Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany
|Grand Duke of Tuscany|
|Reign||21 July 1859 – 22 March 1860|
10 June 1835|
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
17 January 1908 (aged 72)|
Princess Anna of Saxony
(m. 1856; d. 1859)
Princess Alice of Parma
Archduke Leopold Ferdinand|
Louise, Crown Princess of Saxony
Archduke Josef Ferdinand
Archduke Peter Ferdinand
|Father||Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany|
|Mother||Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies|
Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany (Italian: Ferdinando IV, Granduca di Toscana; 10 June 1835 – 17 January 1908) was the last Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1859 to 1860. The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continued to hold the title as pretenders until the end of World War I.
He and his family were forced to flee Florence on 27 April 1859, with the outbreak of a revolution inspired by the outbreak of a war by France and Sardinia-Piedmont against Austria as part of the unification of Italy. The family took refuge in Austria. After the end of the war, Leopold II abdicated on 21 July and Ferdinand succeeded him as Grand Duke. Ferdinand proved unable to return to Florence to claim his throne, and an elected Tuscan National Assembly formally deposed him only a month later, on 16 August. Ferdinand still hoped to recover his throne, as both France and Austria had promised to recognize his rights to it in the Armistice of Villafranca. However, neither power was willing to take any steps to bring about his restoration. The Kingdom of Sardinia annexed Tuscany on 22 March 1860, ending Ferdinand's hopes to reclaim the throne.
Ferdinand spent the rest of his life in exile in Austria. He died there, in Salzburg, in 1908.
Family and children
He married twice and had issue:
- Archduchess Maria Antonietta (Florence, 10 January 1858 – Cannes, 13 April 1883). She became abbess of the Theresia Convent in the Hradschin in Prague.
- Archduke Leopold Ferdinand (1868–1935). He renounced his titles on 29 December 1902 and took the name Leopold Wölfling. He married thrice, without issue.
- Archduchess Luise (1870–1947). Married first King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and after divorcing him married second Enrico Toselli and had issue by both marriages.
- Archduke Josef Ferdinand (1872–1942). He married, firstly, Rosa Kaltenbrunner and, after divorcing her married, secondly Gertrud Tomanek, by whom he had issue. Both marriages were morganatic.
- Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany (1874–1948). Married Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, and had issue.
- Archduke Heinrich Ferdinand (1878–1969). A major general in the Austrian army, morganatically married Maria Karoline Ludescher, and had issue.
- Archduchess Anna Maria Theresia (1879–1961). She married Johannes, Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein; their granddaughter married Hans Veit, Count of Toerring-Jettenbach, son of Princess Elizabeth of Greece and Denmark.
- Archduchess Margareta (1881–1965)
- Archduchess Germana (1884–1955)
- Archduke Robert Salvator (1885–1895)
- Archduchess Agnes Maria (1891–1945)
- Full name: in Italian Ferdinando Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Francesco Lodovico Gonzaga Raffaele Ranerio Gennaro, in German Ferdinand Salvator Maria Joseph Johann Baptist Franz Ludwig Gonzaga Raphael Rainerius Gennarius;
- Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer, Volume 1 /Ferdinand Veldekens
- Genealogy of Ferdinand IV
- Grand Ducal House of Tuscany
- Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, ThePeerage.com
Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cadet branch of the House of LorraineBorn: 10 June 1835 Died: 17 January 1908
| Grand Duke of Tuscany
|Tuscan National Assembly deposes House of Habsurg-Lorraine|
|Titles in pretence|
|Loss of title
|— TITULAR —
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Archduke Josef Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany