a skin and a skull of a specimen from Biguglia in Corsica that was smaller and darker than the European wildcat (Felis silvestris), had a much shorter tail than the African wildcat and differed in fur colour and markings from both. When Reginald Innes Pocock reviewed Felis skins in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London, he considered Felis reyi a synonym of Felis lybica sarda, the Sardinian wild cat. The Corsican wildcat is considered to have been introduced in the early first millennium. The earliest known fossil records of cats date to the early 14th century, but older chronostratigraphic layers revealed fossils of livestock introduced since the Iron Age.
- Felis lybica jordansi proposed by Ernst Schwarz in 1930 was a skull and skin of a male specimen from Santa Margarita in Mallorca that had more pronounced stripes than the African wildcat. This is also considered to have descended from domestic cats introduced to the island.
- Felis silvestris cretensis proposed by Theodor Haltenorth in 1953 was a cat skin purchased in a bazaar in Chania that resembled an African wildcat, but had a bushy tail like a European wildcat. Groves considered the Cretan wildcat an introduced feral cat.
Distribution and habitat
The feral cat is the most widely distributed terrestrial carnivore. It occurs between 55° North and 54.3° South latitudes in a wide range of climatic zones and islands in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, and the Mediterranean Sea, including Canary Islands, Port-Cros, Dassen Island, Marion Island, Juan de Nova Island, Réunion, Hahajima, Okinawa Island, Raoul Island, Herekopare Island, Stewart Island, Macquarie Island, Galápagos Islands, San Clemente Island, Isla Natividad, San José Island, and New Island. Feral cat colonies also occur on the Japanese islands of Ainoshima, Hahajima and Aoshima, Ehime. The feral cat population on the Hawaiian Islands is mainly of European origin and probably arrived in the 19th century on ships.
Behavior and ecology
Some behaviors of feral cats are commonly observed, although there is disagreement among veterinarians, rescuers and researchers on the prevalence of some. In a free-roaming environment, feral cats avoid humans. They do not allow themselves to be handled or touched by humans, and back away or run when they are able to do so. If trapped, they hiss, growl, bare their teeth, or strike out. They remain fairly hidden from humans and will not approach, although some feral cats gradually become more comfortable around humans who feed them regularly.
Most feral cats have small home ranges, although some are more transient and travel long distances. The home ranges of male feral cats, which are generally two or three times larger than those of female cats, are on average under 10 ha (25 acres), but can vary from almost 300 ha (740 acres) to under 1 ha (2.5 acres). This variance is often due to breeding season, access to females, whether the cat is neutered, age, time of day, and availability of prey.
Feral cats often live in groups called colonies, which are located close to food sources and shelter. Researchers disagree on the existence, extent, and structure of dominance hierarchies among feral cats in colonies. Different types of hierarchies have been observed in colonies, including despotic and linear hierarchies. Some colonies are organized in more complex structures, such as relative hierarchies, where social status of individual cats varies, depending on location, time of day, or the activity the cats are engaged in, particularly feeding and mating.
A 'managed colony' is taken care of by humans who supply food and water to the cats, provide shelters and veterinary care, implement trap-neuter-return programs, find foster homes for cats that can be socialized for eventual adoption, and educate people in the neighborhood.
Feral kittens can be trapped and socialized, then adopted into a home. The age at which a kitten becomes difficult to socialize is not agreed upon, but suggestions generally range from seven weeks to four months of age. Although older cats can sometimes be socialized, it is a very long and difficult process, and the cat rarely becomes friendly and may remain fearful.
In a 2013 study with British participants, rescuers tended to be more willing than veterinarians to attempt to tame adult feral cats. Veterinarians tended to be more opposed to this practice, with some expressing concerns for the welfare of such a cat in a home environment. In a 2010 interview survey with veterinarians and rescuers in the United States, 66% of respondents had socialization programs for kittens, and 8% for adult cats.
Feral cats are either mesopredators (mid-ranking predators) or apex predators (top predators) in local ecosystems. They prey on a wide variety of both vertebrates and invertebrates, and typically prefer smaller animals with body weights under 100 g (3.5 oz), particularly mammals, birds, and lizards. Their global prey spectrum encompasses over 1,000 species; the most commonly observed were the house mouse, European rabbit, black rat, house sparrow, and common blackbird. In Australia, they prey on introduced species like the European rabbit and house mouse, and on native rodents and marsupials, particularly the common ringtail possum.
Although some people advocate for feral cats as a means to control pigeons and invasive rodents like the house mouse and brown rat, these cosmopolitan species co-evolved with cats in human-disturbed environments, and so have an advantage over native rodents in evading cat predation. Studies in California showed that 67% of the mice killed by cats were native species, and that areas near feral cat colonies actually have larger house mouse populations, but fewer birds and native rodents.:2
Life span and survival
Without human assistance
Without human assistance, feral kittens are expected to have a high death rate, with approximately 50% dying within the first year.:45 Of cats who survive kittenhood, the average life span of a feral cat without human care is less than two years.
However, adult feral cats without human assistance have been found in surprisingly good condition. In Florida, a study of feral cats admitted to a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program concluded that "euthanasia for debilitated cats for humane reasons is rarely necessary". A further study of over 100,000 community cats (feral and stray) admitted to TNR programs in diverse locations of the U.S. resulted in the same 0.4% rate of euthanasia for debilitating conditions. The body condition of feral cats entering a TNR program in Florida was described as "generally lean but not emaciated". However, many community cats had suffered from parasites such as fleas and ear mites before entering TNR programs.
With human assistance
Feral cats in managed colonies can live long lives. A number of cats in managed colonies in the United Kingdom died of old age.:522
A long-term study of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program on a university campus in Central Florida found that, despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, 83% of the cats studied had been present for more than six years, with almost half first observed as adults of unknown age. The authors compared this result to a 1984 study that found the mean life span for domesticated cats was 7.1 years.
Feral cats, as with all cats, are susceptible to diseases and infections including rabies, bartonellosis, toxoplasmosis, feline panleukopenia virus, external and internal parasites, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), rickettsial diseases, ringworm, and feline respiratory disease complex (a group of respiratory illnesses including feline herpesvirus type 1, feline calicivirus, Chlamydophila felis, and Mycoplasma haemofelis).
Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus belong to the Retroviridae family, and both cause immunosuppression in cats, which can increase their susceptibility to other infections. Research has shown that the prevalence of these viruses among feral cat populations is low and is similar to prevalence rates for owned cats in the United States.
Researchers studying 553 feral cats in North Florida in the United States tested them for a number of infections that could be detrimental to feline or human health. The study found the most prevalent infection to be Bartonella henselae, the cause of cat-scratch disease in humans, with 33.6% of the cats testing positive. Feline coronavirus was the next most common infection, found in 18.3% of the cats, although they noted that the antibody levels were low in most of the cats who tested positive, and concluded that the cats they tested did not appear to be a greater risk for shedding the virus than pet cats. Researchers studying 96 feral cats on Prince Edward Island in Canada found that feline roundworm was the most common infection in cats in that colony, afflicting 34% of cats. This was followed by Toxoplasma gondii, which was detected in 29.8% of cats, although only one cat of the 78 for whom fecal samples were available was shedding T. gondii oocysts. They did note that most fecal samples collected indicated the presence of one intestinal parasite, with some samples indicating the presence of multiple parasites.
Transmission to humans
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has warned about the rabies risk associated with feral cats. With 16% of people infected with rabies from exposure to rabid cats, cats have been the primary animals responsible for transmission of the virus to humans in the United States since the efforts to control rabies in dogs in the 1970s. In 2010, there were 303 rabid cats reported within the United States. Although some colony management programs involve administering rabies vaccines, the need to revaccinate every few years makes this challenging to maintain. Furthermore, lack of documentation can mean that contact with vaccinated feral cats may still require post-exposure treatment.
The study of feral cats on Prince Edward Island warned of "considerable zoonotic risk" for transmission of intestinal parasites. Although the authors noted that their study did not provide evidence for great risk associated with T. gondii in cats, they advised that the risk should still be considered, as the infection in humans can cause significant health problems, and cats who are not otherwise transmitting the infection can begin shedding the virus in times of stress.
Control and management
Feral cats are controlled or managed by various agencies to manage disease, for the protection of native wildlife and to protect their welfare. Control of feral cats can be managed through trapping and euthanasia or other forms of lethal control, or through trap-neuter-return (TNR).
Trap-neuter-return involves trapping feral cats, vaccinating, spaying or neutering them, and then returning them to the place where there were originally trapped. In addition to the vaccinations and spay/neuter, cats may receive other medical care, such as dental care and parasite treatment. TNR programs are prevalent in several countries, including England, Italy, Canada, and the United States, and are supported by many local and state governments. Proponents of TNR argue that it is effective in stopping reproduction and reducing the population over time. TNR results in fewer complaints, as nuisance behaviors diminish following neutering,:16 and the quality of life of the cats is improved.:1359 The practice is reported to save money:294 and garner more public support and better morale than efforts that involve killing cats.:297:49
The International Companion Animal Management Coalition advocates for TNR as a humane method of controlling feral cat populations. In the U.S., the practice is endorsed by the Humane Society of the United States and the National Animal Control Association. While the United States Department of Defense does not formally advocate TNR, it provides information to military installations on how to implement TNR programs, with the main message that population control programs must be humane.
In 2011, an Australian study emphasised the need to monitor the effects of culling programs after infrared cameras found that the culling of feral cats led to an increase in feral cat populations in the culled areas. It was thought that only dominant cats were being baited and trapped during such operations. After the removal of dominant cats, there was an influx of subordinate animals to the area which unlike the dominant cats, did not venture into the traps. Within a year cat numbers in culled areas stabilised to original numbers.
The effectiveness of both trap-and-euthanise and TNR programmes is largely dependent upon controlling immigration of cats into cleared or controlled areas; where immigration of new cats is controlled both techniques can be effective. However where immigration is not controlled culling is more effective. Comparisons of different techniques have also found that trap-and-euthanise programmes are half the cost of TNR ones. An analysis of both techniques in Hawaii suggested they are less effective when new cats were introduced by the abandonment of pets. The usefulness of TNR is disputed by some scientists and conservation specialists, who argue that TNR is primarily an animal welfare issue and ignores the ongoing damage done by neutered cats in the wild. Some conservation scientists question the effectiveness of TNR at controlling numbers of feral cats. Some studies that have supported TNR have also been criticised for using anecdotal data to evaluate their effectiveness.
Effects on wildlife
In the United States, free-ranging cats kill 1 to 4 billion birds and 6 to 22 billion mammals annually.
In Australia, domestic cats were introduced in the 1800s to settlements that had developed near gold mining sites and farms as a pest control strategy to decimate rabbits, mice, and rats. Feral cats kill on average one million reptiles each day. It has been estimated that they kill more than 800 million mammals annually, of which 56% are native species.
Impact on prey species
To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates. Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial. Feral cats can threaten native species with extinction. In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals. The ecological role of introduced cats may be more complicated. They control the rat population, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.
Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats. Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many species. In Hawaii's remote, mountainous areas, they destroy the nests of seabirds including Newell's shearwater (Puffinus newelli) and the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis).
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations (such as tall grass) are kept under control. While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.
Hybridisation with wildcats
Feral cats have interbred with wildcats to various extents throughout the world, the first reported case occurring more than 200 years ago. The significance of hybridisation is disputed. Modern genetic analysis revealed that the African wildcat is the ancestor of the domestic cat.
Pure Scottish wildcats are unlikely to exist, but the current wildcat population is distinct enough from domestic cats to be worth protecting. High levels of hybridisation have led to difficulties in distinguishing pure wildcats from feral and domestic cats, which can complicate conservation efforts. Trap-neuter-return programs have been established to prevent hybridisation.
- Liberg, O.; Sandell, M.; Pontier, D.; Natoli, E. (2014). "Density, spatial organisation and reproductive tactics in the domestic cat and other felids". In Turner, D. C.; Bateson, P. (eds.). The domestic cat: the biology of its behaviour (Third ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 119–147. ISBN 9781107025028.
- Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Sullivan, L. M. (2009). "Critical Assessment of Claims Regarding Management of Feral Cats by Trap-Neuter-Return" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 23 (4): 887–894. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01174.x. PMID 19245489. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Gosling, L.; Stavisky, J.; Dean, R. (2013). "What is a feral cat?: Variation in definitions may be associated with different management strategies". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 15 (9): 759–764. doi:10.1177/1098612X13481034. PMID 23966002. S2CID 28188116.
A feral cat is a cat that is unapproachable in its free-roaming environment and is capable of surviving with or without direct human intervention, and may additionally show fearful or defensive behaviour on human contact.
