Marcos in 1982.
|10th President of the Philippines
6th President of the Third Republic
1st President of the Fourth Republic
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
|Prime Minister||Himself (1978–1981)
Cesar Virata (1981–1986)
|Vice President||Fernando López (1965–1973)|
|Preceded by||Diosdado Macapagal|
|Succeeded by||Corazon Aquino|
|3rd Prime Minister of the Philippines|
June 12, 1978 – June 30, 1981
|Preceded by||Office established
(Position previously held by Jorge B. Vargas)
|Succeeded by||Cesar Virata|
|Secretary of National Defense|
August 28, 1971 – January 3, 1972
|Preceded by||Juan Ponce Enrile|
|Succeeded by||Juan Ponce Enrile|
December 31, 1965 – January 20, 1967
|Preceded by||Macario Peralta|
|Succeeded by||Ernesto Mata|
|11th President of the Senate of the Philippines|
April 5, 1963 – December 30, 1965
|Preceded by||Eulogio Rodriguez|
|Succeeded by||Arturo Tolentino|
|Senator of the Philippines|
December 30, 1959 – December 30, 1965
|Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's Second District|
December 30, 1949 – December 30, 1959
|Preceded by||Pedro Albano|
|Succeeded by||Simeon M. Valdez|
|Born||Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos
September 11, 1917
Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippine Islands
|Died||September 28, 1989 (aged 72)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
|Resting place||Marcos Museum and Mausoleum, Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines|
|Political party||Kilusang Bagong Lipunan|
|Liberal Party (1946–1965)
Nacionalista Party (1965–1978)
|Spouse(s)||Imelda Romuáldez (1954–1989; his death)|
|Children||Ma. Imelda Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos Jr.
|Alma mater||University of the Philippines College of Law|
formerly Iglesia Filipina Independiente
|Allegiance||Commonwealth of the Philippines|
|Rank|| First lieutenant
|Unit||11th Infantry Division (USAFFE)
14th Infantry Regiment (USAFIP-NL)
|Battles/wars||World War II|
President of the Philippines
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled as dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981. While his regime started an unprecedented number of infrastructure projects and monuments (known colloquially as an "edifice complex'" and at great taxpayer cost), it also became infamous for its corruption, extravagance and brutality.
Prior to Marcos's presidency, he served as a member of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and of the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965, where he was also Senate President from 1963 to 1965. While Marcos fought alongside with the Americans during the Japanese Invasion and participated in the Bataan Death March, he would later claim during his election campaigns that he has been "the most decorated war hero in the Philippines", a claim which was later proven to be false. United States Army documents that were uncovered called the claim "fraudulent" and "absurd".
He was elected President in 1965. During his term, the Philippine national debt grew from $2 billion to $28 billion—while used to fund development projects, of which the Marcos family had plundered $5–10 billion USD, according to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government, which by itself was affected by corruption scandals after it was alleged that officials wanted a cut of Marcos' assets and were "milking" sequestered assets. Meanwhile, based on World Bank data, Philippine Annual Gross Domestic Product grew from $5.27 billion in 1964 to $37.14 billion in 1982, a year prior to the assassination of Ninoy Aquino. Indeed, between 1972 and 1979, the Philippines enjoyed its best economic development since 1945. Political instability in the wake of the Aquino assassination, debt-driven growth and "poor" management policies subsequently fueled a disastrous economic recession in 1984 and 1985. By the end of 1985, GDP stood at $30.7 following two years of economic contraction and poverty grew from 41% at the time Marcos took the Presidency in the 60s to around 59% in 1986 when he was removed from power.
Citing more than 15 bombing incidences and an intensifying armed communist insurgency, Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972, during which he revamped the constitution, silenced the media, and used violence and oppression against political opposition. Martial law was ratified by 90.77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. The Washington Post revealed in 1989 that the Communists plotted the 1971 Plaza Miranda bombing to provoke Marcos into cracking down his opponents, allowing them to increase recruits which were needed to make use of weapons and financial aid coming from China.
A 1976 Amnesty International report had listed 88 government torturers. The same report mentioned "President Ferdinand E. Marcos, Secretary of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile, Solicitor General Estelito P. Mendoza, Major General Fidel V. Ramos (Commanding General of The Philippine Constabulary), Brigadier General Guillermo Santos, Judge Advocate General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and other senior officials" with responsibility for the administration of prisoners arrested under martial law.
Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986 and to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power. To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by President Ronald Reagan through Sen. Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly", after which Marcos fled to Hawaii. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon (Cory) Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno (Ninoy) Aquino, Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face the dictator.
The Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle—taking away billions of dollars from the country in the course of their US-backed rule between 1965 and 1986. His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's kleptocracy made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific". In 2008, Philippines trial court judge Silvino Pampilo, acquitted Imelda Marcos, then widow of Ferdinand Marcos, of 32 counts of illegal money transfer after having previously been convicted of graft in 1993. In 2010, she was ordered to repay the Philippine government almost $280,000 for funds taken by Ferdinand Marcos in 1983. In 2012, a US Court of Appeals of the Ninth Circuit upheld a contempt judgement against Imelda and her son Bongbong Marcos for violating an injunction barring them from dissipating their assets, and awarded $353.6 million to human rights victims. Despite still facing numerous ongoing criminal graft charges, as of March 2016, she was still active in Philippine politics along with two of her four children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Military career
- 3 Congressional career
- 4 Presidency
- 4.1 First term (1966–1969)
- 4.2 Second term (1969–1972)
- 4.3 Martial Law and the New Society (1972–1981)
- 4.4 Cabinet
- 4.5 Third term (1981–1986)
- 4.6 Snap election, revolution, and exile
- 4.7 Economy
- 5 Death
- 6 Recognition
- 7 Infrastructure Projects and Works
- 8 Ill-gotten Wealth, Yamashita's treasure question and Status of Corruption Cases
- 9 Reparations
- 10 Legacy
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin. He was later baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three.
In December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. He was not the only accused from the Marcos clan; also accused was his father, Mariano, his brother, Pio, and his brother-in-law Quirino Lizardo. Nalundasan, one of the elder Marcos' political rivals, had been shot and killed in his house in Batac on September 21, 1935 – the day after he had defeated Mariano Marcos a second time for a seat in the National Assembly. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos eventually pulling the trigger. In late January 1939, they were finally denied bail and later in the year, they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the death penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano and Pio were found guilty of contempt of court. The Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which overturned the lower court's decision on 22 October 1940, acquitting them of all charges except contempt.
Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines, attending the prestigious College of Law. He excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a valuable member of the university's swimming, boxing, and wrestling teams. He was also an accomplished and prolific orator, debater, and writer for the student newspaper. He also became a member of the University of the Philippines ROTC Unit (UP Vanguard Fraternity) where he met some of his future cabinet members and Armed Forces Chiefs of Staff. When he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he received a near-perfect score of 98.8%, although some have disputed this score. The Philippine Supreme Court felt justified in altering his scoring. He graduated cum laude despite the fact that he was incarcerated while reviewing. Had he not been in jail for 27 days, he would have graduated magna cum laude. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor societies, the latter giving him its Most Distinguished Member Award 37 years later.
In Seagrave's book The Marcos Dynasty, he mentioned that Marcos possessed a phenomenal memory and exhibited this by memorizing complicated texts and reciting them forward and backward, even such as the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago, in an interview with the Philippine Star on March 25, 2012, shared her experience as a speech writer to President Marcos: "One time, the Secretary of Justice forgot to tell me that the President had requested him to draft a speech that the President was going to deliver before graduates of the law school. And then, on the day the President was to deliver the speech, he suddenly remembered because Malacañang was asking for the speech, so he said, 'This is an emergency. You just have to produce something.' And I just dictated the speech. He liked long speeches. I think that was 20 or 25 pages. And then, in the evening, I was there, of course. President Marcos recited the speech from memory."
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- Maria Imelda "Imee" Marcos (born 12 November 1955), Governor of Ilocos Norte
- Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. (born 13 September 1957), Senator of the Philippines
- Irene Marcos (born 16 September 1960)
His fourth child, Aimee Romualdez Marcos, was adopted and was a musician in 2012
Marcos claimed that he was a descendant of Antonio Luna, a Filipino general during the Philippine–American War. He also claimed that his ancestor was a 15th-century pirate who used to raid the coasts of the South China Sea.
|Ancestors of Ferdinand Marcos|
The subject of Marcos' military career has been the subject of debate and controversy. Before World War II, Marcos was already a Reserve Officers' Training Corps graduate during his time studying law. Hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 8, 1941, the Japanese simultaneously bombed many places in the Philippines, including Clark Field. The 14th Army began its invasion with a landing on Batan Island (not to be confused with Bataan Peninsula), 120 miles (190 km) off the north coast of Luzon on the same day, by selected naval infantry units. Landings on Camiguin Island and at Vigan, Aparri, and Gonzaga in northern Luzon followed two days later. Marcos was one of those who were called into the army as a 3rd lieutenant during the mobilization in the summer and fall of 1941. The U.S. Army has confirmed that Ferdinand Marcos fought on the U.S. side after the December 1941 Japanese invasion of the Philippines until April 1942, before being taken prisoner. He also had records showing that he fought on the American side again from December 1944 until the end of the war.
Marcos would be one of the 78,000 Filipino and American troops who surrendered at Bataan on April 9, 1942, four months after the Japanese initiated their invasion of the Philippines. He survived the Bataan Death March that followed the surrender. In 1962, Marcos would claim to be the "most decorated war hero of the Philippines" by garnering almost every medal and decoration that the Filipino and American governments could give to a soldier. Included in his 27 war medals and decorations are that of the Distinguished Service Cross (allegedly pinned by General Douglas MacArthur) and the Medal of Honor (allegedly pinned by General Jonathan M. Wainwright). This was proven to be a hoax. Marcos was not listed in General Douglas MacArthur’s “List of Recipients of Awards and Decorations" issued from December 7, 1941 through June 30, 1945 that was compiled in Tokyo, and General Jonathan Wainwright's list of 120 Americans and Filipinos who were awarded during the Bataan campaign by the War Department shortly before his surrender. Colonel Manriquez and Adjutant Captain Rivera who were the commanders of the 14th Infantry, whom Marcos claimed to have served under, attested that Marcos was not a soldier, but was a non-combatant and a Civil Affairs officer. Marcos did received campaign ribbons given to all combatant and non-combatant participants "in the defense of Bataan and in the resistance."
Later research showed the wartime exploits of Marcos to be mostly propaganda, being inaccurate or untrue. In 1986, research by historian Alfred W. McCoy into United States Army records showed most of Marcos's medals to be fraudulent. According to Ricardo José, former chairman of the Department of History of the University of the Philippines, Marcos's claims in his self-commissioned autobiography Marcos of the Philippines that Gen. Douglas MacArthur pinned on him the Distinguished Service Cross medal for delaying Japanese at Bataan for 3 months was highly improbable. In fact, his father Mariano Marcos was a known Japanese collaborator, who was executed by Filipino guerillas in April 1945, and the younger Marcos was accused of being a collaborator as well, including the finding of "fraudulent and false claims as well as anti-guerilla propaganda files involving his father and his group...." This may also be the reason how he was freed by the Japanese after Bataan. John Sharkey of the Washington Post found records that Marcos was in the list of those that were released due to either "having severe health problems and those whose families have cooperated with the Japanese military authorities." Since Marcos' name did not appear in the 1942 Manila Tribune list of ailing prisoners that were released by the Japanese, he believed that Marcos may have been freed due to his connections with his father.
Marcos also claimed to have led a 9,000-man guerrilla force called Ang Mahárlika (Tagalog, "The Freeman") in northern Luzon during World War II. His account of events was later cast into doubt after a United States military investigation exposed many of his claims as either false or inaccurate. Meanwhile, Marcos claimed that he was able to get the United States Adjutant General to recognize 3,500 individual claims of soldiers then under his command.
House of Representatives
When the Philippines was granted independence on July 4, 1946 by the American government, the Philippine Congress was established. Marcos ran and was three times elected as representative of the 2nd district of Ilocos Norte, 1949–1959. He was named chairman of the House Committee on Commerce and Industry and member of the Defense Committee headed by Ramon Magsaysay. He was chairman, House Neophytes Bloc in which (President) Diosdado Macapagal, (Vice President) Emmanuel Pelaez and (Manila Mayor) Arsenio J. Lacson were members. He was also a member of the House Committee on Industry; LP spokesman on economic matters; member, Special Committee on Import and Price Controls and on Reparations; House Committees on Ways and Means, Banks Currency, War Veterans, Civil Service, Corporations and Economic Planning; and the House Electoral Tribunal.
Marcos won his senate seat in the elections in 1959 and became the Senate minority floor leader in 1960. He became the executive vice president of the Liberal Party in and served as the party president from 1961–1964; Senate President, 1963–1965. During his term as Senate President, former Defense Secretary Eulogio B. Balao was also closely working with Marcos. Marcos led a controversial political career both before and after his term as Senate President. He became Senator after he served as member of the House of Representatives for three terms, then later as Minority Floor Leader before gaining the Senate Presidency. He introduced a number of significant bills, many of which found their way into the Republic statute books.
|Presidential styles of
Ferdinand E. Marcos
|Reference style||His Excellency|
|Spoken style||Your Excellency|
|Alternative style||Mr. President|
First term (1966–1969)
|Gross Domestic Product|
|1966||₱285,886 million (USD73.3 billion)|
|1971||₱361,791 million (USD56.7 billion)|
|Growth rate, 1966–71 average||4.75%|
|Per capita income|
|USD1 = ₱6.44
₱1 = USD0.16
Marcos ran a populist campaign emphasizing that he was a bemedalled war hero emerging from World War II. In 1962, Marcos would claim to be the most decorated war hero of the Philippines by garnering almost every medal and decoration that the Filipino and American governments could give to a soldier. Included in his claim of 27 war medals and decorations are that of the Distinguished Service Cross and the Medal of Honor. However, the Liberal Party would later confirm that many of his war medals were only acquired in 1962 to aid in his reelection campaign for the Senate, not for his presidential campaign. Marcos won the presidency in 1965.
To the surprise of many, soon after becoming president, Marcos wanted the Philippines to become involved, although limited, in the Vietnam War. He asked Congress to approve sending a combat engineer unit to South Vietnam. When the previous Philippine president, Macapagal, suggested in 1964–1965 to send troops it had been Marcos who had led the opposition against this plan on both legal and moral grounds. Despite opposition against the new plan, the Marcos government gained Congressional approval and Philippine troops were sent from the middle of 1966 as the Philippines Civic Action Group (PHILCAG). PHILCAG reached a strength of some 1,600 troops in 1968 and between 1966 and 1970 over 10,000 Filipino soldiers served in South Vietnam, mainly being involved in civilian infrastructure projects.[unreliable source?]
Second term (1969–1972)
1969 Presidential Election
In 1969, Marcos was reelected for a second term — the first and the last Filipino president to win a second full term. His running mate, incumbent Vice President Fernando Lopez was also elected to a third full term as Vice President of the Philippines.
First Quarter Storm
1970 was a period of leftist unrest in the Philippines, composed of a series of heavy demonstrations, protests, and marches against the government from January to March 1970, or the first quarter of 1970. It was one of the factors leading to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. The protests later became known as the First Quarter Storm.
Martial Law and the New Society (1972–1981)
At the height of armed communist insurgency in the Philippines, Philippine Military Academy instructor Lt Victor Corpuz led New People's Army rebels in a raid on the PMA armory, capturing rifles, machine guns, grenade launchers, a bazooka and thousands of rounds of ammunition in 1970. In 1972, China, which was then actively supporting and arming communist insurgencies in Asia as part of Mao Zedong's People's War Doctrine, transported 1,200 M-14 and AK-47 rifles  for the NPA to speed up NPA's campaign to defeat the government.
Based on interviews of The Washington Post with former Communist Party of the Philippines Officials, it was revealed that "the (Communist) party leadership planned – and three operatives carried out – the (Plaza Miranda) attack in an attempt to provoke government repression and push the country to the brink of revolution... (Communist Party Leader) Sison had calculated that Marcos could be provoked into cracking down on his opponents, thereby driving thousands of political activists into the underground, the former party officials said. Recruits were urgently needed, they said, to make use of a large influx of weapons and financial aid that China had already agreed to provide."
It is easier perhaps and more comfortable to look back to the solace of a familiar and mediocre past. But the times are too grave and the stakes too high for us to permit the customary concessions to traditional democratic processes.— Ferdinand Marcos, January 1973
Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 when his Press Secretary, Francisco Tatad, announced on Radio that Proclamation № 1081. which Marcos had signed 2 days earlier on September 21, 1972, had come into force and would extend Marcos' rule beyond the constitutional two-term limit. He justified this by highlighting the threats of Communist and Muslim insurgencies. He would later tell historians that he signed Proclamation No. 1081 as early as September 17. Ruling by decree, he curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including senators Benigno Aquino Jr., Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno. However, unlike Ninoy Aquino's senator colleagues who were detained without charges, Ninoy, together with communist NPA leaders Lt Corpuz and Bernabe Buscayno, was charged with murder, illegal possession of firearms and subversion. Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating his Bagong Lipunan, a "New Society" based on new social and political values.
A constitutional convention, which had been called for in 1970 to replace the Commonwealth era 1935 Constitution, continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973. The constitution was approved by 95% of the voters in the Philippine constitutional plebiscite.
After putting in force amendments to the constitution, legislative action, and securing his sweeping powers and with the Batasan, his supposed successor body to the Congress, under his control, President Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. However, the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus continued in the autonomous regions of Western Mindanao and Central Mindanao. The opposition dubbed the lifting of martial law as a mere "face lifting" as a precondition to the visit of Pope John Paul II.
Marcos had a vision of a Bagong Lipunan (New Society) similar to Indonesian president Suharto's "New Order administration". He used the years of martial law to implement this vision. According to Marcos' book Notes on the New Society, it was a movement urging the poor and the privileged to work as one for the common goals of society and to achieve the liberation of the Filipino people through self-realization.
Economic reforms suddenly became possible under martial law. The powerful opponents of reform were silenced and the organized opposition was also quilted. In the past, it took enormous wrangling and preliminary stage-managing of political forces before a piece of economic reform legislation could even pass through Congress. Now it was possible to have the needed changes undertaken through presidential decree. Marcos wanted to deliver major changes in an economic policy that the government had tried to propose earlier.
The enormous shift in the mood of the nation showed from within the government after martial law was imposed. The testimonies of officials of private chambers of commerce and of private businessmen dictated enormous support for what was happening. At least, the objectives of the development were now being achieved...
During his martial law regime, Marcos confiscated and appropriated by force and duress many businesses and institutions, both private and public, and redistributed them to his cronies and close personal friends. Two of these friends were Eduardo "Danding" Cojuangco Jr., who would go on to control San Miguel Corporation, and Ramon Cojuangco, late businessman and chairman of PLDT, and father of Antonio "Tony Boy" Cojuangco (who would eventually succeed his father in the telecommunications company), both happened to be cousins of Corazon Aquino. These associates of Marcos then used these as fronts to launder proceeds from institutionalized graft and corruption in the different national governmental agencies as "crony capitalism" for personal benefit. Graft and corruption via bribery, racketeering, and embezzlement became more prevalent during this era. Marcos also silenced the free press, making the press of the state propaganda the only legal one, which was a common practice for governments around the world that sought to fight communism.
By 1977, the armed forces had quadrupled and over 60,000 Filipinos had been arrested for political reasons. In 1981, Vice President George H. W. Bush praised Marcos for his "adherence to democratic principles and to the democratic processes".[a] No American military or politician in the 1970s ever publicly questioned the authority of Marcos to help fight communism in South East Asia.
Marcos and his close Rolex 12 associates like Juan Ponce Enrile used their powers to settle scores against old rivals such as the Lopezes who were always opposed to the Marcos administration. Enrile and the Lopezes (Eugenio Lopez, Sr. and Eugenio Lopez Jr.) were Harvard-educated Filipino leaders. Leading opponents such as Senators Benigno Aquino Jr., Jose Diokno, Jovito Salonga and many others were imprisoned for months or years. This practice considerably alienated the support of the old social and economic elite and the media, who criticized the Marcos administration endlessly. The old social and economic elite, all of whom relied on trade and agricultural and industrial exports to the United States such as the families of Enrile, Lopez, Cojuangco, and Aquino, sought a free-market economy. At this point, Marcos controlled both the oligarchy and the oligopoly.
Between 1972 and 1976, Marcos increased the size of the Philippine military from 65,000 to 270,000 personnel, in response to the fall of South Vietnam to the communists and the growing tide of communism in South East Asia. Military officers were placed on the boards of a variety of media corporations, public utilities, development projects, and other private corporations, most of whom were highly educated and well-trained graduates of the Philippine Military Academy. At the same time, Marcos made efforts to foster the growth of a domestic weapons manufacturing industry and heavily increased military spending.
From the declaration of martial law in 1972 until 1983 the U.S. government provided $2.5 billion in bilateral military and economic aid to the Marcos regime, and about $5.5 billion through multilateral institutions such as the World Bank.
In a 1979 U.S. Senate report it was stated that U.S. officials were aware, as early as 1973, that Philippine government agents were in the United States to harass Filipino dissidents. In June 1981, two anti-Marcos labor activists were assassinated outside of a union hall in Seattle. On at least one occasion, CIA agents blocked FBI investigations of Philippine agents.
The Marcos regime instituted a mandatory youth organization, known as the Kabataang Barangay, which was led by Marcos' eldest daughter Imee. Presidential Decree 684, enacted in April 1975, required that all youths aged 15 to 18 be sent to remote rural camps and do volunteer work.
Along with Marcos, members of his Rolex 12 circle like Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, Chief of Staff of the Philippine Constabulary Fidel Ramos, and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Fabian Ver were the chief administrators of martial law from 1972 to 1981, and the three remained President Marcos' closest advisers until he was ousted in 1986. Other peripheral members of the Rolex 12 included Eduardo "Danding" Cojuangco Jr. and Lucio Tan. Enrile and Ramos would later abandon Marcos' 'sinking ship' and seek protection behind the 1986 People Power Revolution, backed by fellow-American educated Eugenio Lopez Jr., Jaime Augusto Zobel de Ayala, and the old political and economic elites. The Catholic hierarchy and Manila's middle class were crucial to the success of the massive crusade, but only within Metro Manila because no mass demonstrations or protests against Marcos happened in the provinces and islands of Visayas and Mindanao.
Normalization of Ties with Communist China and Effort to Isolate Local Communist Rebels
We, in Asia must strive toward a modus vivendi with Red China. I reiterate this need, which is becoming more urgent each day. Before long, Communist China will have increased its striking power a thousand fold with a sophisticated delivery system for its nuclear weapons. We must prepare for that day. We must prepare to coexist peaceably with Communist China.— Ferdinand Marcos, January 1969
Prior to the 1975, the Philippine government maintained a close relationship with the Kuomintang-ruled Chinese government which fled to Taiwan (Republic of China), despite the Chinese Communist Victory in 1949, and saw Communist China (People's Republic of China) as a security threat due to China's financial and military support of Communist rebels in the country.
In June 1975, President Marcos went to the People’s Republic of China and signed a Joint Communiqué normalizing relations between the Philippines and China. Among other things, the Communiqué recognizes that “there is but one China and that Taiwan is an integral part of Chinese territory…” In turn, Chinese Prime Minister Zhao En Lai also pledged that China would not intervene in the internal affairs of the Philippines nor will it seek to impose its policies in Asia, a move which isolated the local communist movement that China had financially and militarily supported.
The Washington Post in an interview with former Philippine Communist Party Officials, revealed that, "they (local communist party officials) wound up languishing in China for 10 years as unwilling "guests" of the (Chinese) government, feuding bitterly among themselves and with the party leadership in the Philippines".
First Parliamentary Elections after Martial Law Declaration
The Philippine parliamentary election, 1978 was held on April 7, 1978 for the election of the 166 (of the 208) regional representatives to the Interim Batasang Pambansa (the nation's first parliament). The elections were participated by several parties including Ninoy Aquino's newly formed party, the Lakas ng Bayan (LABAN) and the regime's party known as the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL).
The Ninoy Aquino's LABAN party fielded 21 candidates for the Metro Manila area including Ninoy himself and Alex Boncayao, who later was associated with Filipino communist death squad Alex Boncayao Brigade that killed U.S. army captain James N. Rowe. All of the party's candidates, including Ninoy, lost in the election.
Marcos' KBL party won 137 seats, while Pusyon Bisaya led by Hilario Davide Jr., who later became the Minority Floor Leader, won 13 seats.
In 1978, the position returned when Ferdinand Marcos became Prime Minister. Based on Article 9 of the 1973 constitution, it had broad executive powers that would be typical of modern prime ministers in other countries. The position was the official head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. All of the previous powers of the President from the 1935 Constitution were transferred to the newly restored office of Prime Minister. The Prime Minister also acted as head of the National Economic Development Authority. Upon his re-election to the Presidency in 1981, Marcos was succeeded as Prime Minister by an American-educated leader and Wharton graduate, Cesar Virata, who was elected as an Assemblyman (Member of the Parliament) from Cavite in 1978. He is the eponym of the Cesar Virata School of Business, the business school of the University of the Philippines Diliman.
Cabinet under Martial Law
Third term (1981–1986)
We love your adherence to democratic principles and to the democratic process, and we will not leave you in isolation.
On June 16, 1981, six months after the lifting of martial law, the first presidential election in twelve years was held. President Marcos ran and won a massive victory over the other candidates. The major opposition parties, the United Nationalists Democratic Organizations (UNIDO), a coalition of opposition parties and LABAN, boycotted the elections.
After the lifting of Martial Law, the pressure on the Communist CPP-NPA alleviated. The group able to return to urban areas and form relationships with legal opposition organizations, and became increasingly successful attacks against the government throughout the country. The violence inflicted by the communists reached its peak in 1985 with 1,282 military and police deaths and 1,362 civilian deaths.
On August 21, 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport. He had returned to the Philippines after three years in exile in the United States, where he had a heart bypass operation to save his life after Marcos allowed him to leave the Philippines to seek medical care. Prior to his heart surgery, Ninoy, along with his two co-accused, NPA leaders Bernabe Buscayno (Commander Dante) and Lt. Victor Corpuz, was sentenced to death by a military commission on charges of murder, illegal possession of firearms and subversion. A few months before his assassination, Ninoy was decided to go back to the Philippines after his research fellowship from Harvard University had expired. The opposition blamed Marcos directly for the assassination while others blamed the military and his wife, Imelda. Popular speculations pointed to three suspects; first was Marcos himself through his trusted military chief Fabian Ver; the second theory pointed to his wife Imelda who had her own burning ambition now that her ailing husband seemed to be getting weaker, and the third was that Danding Cojuangco planned the assassination because of his own political ambitions. The 1985 acquittals of Chief of Staff General Fabian Ver as well as other high-ranking military officers charged with the crime were widely seen as a whitewash and miscarriage of justice.
On November 22, 2007, Pablo Martinez, one of the convicted suspects in the assassination of Ninoy Aquino Jr. confessed that it was Ninoy Aquino Jr.'s relative, Danding Cojuangco, cousin of his wife Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who ordered the assassination of Ninoy Aquino Jr. while Marcos was recuperating from his kidney transplant.
In August 1985, 56 Assemblymen signed a resolution calling for the impeachment of President Marcos for alleged diversion of U.S. aid for personal use, citing a July 1985 San Jose Mercury News exposé of the Marcos' multimillion-dollar investment and property holdings in the United States.
The properties allegedly amassed by the First Family were the Crown Building, Lindenmere Estate, and a number of residential apartments (in New Jersey and New York), a shopping center in New York, mansions (in London, Rome and Honolulu), the Helen Knudsen Estate in Hawaii and three condominiums in San Francisco, California.
The Assemblymen also included in the complaint the misuse and misapplication of funds "for the construction of the Manila Film Center, where X-rated and pornographic films are exhibited, contrary to public morals and Filipino customs and traditions." The impeachment attempt gained little real traction, however, even in the light of this incendiary charge; the committee to which the impeachment resolution was referred did not recommend it, and any momentum for removing Marcos under constitutional processes soon died.
During his third term, Marcos' health deteriorated rapidly due to kidney ailments, as a complication of a chronic autoimmune disease lupus erythematosus. He had a kidney transplant in August 1983, and when his body rejected the first kidney transplant, he had a second transplant in November 1984. Marcos' regime was sensitive to publicity of his condition; a palace physician who alleged that during one of these periods Marcos had undergone a kidney transplant was shortly afterwards found murdered. Police said he was kidnapped and slain by communist rebels. Many people questioned whether he still had capacity to govern, due to his grave illness and the ballooning political unrest. With Marcos ailing, his powerful wife, Imelda, emerged as the government's main public figure. Marcos dismissed speculations of his ailing health as he used to be an avid golfer and fitness buff who liked showing off his physique.
By 1984, U.S. President Ronald Reagan started distancing himself from the Marcos regime that he and previous American presidents had strongly supported even after Marcos declared martial law. The United States, which had provided hundreds of millions of dollars in aid, was crucial in buttressing Marcos's rule over the years, although during the Carter administration the relationship with the U.S. had soured somewhat when President Jimmy Carter targeted the Philippines in his human rights campaign.
Snap election, revolution, and exile
In late 1985, in the face of escalating public discontent and under pressure from foreign allies, Marcos called a "snap election" with more than a year left in his term. He selected Arturo Tolentino as his running mate. The opposition to Marcos united behind two American-educated leaders, Aquino's widow, Corazon, and her running mate, Salvador Laurel.
It was during this time when Marcos' World War II medals for fighting the Japanese Occupation was first questioned by the foreign press. During a campaign in Manila's Tondo district, Marcos retorted:
You who are here in Tondo and fought under me and who were part of my guerrilla organization—you answer them, these crazy individuals, especially the foreign press. Our opponents say Marcos was not a real guerrilla. Look at them, These people who were collaborating with the enemy when we were fighting the enemy. Now they have the nerve to question my war record. I will not pay any attention to their accusation.— Ferdinand Marcos, January 1986
Marcos was referring to both Presidential candidate Corazon Aquino's father-in-law Benigno Aquino Sr. and Vice Presidential Candidate Salvador Laurel's father, José P. Laurel, who were leaders of the KALIBAPI, a puppet political party that collaborated with the Japanese during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. Both were arrested and charged for treason after the war.
The elections were held on February 7, 1986. The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), declared Marcos the winner. The final tally of the COMELEC had Marcos winning with 10,807,197 votes against Aquino's 9,291,761 votes. On the other hand, the partial 69% tally of the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL), an accredited poll watcher, had Aquino winning with 7,502,601 votes against Marcos' 6,787,556 points. Cheating was reported on both sides. This electoral exercise was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering of election results.
Despite common knowledge that Marcos cheated the elections, some claim that Marcos is the one that had been cheated by NAMFREL because his Solid North votes were transmitted very late to the tabulation center at the PICC. Two Namfrel volunteers were hanged in Ilocos. The Ilocano votes were enough to overwhelm Cory’s lead in Metro Manila and other places.
The alleged fraud culminated in the walkout of 35 COMELEC computer technicians to protest the manipulation of the official election results to favor Ferdinand Marcos. However, not known to many, the walkout of computer technicians was led by Linda Kapunan, wife of Lt Col Eduardo Kapunan, a leader of Reform the Armed Forces Movement, which plotted to attack the Malacañang Palace and kill Marcos and his family, leading some to believe that the walkout could have been plotted with ulterior motives.
The failed election process gave a decisive boost to the "People Power movement." At the height of the revolution, Juan Ponce Enrile revealed that a purported and well-publicized ambush attempt against him years earlier was in fact faked, in order for Marcos to have a pretext for imposing martial law. However, Marcos never ceased to maintain that he was the duly elected and proclaimed president of the Philippines for a fourth term, but unfairly and illegally deprived of his right to serve it. On February 25, 1986, rival presidential inaugurations were held, but as Aquino supporters overran parts of Manila and seized state broadcaster PTV-4, Marcos was forced to flee.
At 15:00 PST (GMT+8) on February 25, 1986, Marcos talked to United States Senator and close associate of the US President Paul Laxalt, asking for advice from the White House. Laxalt advised him to "cut and cut cleanly", to which Marcos expressed his disappointment after a short pause. In the afternoon, Marcos talked to Enrile, asking for safe passage for him and his family including his close allies like General Ver. Finally, at 9:00 p.m., the Marcos family was transported by four Sikorsky HH-3E helicopters to Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, about 83 kilometers north of Manila, before boarding US Air Force C-130 planes bound for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam, and finally to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos arrived on February 26.
When protestors stormed Malacañang Palace shortly after Marcos' departure, it was famously discovered that Imelda had left behind over 2,700 pairs of shoes in her closet.
To help finance a number of economic development projects, the Marcos government borrowed large amounts of money from international lenders. The Philippines' external debt rose more than 70-fold from USD360 million in 1962 to USD28.3 billion in 1986, making the Philippines one of the most indebted countries in Asia. Philippine Annual Gross Domestic Product grew from $5.27 billion in 1964 to $37.14 billion in 1982, a year prior to the assassination of Ninoy Aquino. The GDP went down to $30.7 billion in 1985, after two years of economic recession brought about by political instability following Ninoy's assassination. A sizable amount of this money went to the Marcos family and friends in the form of behest loans.
As a former colony of the United States, the Philippines was heavily reliant on the American economy to purchase agricultural goods such as sugar, tobacco, coconut, bananas, and pineapple and US corporations prospered.
Economy During Martial Law (1973-1980)
According to World Bank Data, the Philippine's Gross Domestic Product quadrupled from $8 billion in 1972 to $32.45 billion in 1980. Indeed, according to the U.S. based Heritage Foundation, the Philippines enjoyed its best economic development since 1945 between 1972 and 1979. The economy withstood the two severe global oil shocks following the 1973 oil crisis and 1979 energy crisis - oil price was $3 / barrel in 1973 and $39.5 in 1979, or a growth of 1200%. By the end of 1979, debt was still manageable, with debt to Debt-GNP ratio about the same as South Korea, according to th US National Bureau of Economic Research.
Foreign capital was invited to invest in certain industrial projects. They were offered incentives, including tax exemption privileges and the privilege of bringing out their profits in foreign currencies. One of the most important economic programs in the 1980s was the Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran (Movement for Livelihood and Progress). This program was started in September 1981. It aimed to promote the economic development of the barangays by encouraging its residents to engage in their own livelihood projects. The government's efforts resulted in the increase of the nation's economic growth rate to an average of six percent or seven percent from 1970 to 1980.
Economy After Martial Law (1981-1985)
The Philippine economy, heavily reliant on exports to the United States, suffered a great decline after the Aquino assassination in August 1983 because Filipino business and political leaders who studied in Harvard, Yale, and other US universities began lobbying American and foreign firms to discourage them from investing in the Philippines. This was taking place at the same time that China was beginning to accept free-market capitalism and American businesses were jockeying to establish manufacturing plants in China. The political troubles of the Philippines hindered the entry of foreign investments, and foreign banks stopped granting loans to the Philippine government. In an attempt to launch a national economic recovery program and despite his growing isolation from American businesses, Marcos negotiated with foreign creditors including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for a restructuring of the country's foreign debts – to give the Philippines more time to pay the loans. Marcos ordered a cut in government expenditures and used a portion of the savings to finance the Sariling Sikap (Self-Reliance), a livelihood program he established in 1984.
However, the economy continued to shrink despite the government's recovery efforts because American investors were discouraged by the Filipino economic elite. The failure of the recovery program was caused by civil unrest, rampant graft and corruption within the government, and Marcos' lack of credibility. The unemployment rate increased from 6.25% in 1972 to 11.058% in 1985.
Creation of a Credit Bureau
In 1981, Ferdinand Marcos issued Letter of Instructions No. 1107 mandating the Central Bank of the Philippines to analyze the probability of establishing and funding the operation of a credit bureau in the Philippines due to the disturbing increase of failures on corporate borrowers. In adherence to the order, Central Bank of the Philippines organized the Credit Information Exchange System under the department of Loans and Credit. It was created to engage in collating, developing and analyzing credit information on individuals, institutions, business entities and other business concerns. It aims to develop and undertake the continuing exchange of credit data within its members and subscribers and to provide an impartial source of credit information for debtors, creditors and the public. On April 14, 1982, Credit Information Bureau, Inc. was incorporated as a non-stock, non-profit corporation. CIBI was created pursuant to LOI No. 1107 dated February 16, 1981 and was further strengthened by PD No. 1941 which recognizes and supports CIBI as a suitable credit bureau to promote the development and maintenance of rational and efficient credit processes in the financial system and in the economy as a whole. In 1997, Credit Information Bureau, Inc. was incorporated and transformed into a private entity and became CIBI Information, Inc. CIBI is a provider of information and intelligence for business, credit and individuals. The company also supplies compliance reports before accrediting suppliers, industry partners and even hiring professionals.
According to the book "The Making of the Philippines" by Frank Senauth (p. 103): "Marcos himself diverted large sums of government money to his party's campaign funds. Between 1972 and 1980, the average monthly income of wage workers had fallen by 20%. By 1981, the wealthiest 10% of the population was receiving twice as much income as the bottom 60%. From 1972 to 1980, agricultural production fell by 30%. With help from the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, Marcos brought the Green Revolution (industrialized, chemical agriculture) to the Philippines. These reforms resulted in high profits for transnational corporations, but were generally harmful to small, peasant farmers who were often pushed into poverty. After declaring martial law in 1972, Marcos promised to implement agrarian reforms. However, the land reforms served largely to undermine Marcos' landholder opponents, not to lessen inequality in the countryside, and encouraged conversion to cash tenancy and greater reliance on farm workers. Under Marcos, timber products were among the nation's top exports but little attention was paid to the environmental impacts of deforestation as cronies never complied with reforestation agreements. By the early 1980s, forestry collapsed because most of the Philippines' accessible forests had been depleted—of the 12 million hectares of forestland, about 7 million had been left barren."
However, an article published by the World Bank on Philippine Agriculture says that crops (rice, corn, coconut, sugar), livestock and poultry and fisheries grew at an average rate of 6.8%, 3% and 4.5%, respectively from 1970-1980, and the forestry sector actually declined by an annual average rate of 4.4% through the 1970's.
During the Green Revolution, Marcos administration took advantage of a new rice cultivar IR8 developed by Philippine-based International Rice Research Institute. While the switch to IR8 required more fertilizers and pesticides, annual rice production in the Philippines increased from 3.7 to 7.7 million tons in two decades and made the Philippines a rice exporter for the first time in the 20th century.
Despite claims made by the book, Marcos's government did not distribute to small farmers his political rival Ninoy Aquino's family's 6,453 hectare Hacienda Luisita plantation, the biggest in the country.
In his dying days, Marcos was visited by Vice President Salvador Laurel. During the meeting with Salvador Laurel, Marcos offered 90% of his possessions back to the Filipino people in exchange for being buried back in the Philippines beside his mother, an offer also disclosed to Enrique Zobel. However, Marcos' offer was rebuffed by the Aquino government.