- Levy, J. K. & Crawford, P. C. (2004). "Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations" (PDF). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225 (9): 1354–1360. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1354. PMID 15552308.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Natoli, E.; Maragliano, L.; Cariola, G.; Faini, A.; Bonanni, R.; Cafazzo, S.; Fantini, C. (2006). "Management of feral domestic cats in the urban environment of Rome (Italy)". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 77 (3–4): 180–185. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.06.005. PMID 17034887.
- Natale, A.; Frangipane di Regalbono, A.; Zanellato, G.; Cavalletto, M.; Danesi, P.; Capelli, G.; Pietrobelli, M. (2007). "Veterinary research communications". Parasitological Survey on Stray Cat Colonies from the Veneto Region. 31 (1): 241–244.
- Slater, M. R.; Miller, K. A.; Weiss, E.; Makolinski, K. V.; Weisbrot, L. A. M. (2010). "A survey of the methods used in shelter and rescue programs to identify feral and frightened pet cats". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 12 (8): 592–600. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2010.02.001. ISSN 1098-612X. PMID 20460192. S2CID 1245010.
- "A Closer Look at Community Cats". ASPCA. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (2011). The Feral Cat (Felis catus) (PDF) (Report). Government of Australia.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (March 2015). Feral cat (PDF) (Report). The State of Queensland.
- MacDonald, D. W.; Apps, P. J.; Carr, G. M.; Kerby, G. (1987). "Social dynamics, nursing coalitions and infanticide among farm cats, Felis catus". Ethology. 28 (Suppl): 1–64.
- Janke, N.; Berke, O.; Flockhart, T.; Bateman, S.; Coe, J. B. (2017). "Risk factors affecting length of stay of cats in an animal shelter: A case study at the Guelph Humane Society, 2011–2016". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 148: 44–48. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.10.007. PMID 29157373.
- Todd, N. B. (1977). "Cats and commerce". Scientific American. 237 (5): 100–107. Bibcode:1977SciAm.237e.100T. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1177-100.
- Faure, E.; Kitchener, A. C. (2009). "An Archaeological and Historical Review of the Relationships between Felids and People". Anthrozoös. 22 (3): 221–238. doi:10.2752/175303709X457577. S2CID 84308532.
- Langton, N.; Langton, M. B. (1940). The cat in ancient Egypt, illustrated from the collection of cat and other Egyptian figures formed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Wastlhuber, J. (1991). "History of Domestic Cats and Cat Breeds". In Pedersen, N. C.; Pratt, P. W. (eds.). Feline Husbandry: Diseases and Management in the Multiple Cat Environment. Goleta, CA: American Veterinary Publications. pp. 1−59. ISBN 978-0939674299.
- Dickman, C. R. (1996). Overview of the Impacts of Feral Cats on Australian Native Fauna (PDF) (Report). Australian Nature Conversation Agency and University of Sydney. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Groves, C. P. (1989). "Feral mammals of the Mediterranean islands: documents of early domestication". In Clutton-Brock, J. (ed.). The Walking Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation (2015 ed.). London and New York: Routledge. pp. 46–58. ISBN 9781317598381.
- Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C. & Nussberger, B. (2015). "Felis silvestris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T60354712A50652361. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T60354712A50652361.en. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11): 17−20.
- Lataste, F. (1885). "Étude de la Faune de Vertébrés de Barbarie (Algérie, Tunisie et Maroc)" [Studies on the vertebrate Fauna of the Barbary Coast (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco)]. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux. Quatrième Série. 39: 129–296.
- Vigne, J.-D. (1992). "Zooarchaeology and the biogeographical history of the mammals of Corsica and Sardinia since the last ice age" (PDF). Mammal Review. 22 (2): 87–96. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.1992.tb00124.x.
- Gippoliti, S.; Amori, G. (2006). "Ancient introductions of mammals in the Mediterranean Basin and their implications for conservation". Mammal Review. 36 (1): 37–48. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2006.00081.x.
- Lavauden, L. (1929). "Sur le Chat sauvage de la Corse" [On the Wildcat of Corsica]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences. 189 (7): 1023–1024.
- Pocock, R. I. (1951). "Felis lybica sarda Lataste". Catalogue of the Genus Felis. London: Trustees of the British Museum. pp. 52–55.
- Schwarz, E. (1930). "Die Wildkatze der Balearen". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 91: 223–224.
- Haltenorth, T. (1953). "Felis silvestris cretensis nom. nov.". Die Wildkatzen der Alten Welt: Eine Übersicht über die Gattung Felis [The wildcats of the Old World: An overview of the genus Felis]. Leipzig: Geest und Portig. pp. 29−31.
- Konecy, J. M. (1987). "Home range and activity patterns of feral house cats in the Galapagos Islands". Oikos. 50 (1): 17–23. doi:10.2307/3565397. JSTOR 3565397.
- Apps, P. J. (1983). "Aspects of the ecology of feral cats on Dassen Island, South Africa". South African Journal of Zoology. 18 (4): 353–362. doi:10.1080/02541858.1983.11447843.
- Bloomer, J. P.; Bester, M. N. (1992). "Control of feral cats on sub-Antarctic Marion Island, Indian Ocean". Biological Conservation. 60 (3): 211–219. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(92)91253-O.
- Bonnaud, E.; Bourgeois, K.; Vidal, E.; Kayser, Y.; Tranchant, Y.; Legrand, J. (2007). "Feeding Ecology of a Feral Cat Population on a Small Mediterranean Island". Journal of Mammalogy. 88 (4): 1074–1081. doi:10.1644/06-MAMM-A-031R2.1.
- Bonnaud, E.; Medina, F. M.; Vidal, E.; Nogales, M.; Tershy, B.; Zavaleta, E.; Donlan, C. J.; Keitt, B.; Le Corre, M.; Horwath, S. V. (2011). "The diet of feral cats on islands: A review and a call for more studies" (PDF). Biological Invasions. 13 (3): 581–603. doi:10.1007/s10530-010-9851-3. S2CID 12401312.
- Izawa, M.; Doi, T.; Ono, Y. (1982). "Grouping patterns of feral cats (Felis catus) living on a small island in Japan". Japanese Journal of Ecology. 32 (3): 373–382.
- Kawakami, K.; Fujita, M. (2004). "Feral cat predation on seabirds on Hahajima, the Bonin Islands, southern Japan". Ornithological Science. 3 (2): 155–158. doi:10.2326/osj.3.155.
- Vincent, E. (2015). The Feral Cat Conundrum: Assessing the Science and Ethics of Trap-Neuter-Return (Honor Scholar Thesis). DePauw University.
- Koch, K.; Algar, D.; Schwenk, K. (2016). "Feral Cat Globetrotters: genetic traces of historical human-mediated dispersal". Ecology and Evolution. 6 (15): 5321–5332. doi:10.1002/ece3.2261. PMC 4984506. PMID 27551385.
- Ayllón, T.; Diniz, P. P. V.; Breitschwerdt, E. B.; Villaescusa, A.; Rodríguez-Franco, F.; Sainz, A. (2012). "Vector-borne diseases in client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain" (PDF). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 12 (2): 143–150. doi:10.1089/vbz.2011.0729. PMID 22022820.
- Salant, H.; Spira, D. T. (2004). "A cross-sectional survey of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Jerusalem cats". Veterinary Parasitology. 124 (3–4): 167–177. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.07.011. PMID 15381297.
- Little, S. E. (2005). "Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa". The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 46 (10): 898–901. PMC 1255591. PMID 16454381.
- Alger, J. M.; Alger, S. F. (2003). "The Feral Cats and Shelter Solidarity". Cat Culture: The Social World of A Cat Shelter. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. pp. 139–154. ISBN 978-1-4399-0772-6.
- "Outdoor Cats: Frequently Asked Questions". The Humane Society of the United States. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Lepczyk, C. A.; Lohr, C. A.; Duffy, D. C. (2015). "A review of cat behavior in relation to disease risk and management options". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 173: 29–39. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2015.07.002.
- Crowell-Davis, S. L.; Curtis, T. M.; Knowles, R. J. (2004). "Social organization in the cat: A modern understanding". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 6 (1): 19–28. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2003.09.013. PMID 15123163. S2CID 25719922.
- Voith, V. L.; Borchelt, P. L. (1986). "Social Behavior of Domestic Cats". Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practising Veterinarian. 8 (9): 637–646.