Marcos died in Honolulu on the morning of September 28, 1989, of kidney, heart, and lung ailments.Marcos was interred in a private mausoleum at Byodo-In Temple on the island of Oahu where his remains were visited daily by the Marcos family, political allies and friends.
The Aquino government refused to allow Marcos' body to be brought back to the Philippines. The body was only brought back to the Philippines only after 4 years after Marcos' death during the term of President Fidel Ramos.
As of 2015[update] his remains were interred inside a refrigerated crypt in Ilocos Norte, where his son, Ferdinand Jr., and eldest daughter, Imee have since become the local governor and congressional representative, respectively. A large bust of Ferdinand Marcos (inspired by Mount Rushmore) was commissioned by the tourism minister, Jose Aspiras, and carved into a hillside in Benguet. It was subsequently destroyed; suspects included left-wing activists, members of a local tribe who had been displaced by construction of the monument, and looters hunting for the legendary Yamashita treasure.
- Guinness World Records (with wife, Imelda): largest-ever theft: USD860.8 million "salted away" identified in April 23, 1986 with total stolen since November 1965, an estimated 5 to 10 billion dollars.
- Gabon: Grand Cross of the Order of the Equatorial Star (July 8, 1976)
- Indonesia: Star of Indonesia, First Class (January 12, 1968)
- Japan: Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (September 20, 1966)
- Jordan: Grand Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali (March 1, 1976)
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Grand Cross of the Order pro merito Melitensi
- Romania: Order of the Star of the Romanian Socialist Republic (April 9, 1975)
- Singapore: Order of Temasek, First Class (January 15, 1974)
- Thailand: Knight of the The Most Auspicious Order of the Rajamitrabhorn (January 15, 1968)
- Thammasat University: Honorary degree of Doctor of Laws (LLD) honoris causa (January 15, 1968)
Infrastructure Projects and Works
Marcos' government built a large number of infrastructure projects, including hospitals like the Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center, and Kidney Center, transportation infrastructure like San Juanico Bridge, Pan-Philippine Highway, and Manila Light Rail Transit (LRT), and 17 hydroelectric and geothermal power plants to lessen the country's dependency on oil. By 1983, the Philippines became the second largest producer of geothermal power in the world with the commissioning of the Tongonan 1 and Palinpinon 1 geothermal plants. According to UP Economics Professor Dr. Sicat, "a study of infrastructure construction by various presidents shows that Marcos was the president who made the largest infrastructure investment. This is not because he was the longest-serving leader of the country alone. On a per-year basis, he led all the presidents. Only Fidel Ramos had bested him in road building for a period of one year". On the education front, 47 state colleges and universities were built during the Marcos administration, which represents over 40% of all the existing 112 state colleges and universities in the country. To help transform the country's agricultural-based economy to a Newly industrialized country, he spearheaded the development of 11 heavy industrialization projects including steel, petrochemical, cement, pulp and paper mill, and copper smelter. Cultural and heritage sites like the Cultural Center of the Philippines, Nayong Pilipino, and Philippine International Convention Center were built. Likewise, the country crafted a large number of during Marcos' during Marcos' term.
From 1972–1986, the Marcos Administration codified laws through 2,036 Presidential Decrees, an average of 145 per year during the 14 year period. To put this into context, only 14, 12, and 11 laws were passed in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Almost all of the laws passed during the term of Marcos are remain in force today and are embedded in the country's legal system.
Marcos, together with agriculture minister and Harvard-educated Arturo Tanco and later on Salvador Escudero Jr., was instrumental in the Green Revolution in the Philippines and initiated an agricultural program called Masagana 99, improving agricultural productivity and enabling the country to achieve rice sufficiency in the late 1970's.
- National discipline: the key to our future (1970)
- Today's Revolution: Democracy (1971)
- Notes on the New Society of the Philippines (1973)
- Tadhana: the history of the Filipino People (1977, 1982)
- The democratic revolution in the Philippines (1977)
- Five years of the new society (1978)
- President Ferdinand E. Marcos on law, development and human rights (1978)
- President Ferdinand E. Marcos on agrarian reform (1979)
- An Ideology for Filipinos (1980)
- An introduction to the politics of transition (1980)
- Marcos' Notes for the Cancun Summit, 1981 (1981)
- Progress and Martial Law (1981)
- The New Philippine Republic: A Third World Approach to Democracy (1982)
- Toward a New Partnership: The Filipino Ideology (1983)
- A Trilogy on the Transformation of Philippine Society (1988)
Ill-gotten Wealth, Yamashita's treasure question and Status of Corruption Cases
The Philippine Supreme Court considers all Marcos assets beyond their legally declared earnings/salary to be ill-gotten wealth and such wealth have been forfeited in favor of the government or human rights victims. However, except for a former Marcos aide who conspired to sell a Monet and other artworks sequestered by the Philippine government, no one accused of taking what the Philippine government calls "ill-gotten" assets has been convicted for plundering the Philippine treasury, receiving bribes, or corruption. In 1990, Imelda Marcos, the widow of the former Philippine President, was acquitted of charges by a U.S. Jury that she raided the country's treasury and invested the money in the United States. In 1993, she was convicted of graft in Manila for entering into three unfavorable lease contracts between a Government-run transportation agency and another government-run hospital. In 1998, the Philippine Supreme Court overturned the previous conviction of Imelda Marcos and acquitted her of corruption charges. As of October 2015, she still faces 10 criminal charges of graft, down from 900 cases in the 90's, as most of the cases were dismissed for lack of evidence.
Enrique Zobel, founder of Makati Business Club and former chairman and president of Ayala Corporation, in his sworn statement, estimated Marcos gold hoard valued at US$100 billion and that Marcos wealth and that the riches were part of the Yamashita's treasure. Moreover, Marcelino Tagle, ex-director of Caritas Manila and Ten Outstanding Young Man awardee in 1967, corroborated Zobel and said that Marcos' gold were not stolen from the Philippine government, but came from Yamashita gold hoard and Vatican gold captured by Hitler.[unreliable source?]
On May 9, 2016, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists released the searchable database from Panama Papers. His two daughters, Imee Marcos Manotoc and Irene Marcos Araneta, have been named, along with his grandsons Fernando Manotoc, Matthew Joseph Manotoc, Ferdinand Richard Manotoc, his son-in-law Gregorio Maria Araneta III, including his estranged son-in-law Tommy Manotoc's relatives Ricardo Gabriel Manotoc, Teodoro Kalaw Manotoc, Maria Eva Estrada Kalaw. According to The Guardian, Ferdinand Marcos had an accumulated stolen wealth of US $10 billion during his presidency from 1965 to 1986, while earning an annual salary equivalent to US $13,500.00.
In 1995, some 10,000 Filipinos won a U.S. class-action lawsuit filed against the Marcos estate. The claims were filed by victims or their surviving relatives consequent on torture, execution, and disappearances.
Corazon Aquino repealed many of the repressive laws that had been enacted during Marcos' dictatorship. She restored the right of access to habeas corpus, repealed anti-labor laws and freed hundreds of political prisoners.
From 1989 to 1996, a series of suits were brought before U.S. courts against Marcos and his daughter Imee, alleging that they bore responsibility for executions, torture, and disappearances. A jury in the Ninth Circuit Court awarded USD2 billion to the plaintiffs and to a class composed of human rights victims and their families. On June 12, 2008, the U.S. Supreme Court (in a 7–2 ruling penned by Justice Anthony Kennedy in Republic of the Philippines v. Mariano Pimentel) held that: "The judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is reversed, and the case is remanded with instructions to order the District Court to dismiss the interpleader action." The court dismissed the interpleader lawsuit filed to determine the rights of 9,500 Filipino human rights victims (1972–1986) to recover USD35 million, part of a USD2 billion judgment in U.S. courts against the Marcos estate, because the Philippines government is an indispensable party, protected by sovereign immunity. The Philippines government claimed ownership of the funds transferred by Marcos in 1972 to Arelma S.A., which invested the money with Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Inc., in New York.
Human rights groups place the number of victims of extrajudicial killings under martial law at 1,500 and Karapatan, a local human rights group's records show 759 involuntarily disappeared with their bodies never found. Military historian Alfred McCoy in his book Closer than Brothers: Manhood at the Philippine Military Academy and in his speech "Dark Legacy" cites 3,257 extrajudicial killings, 35,000 torture victims, and 70,000 incarcerated during the Marcos years. The newspaper Bulatlat (lit. "to open carelessly") places the number of victims of arbitrary arrest and detention at 120,000.
Many laws written by Marcos are still in force and in effect. Out of thousands of proclamations, decrees, and executive orders, only a few were repealed, revoked, modified or amended.
I often wonder what I will be remembered in history for. Scholar? Military hero? Builder? The new constitution? Reorganization of government? Builder of roads, schools? The green revolution? Uniter of variant and antagonistic elements of our people? He brought light to a dark country? Strong rallying point, or a weak tyrant?— Ferdinand Marcos
Massive foreign loans also enabled Marcos to build more schools, hospitals and infrastructure than all of his predecessors combined, but at great cost. Today, according to Ibon Foundation, a left-learning think tank that advocated the government to default on its debt, Filipino citizens are still bearing the heavy burden of servicing public debts incurred during Marcos' administration, with ongoing interest payments on the loan schedule by the Philippine government estimated to last until 2025–59 years after Marcos assumed office and 39 years after he was kicked out. However, a listing of debt from the Philippine Bureau of Treasury as of August 2016 revealed that the oldest outstanding government debt in form of treasury bonds is dated 20-Dec-93 and no outstanding Philippine dollar debt were dated earlier than 2000.
Corazon Aquino had an opportunity to default and not pay foreign debt incurred during the Marcos administration. However, due to Finance Secretary Jaime Ongpin's warning on the consequences of a debt default, which includes isolating the country from the international financial community and hampering the economic recovery, Corazon Aquino honored all the debts incurred during the Marcos Administration, contrary to expectations of left-learning organizations like Ibon foundation which advocated for non-payment of debt. Jaime Ongpin, who is a brother of Marcos trade minister Roberto Ongpin, was later dismissed by Cory Aquino and later died in an apparent suicide after "he had been depressed about infighting in Aquino's cabinet and disappointed that the 'People Power' uprising which had toppled dictator Ferdinand Marcos had not brought significant change".
Some of these loans were ostensibly funded to construct the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant but, after Marcos' ouster, the plant was not utilized by the succeeding Aquino Administration even though the same technology was used in Japan, South Korea, and the United States. Corazon Aquino's decision to mothball the Bataan Nuclear Plant built during the Marcos administration contributed to the power crisis in the 1990's, as the 620 megawatts capacity of the plant was enough to cover the shortfall at that time.
The amount of theft perpetrated by Marcos's regime was probably less than that by Suharto on Indonesia, but harmed our country more because the sums stolen by Marcos were sent out of the country, whereas Suharto's loot mostly were invested in Indonesia.
According to Jovito Salonga, monopolies in several vital industries were created and placed under the control of Marcos cronies, such as the coconut industries (under Eduardo Cojuangco Jr. and Juan Ponce Enrile), the tobacco industry (under Lucio Tan), the banana industry (under Antonio Floirendo), the sugar industry (under Roberto Benedicto), and manufacturing (under Herminio Disini and Ricardo Silverio). The Marcos and Romualdez families became owners, directly or indirectly, of the nation's largest corporations, such as the Philippine Long Distance Company (PLDC), of which the present name is Philippine Long Distance Telephone (PLDT), Philippine Airlines (PAL), Meralco (an electric company), Fortune Tobacco, numerous newspapers, radio and TV broadcasting companies (such as ABS-CBN), several banks (most notably the Philippine Commercial and Industrial Bank; PCIBank of the Lopezes [now BDO after merging with Equitable Bank and after BDO acquired the merged Equitable PCI]), and real estate in New York, California and Hawaii. The Aquino government also accused them of skimming off foreign aid and international assistance.
During the ICIJ's (International Consortium of Investigative Journalists) expose of offshore leaks in April 2013, the name of his eldest daughter, Imee Marcos, appeared on the list of wealthy people involved in offshore financial secrecy. It was revealed that she is hiding parts of her father's ill-gotten wealth in tax havens in the British Virgin Islands.
Comparisons have also been made between Ferdinand Marcos and Lee Kuan Yew's authoritarian style of governance and Singapore's success, but in his autobiography, From Third World to First: The Singapore Story: 1965–2000, Lee relates:
It is a soft, forgiving culture. Only in the Philippines could a leader like Ferdinand Marcos, who pillaged his country for over 20 years, still be considered for a national burial. Insignificant amounts of the loot have been recovered, yet his wife and children were allowed to return and engage in politics.— Lee Kuan Yew
The Marcos family and their cronies looted so much wealth from the Philippines that, to this day, investigators have difficulty determining precisely how many billions of dollars were stolen. It is estimated that Marcos stole around USD5 to USD10 billion from the Philippine treasury. Adjusted for inflation, this would be equivalent to about USD10.6 to USD21.2 billion or almost 500 billion to 1 trillion Philippine pesos in 2014.
- Conjugal dictatorship
- Rolex 12
- List of Filipinos by net worth
- List of South East Asian people by net worth
- Wintrobe, Ronald (2000). The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Cambridge University Press. pp. 11; 132. ISBN 978-0-521-79449-7.
- Roa, Ana (September 29, 2014). "Regime of Marcoses, cronies, kleptocracy". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Nick Davies (May 7, 2016). "The $10bn question: what happened to the Marcos millions?". The Guardian.
- Mijares, Primitivo (1986). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. Union Square Publications.
- Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz (1990). Philippine History and Government (Second ed.). Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 971-06-1894-6. p. 189.
- Sudjic, Deyan (November 3, 2015). The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World. The Penguin Press HC. ISBN 978-1-59420-068-7.
- Lapeña, Carmela G.; Arquiza, Yasmin D. (September 20, 2012). "Masagana 99, Nutribun, and Imelda's 'edifice complex' of hospitals". GMA News Online.
- Lico, Gerard (January 30, 2003). Edifice Complex: Power, Myth And Marcos State Architecture. Ateneo de Manila University Press.
- "PCGG welcomes Singapore court decision on Marcos' Swiss funds". Rappler. January 4, 2014.
- "Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative: Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos (Switzerland)". World Bank. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- "Global Corruption Report" (PDF). Transparency International. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "Global Corruption Report, p. 106". Transparency International. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- "Global Programme Against Corruption, p. 274" (PDF). Transparency International. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- "Chronology of the Marcos Plunder". Asian Journal. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- Conde, Carlos H. (July 8, 2007). "Marcos family returning to the limelight in the Philippines". The New York Times.
- "Report of an Amnesty International Mission to the Republic of the Philippines 22 November – 5 December 1975" (PDF). Amnesty International Publications. September 1976.
- "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Hartford-hwp.com. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part I)". Asian Journal USA.
- Maynigo, Benjamin. "MARCOS FAKE MEDALS REDUX (Part II)". Asian Journal USA.
- Bondoc, Jarius (April 8, 2011). "Suspicions resurface about Marcos heroism". Philippine Star.
- Gerth, Jeff; Brinkley, Joel (January 23, 1986). "Marcos's wartime role discredited in U.S. files". The New York Times.
- Gillespie, Peter. "Lethal Liabilities: The Human Costs of Debt and Capital Flight". Third World Quarterly.
- Butterfield, Fox (March 29, 1986). "Marcos's Fortune: Inquiry in Manila Offers Picture of How it was Acquired". The New York Times.
- Tupaz, Edsel; Wagner, Daniel (October 13, 2014). "The Missing Marcos Billions and the Demise of the Commission on Good Government". The World Post.
- Pazzibugan, Dona Z. (February 13, 2014). "PCGG recovers $29M from Marcos loot". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Mogato, Manuel (February 24, 2016). "Philippines still seeks $1 billion in Marcos wealth 30 years after his ouster". Reuters.
- Japanese and U.S. World War II Plunder and Intrigue. 24 November 2010. p. 169.
- The Heritage Foundation (May 31, 1984). "'The Roots of the Philippines' Economic Troubles'".
- Emmanuel S. de Dios (November 16, 2015). "The truth about the economy under the Marcos regime". BusinessWorld.
- Ronald U. Mendoza (February 26, 2016). "Ferdinand Marcos' economic disaster". Rappler.
- Doronila, Amando (September 24, 2014). "The night Marcos declared martial law". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- "Declaration of Martial Law". The Official Gazette.
- "FM Declares Martial Law". Philippines Sunday Express. September 24, 1972.
- Rivett, Rohan (March 13, 1973). "The Mark of Marcos – Part I: A deafening silence in the Philippines". The Age.
- Kushida, Kenji (2003). "The Political Economy of the Philippines Under Marcos – Property Rights in the Philippines from 1965–1986" (PDF). Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs.
- Schirmer, Daniel B.; Shalom, Stephen Roskamm (1987). The Philippines Reader: A history of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship and Resistance. South End Press.
- Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Praeger Publishers.
- "EX-COMMUNISTS PARTY BEHIND MANILA BOMBING". The Washington Post. August 4, 1989.
- "REPORT OF AN AI MISSION TO THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. 22 NOVEMBER – 5 DECEMBER 1975". Amnesty International. September 1, 1976.
- Remollino, Alexander Martin (September 17, 2006). "Marcos Kin, Allies Still within Corridors of Power". Bulatalat. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- "From Aquino's Assassination to People's Power". Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
- Hoffman, David; Cannon, Lou; Coleman, Milton; Dewar, Helen; Goshko, John M.; Oberdorfer, Don; W, George C. (26 February 1986). "In Crucial Call, Laxalt Told Marcos: 'Cut Cleanly'". The Washington Post.
- Reaves, Joseph A. (February 26, 1986). "Marcos Flees, Aquino Rules – Peaceful Revolt Ends In Triumph". Chicago Tribune.
- Benigno Aquino, Jr. (August 21, 1983). "The undelivered speech of Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. upon his return from the U.S., August 21, 1983". The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- Laurie, Jim (August 21, 1983). "Last interview with and footage of Ninoy Aquino assassination". YouTube. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- Kashiwara, Ken (October 16, 1983). "Aquino's Final Journey". The New York Times.
- Tantiangco, Aya; Bigtas, Jannielyn Ann (February 25, 2016). "What Marcoses brought to Hawaii after fleeing PHL in '86: $717-M in cash, $124-M in deposit slips". GMA News Online.
- Heilprin, John (April 13, 2015). "Political Will guides Marcos case in Philippines". Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.
- Roa, Ana (29 September 2014). "Regime of Marcoses, cronies, kleptocracy". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Warde, Ibrahim (25 May 2011). "From Marcos to Gaddafi: Kleptocrats, Old and New". The World Post.
- Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. (12 October 2014). "'Imeldific' collection of artworks (partial list)". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Macapendeg, Mac (21 September 2012). "Martial Law fashion: The Imeldific and the Third World look". GMA News.
- Arcache, Maurice (24 October 2002). "An Imeldific dinner". The Philippine Star.
- Tejero, Constantino C. (14 August 2011). "Imeldific at 82". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- "Imelda Marcos Acquitted, Again". The New York Times. 11 March 2008.
- "MARCOS CONVICTED OF GRAFT IN MANILA". The New York Times. September 24, 1993.
- CNN Library (January 24, 2013). "Imelda Marcos Fast Facts". CNN.
- Gil Cabacungan (October 29, 2012). "Marcoses lose US appeal". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Marc Jayson Cayabyab (October 23, 2015). "Imelda Marcos allowed to travel to Singapore despite graft cases". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Ellison, Katherine (6 October 2012). "The Steel Butterfly Still Soars". The New York Times.
- "Imelda Marcos and her road to vindication". GMA News. April 10, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Steinberg, David Joel (2000). The Philippines: A Singular and a Plural Place. Basic Books. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-0-8133-3755-5.
- Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: the political economy of authoritarianism. Greenwood Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-275-94137-6.
- Mijares (1976), p. 237.
- "CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY: PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURTDECISIONS ON-LINE".
- Justice Jose P. Laurel penned the ponencia (in People vs. Mariano Marcos, et al., 70 Phil. 468) with which Chief Justice Ramón Avanceña, Justices Imperial, Díaz and Horilleno all concurred.
- See page 32, http://www.utoledo.edu/as/pdfs/100years.pdf
- Miriam Santiago on love, loss and her home, Philippine Star, March 25, 2012.
- "FERDINAND E. MARCOS". GOVPH. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- The Sydney Morning Herald accessed 10 March 2016
- Ocampo, Ambeth (2010). Looking Back. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-971-27-2336-0.
- Mijares (1976), p. 255.
- "Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr.". October 8, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- According to Marcos's claims, Antonio Luna is supposedly a "cousin" of Fructuoso Edralin, and was supposedly present during the General's assassination at Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija. Romualdez Francia, Beatriz (1988). Imelda and the clans: A story of the Philippines. Solar Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-9711706319.
- Gerth, Jeff; Brinkley, Joel (January 23, 1986). "MARCOS'S WARTIME ROLE DISCREDITED IN U.S. FILES". New York Times.
- Sharkey, John. "New Doubts on Marcos' War Role". Washington Post. January 24, 1986
- Agoncillo (1990), pp. 404–409.
- Mijares (1976), pp. 246–254.
- Maynigo, Benjamin. "MARCOS FAKE MEDALS REDUX (Part I)". Asian Journal USA. August 15, 2016
- Sharkey, John. "The Marcos Mystery: Did the Philippine Leader Really Win the U.S. Medals for Valor?He Exploits Honors He May Not Have Earned". Washington Post. December 18, 1983
- Bondoc , Jarius. "Marcos medals: Only 2 of 33 given in battle". Phil Star Global. April 29, 2011
- Global Balita referencing an article that suggests Marcos did not earn the vast majority of the medals he claimed. http://globalbalita.com/2011/04/28/marcos-medals-only-2-of-33-given-in-battle/
- Inquirer.net Opinion piece citing Bonifacio Gillego's book critical of Marcos's wartime history. http://opinion.inquirer.net/76363/sunset-boulevard
- Bulatlat piece questioning the Marcos exploits during the war. http://bulatlat.com/news/5-19/5-19-bessang.htm
- Orlando Sentinel article which claims the Marcos war history records as untrue. http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1986-01-23/news/0190270164_1_marcos-army-records-philippines
- PCIJ.ORG article about which claims Marcos's wartime history as propaganda. http://pcij.org/i-report/2007/dynasty-building3.html
- Asian Journal San Diego which has an article also claiming Marcos's exploits during world war two as untrue. http://asianjournalusa.com/marcos-fake-medals-redux-part-iii-p10829-168.htm
- "Alfred W. McCoy Biography". University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of History. Archived from the original on 2011-08-28.
- Robles, Raissa (May 17, 2011). "Eminent Filipino war historian slams Marcos burial as a "hero"". Raissa Robles: Inside Politics and Beyond.
- Reaves, Joseph A. (September 29, 1989). "Marcos Was More Than Just Another Deposed Dictator". Chicago Tribune."US Department of Defense official database of Distinguished Service Cross recipients".
- Robert Lapham, Bernard Norling. Lapham's Raiders: Guerrillas in the Philippines, 1942–1945. University Press of Kentucky.
- Scott, William Henry (1992). Looking for the Prehispanic Filipino and Other Essays in the Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0524-7.
- McCoy, Alfred W. (1999). Closer than brothers: manhood at the Philippine Military Academy. Yale University Press. pp. 167–170. ISBN 978-0-300-07765-0.
- Mijares (1976), p. 261.
- Ferdinand Edralin Marcos. Philippines Senate
- Mijares (1976).
- Abinales, P.N. (2000). Making Mindanao: Cotabato and Davao in the formation of the Philippine nation-state. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-971-550-349-5.
- Agoncillo (1990), pp. 508–510.
- Lieutenant General Larsen, Stanley Robert (1985) "Chapter III: The Philippines" in Allied Participation in Vietnam, U.S. Department of the Army[unreliable source?]
- Timberman, David G. (1991). A changeless land: continuity and change in Philippine politics. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 63.
- Boudreau, Vincent (2004). Resisting dictatorship: repression and protest in Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-521-83989-1.
- Hedman, Eva-Lotta E. (2006). In the name of civil society: from free election movements to people power in the Philippines. University of Hawaii Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8248-2921-6.
- McCoy, Alfred W. (2009). Policing America's empire: the United States, the Philippines, and the rise of the surveillance state. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-299-23414-0.
- Silliman, G. Sidney & Noble, Lela Garner (1998). "Introduction". Organizing for democracy: NGOs, civil society, and the Philippine State. University of Hawaii Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8248-2043-5.
- I-Witness, GMA 7 (November 18, 2013). "MV Karagatan, The Ship of the Chinese Communist". YouTube.
- "THE PHILIPPINES: Farewell to Democracy". Time. January 29, 1973.
- Mendoza Jr, Amado (2009). "'People Power' in the Philippines, 1983–1986". In Roberts, Adam & Ash, Timothy Garton. Civil resistance and power politics: the experience of non-violent action from Gandhi to the present. Oxford University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6.
- Mijares (1976), pp. 59.
- Brands, H.W. (1992). Bound to empire: the United States and the Philippines. Oxford University Press. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-19-507104-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "28. Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.
- "Max Soliven recalls Ninoy Aquino: Unbroken". Philippines Star. October 10, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- "In many tongues, pope championed religious freedoms". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved August 21, 2006.
- "Marcos: The Great, Tragic Reformer". Manila Times. November 11, 2014.
- Smith, Tony (2012). America's Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy. Princeton University Press. p. 281. ISBN 1-4008-4202-6.
- Shain, Yossi (1999). Marketing the American Creed Abroad: Diasporas in the U.S. and Their Homelands. Cambridge University Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-521-64225-5.
- Schmitz, David F. (2006). The United States and Right-Wing Dictatorships, 1965–1989. Cambridge University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-139-45512-1.
- Mother Jones Magazine. Mother Jones. June 1983. p. 35. ISSN 0362-8841.
- For a detailed treatment of corruption under Marcos, see Chaikin, David & Sharman, Jason Campbell (2009). "The Marcos Kleptocracy". Corruption and money laundering: a symbiotic relationship. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61360-7.
- Moran, Jon (June 1999). "Patterns of Corruption and Development in East Asia". Third World Quarterly. 20 (3): 579. doi:10.1080/01436599913695.
- Bello, Walden (Winter 1985–1986). "Edging toward the Quagmire: The United States and the Philippine Crisis". World Policy Journal. 3 (1): 31.
- Shalom, Stephen R. (1993). Imperial alibis: rationalizing U.S. intervention after the cold war. South End Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-89608-448-3.
- McCoy, Alfred W. (2009). An Anarchy of Families: State and Family in the Philippines. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-299-22984-9.
- Wurfel, David (1988). Filipino Politics: Development and Decay. Cornell University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-8014-9926-5.
- Zhao, Hong (2012). "Sino-Philippines Relations: Moving beyond South China Sea Dispute?". Journal of East Asian Affairs: 57. ISSN 1010-1608. Retrieved 6 March 2015 – via Questia. (subscription required (. ))
- The Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Trade were merged by President Ferdinand Marcos in 1981 as the Ministry of Trade and Industry.
- The Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Communications and Ministry of Public Highways were merged by President Ferdinand Marcos in 1981 as the Ministry of Public Works and Highways.
- "Philippines: Together Again". Time. July 13, 1981.
- Steinberg, David Joel (2000). The Philippines: a singular and a plural place. Westview Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-8133-3755-5.
- "Max Soliven recalls Ninoy Aquino: Unbroken". Philippines Star. October 10, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Rodis, Rodel (2009-08-19). "Who ordered the hit on Ninoy Aquino?". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- "Transcript of ABS-CBN Interview with Pablo Martinez, co-accused in the Aquino murder case". Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- Blitz, Amy (2000). The contested state: American foreign policy and regime change in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 167–168. ISBN 978-0-8476-9934-6.
- "Marcos Underwent Kidney Transplants, Doctors Say". Los Angeles Times. November 11, 1985.
- Wurfel, David (1988). Filipino Politics: Development and Decay. Cornell University Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-8014-9926-5.
- Pace, Eric (September 29, 1989). "Autocrat With a Regal Manner, Marcos Ruled for 2 Decades". The New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Pollard, Vincent Kelly (2004). Globalization, democratization and Asian leadership: power sharing, foreign policy and society in the Philippines and Japan. Ashgate Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7546-1539-2.
- Parnell, Philip C. (2003). "Criminalizing Colonialism: Democracy Meets Law in Manila". In Parnell, Philip C. & Kane, Stephanie C. Crime's power: anthropologists and the ethnography of crime. Palgrave-Macmillan. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-4039-6179-2.
- Foreign Policy in Focus (September 21, 2015). "What the Class Politics of World War II Mean for Tensions in Asia Today". Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- Zunes, Stephen; Asher, Sarah Beth; Kurtz, Lester (5 November 1999). Nonviolent Social Movements: A Geographical Perspective. Wiley. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-57718-076-0.
- Manila Times. "'Setting the record straight on Edsa 1'". Retrieved August 30, 2015.
- Crisostomo, Isabelo T. (1987-04-01), Cory, Profile of a President: The Historic Rise to Power of Corazon., Branden Books, p. 257, ISBN 978-0-8283-1913-3, retrieved 2007-12-03.
- Paul Sagmayao, Mercado; Tatad, Francisco S. (1986), People Power: The Philippine Revolution of 1986: An Eyewitness History, Manila, Philippines: The James B. Reuter, S.J., Foundation, OCLC 16874890
- Lama, George de; Collin, Dorothy (February 26, 1986). "Marcos Flees, Aquino Rules". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
- Halperin, Jonathan J. (1987). The Other Side: How Soviets and Americans Perceive Each Other. Transaction Publishers. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-88738-687-9.