- Bonanni, R.; Cafazzo, S.; Fantini, C.; Pontier, D.; Natoli, E. (2007). "Feeding-order in an urban feral domestic cat colony: relationship to dominance rank, sex and age". Animal Behaviour. 74 (5): 1369–1379. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.02.029. S2CID 53188727.
- "The 7 Steps of TNR". Neighborhood Cats. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "Socialized Cat Guide". Alley Cat Allies. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Stray and Feral Cats". ASPCA. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Prugh, L. R.; Stoner, C. J.; Epps, C. W.; Bean, W. T.; Ripple, W. J.; Laliberte, A. S.; Brashares, J. S. (2009). "The Rise of the Mesopredator". BioScience. 59 (9): 779–791. doi:10.1525/bio.2009.59.9.9. S2CID 40484905.
- Plantinga, E. A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W. H. (2011). "Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats". British Journal of Nutrition. 106 (Supplement S1): S35–S48. doi:10.1017/S0007114511002285. PMID 22005434.
- Hildreth, A. M.; Vantassel, S. M.; Hygnstrom, S. E. "Feral Cats and Their Management" (PDF). University of Nebraska Lincoln Extension. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "Scientists catch a feral cat killing a large mammal on camera 'for the first time'". ABC News. 2015. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- Levy, J. K.; Gale, D. W.; Gale, L. A. (2003). "Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 222 (1): 42–46. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.222.42. PMID 12523478. S2CID 13398546.
- Scott, K. C.; Levy, J. K.; Crawford, P. C. (2002). "Characteristics of free-roaming cats evaluated in a trap-neuter-return program". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 221 (8): 1136–1138. doi:10.2460/javma.2002.221.1136. PMID 12387382. S2CID 7933129.
- Wallace, J. L.; Levy, J. K. (2006). "Population Characteristics of Feral Cats Admitted to Seven Trap-Neuter-Return Programs in the United States" (PDF). Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery. 8 (4): 279–284. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2006.02.004. PMID 16603400. S2CID 25458407.
- Scott, K. C.; Levy, J. K.; Gorman, S. P.; Newell, S. M. (2002). "Body Condition of Feral Cats and the Effect of Neutering". Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 5 (3): 203–213. doi:10.1207/S15327604JAWS0503_04. PMID 12578741. S2CID 22449281.
- Levy, J. K.; Crawford, P. C. (2004). "Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225 (9): 1354–1360. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1354. PMID 15552308. S2CID 16619209.
- Remfry, J. (1996). "Feral cats in the United Kingdom" (PDF). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 208 (4): 520–523. PMID 8603900.
- Nassar, R.; Mosier, J. E.; Williams, L. W. (1984). "Study of the feline and canine populations in the greater Las Vegas area". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 45 (2): 282–287. PMID 6711951.
- Roebling, A. D.; Johnson, D.; Blanton, J. D.; Levin, M.; Slate, D.; Fenwick, G.; Rupprecht, C. E. (2014). "Rabies Prevention and Management of Cats in the Context of Trap–Neuter–Vaccinate–Release Programmes". Zoonoses and Public Health. 61 (4): 290–296. doi:10.1111/zph.12070. PMC 5120395. PMID 23859607.
- Lee, I. T.; Levy, J. K.; Gorman, S. P.; Crawford, P. C.; Slater, M. R. (2002). "Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus in unowned free-roaming cats" (PDF). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 220 (5): 620–622. doi:10.2460/javma.2002.220.620. PMID 12418520.
- Luria, B. J.; Levy, J. K.; Lappin, M. R.; Breitschwerdt, E. B.; Legendre, A. M.; Hernandez, J. A.; Gorman, S. P.; Lee, I. T. (2004). "Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 6 (5): 287–296. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2003.11.005. PMC 7128492. PMID 15363760.
- Stojanovic, V.; Foley, P. (2011). "Infectious disease prevalence in a feral cat population on Prince Edward Island, Canada". The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 52 (9): 979–982. PMC 3157072. PMID 22379197.
- Weise, E. (2013). "Feral cat colonies could pose rabies risk, CDC says". USA TODAY. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Roebling, A. D.; Johnson, D.; Blanton, J. D.; Levin, M.; Slate, D.; Fenwick, G.; Rupprecht, C. E. (2014). "Rabies Prevention and Management of Cats in the Context of Trap-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release Programmes". Zoonoses and Public Health. 61 (4): 290–296. doi:10.1111/zph.12070. PMC 5120395. PMID 23859607.
- "How to Help Community Cats: A Step-by-Step Guide to Trap-Neuter-Return". Alley Cat Allies. Retrieved 23 April 2019. "How to Help Community Cats | A step-by-step guide to Trap-Neuter-Return" (PDF). Bethesda, MD: Alley Cat Allies. 2018 . p. 2. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014.
- Kortis, B. (2013). Neighborhood Cats TNR Handbook (PDF) (2nd ed.). Neighborhood Cats. p. 115. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Natoli, E.; Maragliano, L.; Cariola, G.; Faini, A.; Bonanni, R.; Cafazzo, S.; Fantini, C. (2006). "Management of feral domestic cats in the urban environment of Rome (Italy)". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 77 (3–4): 180–185. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.06.005. PMID 17034887.
- "Feral Cat Organizations". The Humane Society of the United States. 2009. Archived from the original on 22 November 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- Hughes, K. L.; Slater, M. R. (2002). "Implementation of a feral cat management program on a university campus". Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 5 (1): 15–28. doi:10.1207/S15327604JAWS0501_2. PMID 12738586. S2CID 11650452.
- Slater, M. R.; Shain, S. (2005). "Feral cats: An overview". The State of the Animals.
- "Humane Cat Population Management Guidance". International Companion Animal Management Coalition. 2011.
- "HSUS Position Statement: Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR)" (PDF). The Humane Society of the United States. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Taking a Broader View of Cats in the Community" (PDF). Animal Sheltering. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011.
- Kozaryn, L. D. "'Trap, Neuter, Return,' Cat Lovers Urge". United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
- Kozaryn, L. D. "Cat Herding on the Military Range-DoD Advocates Humane Cat Control". United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
- Salleh, A. (2015). "Culling cats 'may do more harm than good'". ABC. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- Schmidt, P. M.; Swannack, T. M.; Lopez, R. R.; Slater, M. R. (2009). "Evaluation of euthanasia and trap–neuter–return (TNR) programs in managing free-roaming cat populations". Wildlife Research. 36 (2): 117. doi:10.1071/WR08018. S2CID 62545.
- Lohr, C. A.; Cox, L. J.; Lepczyk, C. A. (2013). "Costs and Benefits of Trap-Neuter-Release and Euthanasia for Removal of Urban Cats in Oahu, Hawaii" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 27 (1): 64–73. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01935.x. PMID 23009077.
- Winter, L. (2004). "Trap-neuter-release programs: the reality and the impacts". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225 (9): 1369–1376. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1369. PMID 15552311. S2CID 27242405.
- Loss, S. R.; Will, T.; Marra, P. P. (2012). "Article number: 1396". The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States (Report) (Nature Communications 4 ed.). Nature Communications. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- Woinarski, J. C. Z., Murphy, B. P., Palmer, R., Legge, S. M., Dickman, C. R., Doherty, T. S., Edwards, G., Nankivell, A., Read, J. L. and Stokeld, D. (2018). "How many reptiles are killed by cats in Australia?". Wildlife Research. 45 (3): 247–266. doi:10.1071/WR17160. S2CID 90167846.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Murphy, B. P.; Woolley, L.-A.; Geyle, H. M.; Legge, S. M.; Palmer, R.; Dickman, C. R.; Augusteyn, J.; Brown, S. C.; Comer, S. (2019). "Introduced cats (Felis catus) eating a continental fauna: The number of mammals killed in Australia". Biological Conservation. 237: 28–40. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2019.06.013.
- Woods, M.; McDonald, R. A.; Harris, S. (2003). "Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain". Mammal Review. 23 (2): 174–188. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2907.2003.00017.x. S2CID 42095020.
- Robertson, I. D. (1998). "Survey of Predation by Domestic Cats". Australian Veterinary Journal. 76 (8): 551–554. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1998.tb10214.x. PMID 9741724.
- Beckerman, A. P.; Boots, M.; Gaston, K. J. (2007). "Urban Bird Declines and the Fear of Cats" (PDF). Animal Conservation. 10 (3): 320–325. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2007.00115.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016.