- "Ferdinand E. Marcos". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- Boyce, James K. (1993). The political economy of growth and impoverishment in the Marcos era. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-971-550-096-8.
- See Hutchcroft, Paul David (1998). Booty capitalism: the politics of banking in the Philippines. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-3428-0.
- Larkin, John A. (1993). "Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society". University of California Press.
- Quirino, Carlos (1974). "History of the Philippine Sugar Industry". Kalayaan.
- Kathleen M. Nadeau, p.xiv, 57 Quirino (2008). "The History of the Philippines". Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Introduction to "The Marcos Legacy: Economic Policy and Foreign Debt in the Philippines" (PDF). Developing Country Debt and Economic Performance, Volume 3: Country Studies - Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Turkey. National Bureau of Economic Research. 1989.
- Aniceto C. Orbeta Jr., Structural Adjustment and Poverty Alleviation in the Philippines, Philippine Institute for Development Studies, April 1996.
- "Philippines Unemployment Rate". IndexMundi.
- Diaz, Ronald Echalas. "PHILIPPINE LAWS, STATUTES AND CODES – CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY". chanrobles.com.
- "RP’s biggest credit research firms form alliance". philstar.com.
- Frank Senauth. "'The Making of the Philippines'": 103.
- Morada, Noel M. & Collier, Christopher (1998). "The Philippines: State Versus Society?". In Alagappa, Muthiah. Asian security practice: material and ideational influences. Stanford University Press. p. 554. ISBN 978-0-8047-3348-9.
- Nadeau, Kathleen M. (2002). Liberation theology in the Philippines: faith in a revolution. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-275-97198-4.
- Kang, David C. (2002). Crony capitalism: corruption and development in South Korea and the Philippines. Cambridge University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-521-00408-4.
- Sidel, John Thayel (1999). Capital, coercion, and crime: bossism in the maPhilippines. Stanford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8047-3746-3.
- Crewdson, John (March 23, 1986). "Marcos Graft Staggering – Investigators Trace Billions In Holdings". Chicago Tribune.
- Boyce, James K. (2002). The political economy of the environment. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-84376-108-2.
- "Rice paddies". FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
- Friday, 14 Jun. 1968 (14 June 1968). "Rice of the Gods". TIME. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
- "Aquino's Vice President Asks Sympathy for Ailing Marcos". New York Times.
- "Doy on Macoy". The Philippine Star.
- "Philippines blast wrecks Marcos bust". BBC News. December 29, 2002. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- "Briefer on the Philippine Legion of Honor". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- The Guinness Book of World Records 1989. Bantam. p. 400. ISBN 0-553-27926-2.
- The Guinness Book of World Records 1991. Bantam. p. 552. ISBN 0-553-28954-3.
- The Guinness Book of World Records 1999. Bantam. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-553-58075-4.
- Laguatan, Ted (June 30, 2013). "Adding insult to injury: UP College named after Marcos' Prime Minister". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. (March 18, 2004). "Thief and Dictator". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- "Briefer: Bintang Republik Indonesia (Star of the Republic of Indonesia)". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- "Filipino recipients of Japanese decorations and Japanese recipients of Philippine decorations". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- "President's Week in Review: March 1 – March 9, 1976". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- "The Order of pro Merito Melitensi". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- "President's Week in Review: April 7 – April 13, 1975". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- "Filipino recipients of Spanish Decorations". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- Business Mirror (November 13, 2015). "Marcos's unmatched legacy: Hospitals, schools and other infrastructures".
- Business Mirror (October 30, 2015). "Marcos's unmatched legacy: Energy".
- Business Mirror (November 7, 2015). "Marcos's unmatched legacy: Education".
- Executive Intelligence Review (August 23, 1985). "The Philippines' Battle for Development" (PDF).
- Christian Science Monitor (September 19, 1980). "A range of 11 big industrial projects is in the works".
- Business Mirror (November 13, 2015). "Marcos's unmatched legacy"..
- Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. "Presidential Decrees".
- Business Mirror (November 13, 2015). "Marcos's unmatched legacy".
- Christian Science Monitor (September 19, 1980). "Meet Arturo Tanco, a technocrat who tends the vital farming front".
- Rappler (February 10, 2016). "Marcos best president if not for dictatorship – Duterte".
- "Ferdinand Marcos". University of the Philippines Integrated Library System. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- The Great Gold Swindle: Yamashita's Gold. 8 March 2012. p. 354. ISBN 978-1105583117.
- Japanese and U.S. World War II Plunder and Intrigue. 24 November 2010. p. 142.
- Guevara, Marina Walker. "ICIJ releases database revealing thousands of secret offshore companies". icij.org.
- "Search results for "marcos"". icij.org.
- "Search results for "marcos"". icij.org.
- "Search results for "araneta"". icij.org.
- "Search results for "kalaw"". icij.org.
- Davies, Nick. "The $10bn question: what happened to the Marcos millions?". the Guardian.
- Brysk, Alison (2005). Human rights and private wrongs: constructing global civil society. Psychology Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-415-94477-9.
- Hranjski, Hrvoje (September 12, 2006). "No hero's resting place as Imelda Marcos finds site for husband's grave". The Scotsman. UK. Archived from the original on 2008-01-05. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- Larmour, Peter & Wolanin, Nick, eds. (2001). Corruption and anti-corruption. Asia-Pacific Press. pp. 99–110. ISBN 978-0-7315-3660-3.
- "Article Index – INQUIRER.net". Archived from the original on November 12, 2005.
- "Honolulu Star-Bulletin Editorials". Starbulletin.com. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- "Hunt for tyrant's millions leads to former model's home". Sydney Morning Herald. Australia. July 4, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Schirmer, Daniel B.; Shalom, Stephen R. (1987). The Philippines reader: a history of colonialism, neocolonialism, dictatorship, and resistance. South End Press. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-89608-275-5.
- Stephens, Beth (2008). International human rights litigation in U.S. courts. BRILL. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-57105-353-4.
- jurist.law.pitt.edu, Supreme Court rules in Marcos assets
- supremecourt.gov, REPUBLIC OF PHILIPPINES ET AL. v. PIMENTEL, June 12, 2008, No. 06–1204
- "Court ruling hinders Marcos victims seeking funds". USA Today. June 12, 2008.
- Oliveros, Benjie (September 17, 2006). "The Specter of Martial Law". Bulatalat. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- Villanueva, Marichu A. (March 10, 2006). "Imee's '20–20'". The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
- Delusions of a Dictator: The Mind of Marcos As Revealed in His Secret Diaries. William C. Rempel. Little Brown & Co, 1993.
- Padilla, Arnold. "Taxpayers To Pay Marcos Debt Until 2025, IBON features Vol X No. 42". Ibon Foundation.
- "Brownouts Darken Outlook for Aquino : Philippines: Power outages cripple industry and snarl traffic. Criticism has focused on the president.". The Los Angeles Times. April 24, 1990.
- "World's Ten Most Corrupt Leaders1". Infoplease.com Source: Transparency International Global Corruption Report 2004. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- Paterno, Vicente (2014). On My Terms. Anvil.
- "Jovito R. Salonga, Some highlights". Hartford-hwp.com. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- "Secret Files Expose Offshore's Global Impact". ICIJ. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- "BIR chief ready to investigate Pinoys with offshore accounts".
- Taruc, Paolo (March 24, 2015). "Different legacies: Ferdinand Marcos and Lee Kuan Yew". CNN.
- Diola, Camille (March 23, 2015). "15 things Lee Kuan Yew said about the Philippines". The Philippine Star.
- Mydans, Seth (March 31, 1991). "Hunt for Marcos's Billions Yields More Dead Ends Than Hard Cash". New York Times.
- Hunt, Luke (January 8, 2013). "End of 30-Year Hunt for Marcos Billions?". The Diplomat, Asian Beat section.
- Komisar, Lucy (August 2, 2002). "Marcos' Missing Millions". In These Times.
- Ezrow, Natasha M. & Franz, Erica (2011). Dictators and Dictatorships: Understanding Authoritarian Regimes and Their Leaders. Continuum Publishing. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-4411-7396-6.
- Henry, James S.; Bradley, Bill (2005). "Philippine Money Flies". The Blood Bankers: Tales from the Global Underground Economy. Basic Books. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-56025-715-8.
- "Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator". United States Department of Labor.
- Mijares, Primitivo (1976). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. Union Square.
- Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990). History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon City: C & E Publishing.
- Aquino, Belinda, ed. (1982). Cronies and Enemies: The Current Philippine Scene. Philippine Studies Program, Center for Asian and Pacific Studies, University of Hawaii.
- Bonner, Raymond (1987). Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. Times Books, New York ISBN 978-0-8129-1326-2
- Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: the political economy of authoritarianism. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 978-0-275-94137-6.
- Salonga, Jovito (2001). Presidential Plunder: The Quest for Marcos' Ill-gotten Wealth. Regina Pub. Co., Manila
- Seagrave, Sterling (1988): The Marcos Dynasty, Harper Collins
- Library of Congress Country Studies: Philippines. The Inheritance from Marcos
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|News from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Bantayog ng mga Bayani – Monument to the Heroes & victims of martial law during the Marcos regime
- GMA News Research: Batas Militar (Martial Law: September 21, 1972 – January 17, 1981)
- Philippine government website on the country's presidents at the Wayback Machine (archived August 4, 2008)
- Marcos Presidential Center at the Wayback Machine (archived September 23, 2004)
- Heroes and Killers of the 20th century: killer file: Ferdinand Marcos
- Ferdinand Marcos at the Internet Movie Database
|President of the Senate
|President of the Philippines
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
|Presiding Officer of the Legislative Advisory Council
Jorge B. Vargas
|Prime Minister of the Philippines
|House of Representatives of the Philippines|
|Member of the House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's 2nd
Simeon M Valdez