- Nogales, M.; Martin, A.; Tershy, B. R.; Donlan, C. J.; Veitch, D.; Uerta, N.; Wood, B.; Alonso, J. (2004). "A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 18 (2): 310–319. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00442.x. hdl:10261/22249.
- Courchamp, F.; Chapuis, J. L.; Pascal, M. (2003). "Mammal Invaders on Islands: Impact, Control and Control Impact" (PDF). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 78 (3): 347–383. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.507.8446. doi:10.1017/S1464793102006061. PMID 14558589. S2CID 8308951. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2017.
- Rayner, M. J.; Hauber, M. E.; Imber, M. J.; Stamp, R. K.; Clout, M. N. (2007). "Spatial Heterogeneity of Mesopredator Release within an Oceanic Island System". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (52): 20862–20865. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10420862R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707414105. PMC 2409232. PMID 18083843.
- James, H.; Acharya, A. B.; Taylor, J. A.; Freak, M. J. (2002). "A case of bitten Bettongs". Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology. 20 (1): 10–12. PMID 12085522.
- Glen, A. S.; Dickman, C. R. (2005). "Complex interactions among mammalian carnivores in Australia, and their implications for wildlife management" (PDF). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 80 (3): 387–401. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.452.7854. doi:10.1017/S1464793105006718. PMID 16094805. S2CID 34517892. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2017.
- Platt, John R. (2020). "Hawaii's Invasive Predator Catastrophe". EcoWatch. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- Lambert, Mark (September 2003). Control of Norway Rats in the Agricultural Environment: Alternatives to Rodenticide Use (PDF) (PhD). University of Leicester. pp. 85–103. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Davis, David E. (1957). "The Use of Food as a Buffer in a Predator–Prey System". Journal of Mammalogy. 38 (4): 466–472. doi:10.2307/1376399. ISSN 0022-2372. JSTOR 1376399.
- Wodzicki, K. (1973). "Prospects for biological control of rodent populations". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 48 (4): 461–467. PMC 2481104. PMID 4587482.
- Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O'Brien, S. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication". Science. 317 (5837): 519–523. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..519D. doi:10.1126/science.1139518. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 5612713. PMID 17600185.
- Beaumont, M.; Barratt, E. M.; Gottelli, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Daniels, M. J.; Pritchard, J. K.; Bruford, M. W. (2001). "Genetic diversity and introgression in the Scottish wildcat" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 10 (2): 319−336. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2001.01196.x. PMID 11298948. S2CID 17690196. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2004.
- Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; Ward, J. M.; Macdonald, D. W. (2005). "A diagnosis for the Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris): a tool for conservation action for a critically endangered felid" (PDF). Animal Conservation. 8 (3): 223−237. doi:10.1017/S1367943005002301.
- McQuillan, R. (2014). "Haven to Save the Wildcat from Total Extinction". The Herald. Glasgow, Scotland.
- Randi. E.; Pierpaoli, M.; Beaumont, M.; Ragni, B.; Sforzi, A. (2001). "Genetic identification of wild and domestic cats (Felis silvestris) and their hybrids using Bayesian clustering methods". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 18 (9): 1679–1693. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003956. PMID 11504848.
- Pierpaoli. M.; Birò, Z. S.; Herrmann, M.; Hupe, K.; Fernandes, M.; Ragni, B.; Szemethy, L.; Randi, E. (2003). "Genetic distinction of wildcat (Felis silvestris) populations in Europe, and hybridization with domestic cats in Hungary". Molecular Ecology. 12 (10): 2585–2598. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2003.01939.x. PMID 12969463. S2CID 25491695.
- Lecis, R.; Pierpaoli, M.; Biro, Z. S.; Szemethy, L.; Ragni, B.; Vercillo, F.; Randi, E. (2006). "Bayesian analyses of admixture in wild and domestic cats (Felis silvestris) using linked microsatellite loci". Molecular Ecology. 15 (1): 119–131. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02812.x. PMID 16367835. S2CID 28136466.
- Marra, P. P.; Santella, C. (2016). Cat Wars: The Devastating Consequences of a Cuddly Killer. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691167411.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Feral cats.|
|Look up feral cat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- A feral cat advocacy organization's explanation of feral cats Stray Cat Alliance
- Study of the feral cats in Portsmouth Naval Dockyard, UK with photos and scientific papers
- List of Humane Societies and Rescue Groups With TNR Programs Alley Cat Rescue