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Fear Manach (Irish)
Maguire of Fermanagh c. 15th century.
|Capital||Cuilcagh (royal inaugurations)|
Lisnaskea (royal base)
|Today part of||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
Fermanagh (Irish: Fear Manach) was a kingdom of Gaelic Ireland, associated geographically with present-day County Fermanagh. The kingdom became a borderland and competing ground between the descendants of the Three Collas and Eochaid Mugmedon (ie - the Uí Néill and Uí Briúin), both groups descending from Conn of the Hundred Battles.
The realm came to be ruled by the Mag Uidhir (Maguire) clan by the end of the 13th century and this state of affairs continued on until 1607, when the last king of Fermanagh; Cú Chonnacht Óg Mag Uidhir; was one of the Gaelic Irish leaders who fled to the European Continent during the Flight of the Earls. Fermanagh was subsequently merged into the Stewart Kingdom of Ireland as County Fermanagh.
Laighin ancient origins
The original "Fear Manach", that is to say the Manach or Monaigh people in the north of Ireland, claimed descent from the Laighin of Leinster. They reached the upper Lough Erne in ancient times. According to the Book of Glendalaugh (also known as the Rawlinson B 502) a genealogy is provided for the early Manach people and they claim descent from Dáire Barrach, the son of Cathair Mór, High King of Ireland. Dáire Barrach's descendants elsewhere in Ireland are today known as the MacGorman (Mac Gormáin) and ruled Uí Bairrche during the Middle Ages. Cathair Mór himself had ruled Ireland as King of Tara in the 2nd century.
Connachta and Three Collas
During the 4th and 5th centuries, the geopolitical situation in Ireland changed due to the rise of the descendants of Conn of the Hundred Battles. Most significantly for the Fear Manach, the kingdoms of Airgíalla (under the descendants of the Three Collas), the kingdom of Ailech (under the Uí Néill) and the kingdom of Connacht (under the Uí Briúin) arose. According to Peadar Livingstone, the territory of Fermanagh became disputed by these groups and the previously ruling Fear Managh people.
11th century onwards
By the end of the 11th century, Fermanagh had decisively re-emerged as a sovereign kingdom in the region. The rulers of this kingdom were drawn from the Airgíalla. Early on the territory drew kings from three branches of Clann Lugainn; the Ó hEignigh (O'Heany), Maolruanaidh (Mulrooney) and Ó Dubhdara (Darragh). These families claimed descent from the Three Collas, in the person of Colla Fochríth and were thus kinsmen of the MacMahon kings of Airgíalla. Towards the end of the 13th century, the Mag Uidhir (Maguire) arose to the kingship of Fermanagh and with the exception of some challenges from the Ó Domhnaill of Tyrconnell, this would remain the situation until the end of the kingdom in 1607 with the Flight of the Earls.
Kings of Fermanagh
- Cathal Ó Dubhdara (died 1009)
- Niall Ó hÉicnigh (died 1053)
- Domhnall Ó Mael Ruanaidh (died 1057)
- Giolla Críst Ó Dubhdara (died 1076)
- Ó hÉicnigh (died 1095)
- Laidhgnén Ó Dubhdara (died 1118)
- Ó Mael Ruanaidh (1126)
- Gilla Críost Ó hÉicnigh (died 1127), also over-king of Airgíalla.
- Faelán Ó Dubhdara (died 1128)
- Ó Mael Ruanaidh (died 1160)
- Mac an Oíche Ó Mael Ruanaidh (1189)
- Aonghus Mac Giolla Fhinnéin (died 1234)
- Domhnall Mór Ó Domnhaill (died 1241), also king of Tyrconnell.
- Flaithbertach Ó Daimin (died 1275)
- Donn Mag Uidhir (died 1298)
- Mac Craith Mag Uidhir (died 1306)
- Flaithbertach Mag Uidhir (died 1324)
- Aodh Ó Domhnaill (died 1333), also king of Tyrconnell.
- Ruaidhri Mag Uidhir (died 1338)
- Aodh Ruadh Mag Uidhir (1360)
- Pilib Mag Uidhir (died 1366)
- Brian Mag Uidhir (died 1373)
- Pilib na Tuagh Mag Uidhir (died 1395)
- Tomás Mag Uidhir (died 1419)
- Tomás Mór Mag Uidhir (died 1430)
- Tomás Óg Mag Uidhir (died 1436)
- Éamonn Mag Uidhir (abdicated 1486)
- Tomás Óg mac Tomás Óg Mag Uidhir (deposed 1486)
- Seán Mag Uidhir (died 1503)
- Conchobhar Mór Mag Uidhir (died 1527)
- Cú Connacht Óg Mag Uidhir (died 1538)
- Giolla Pádraig Bán Mag Uidhir (died 1540)
- Seán Mag Uidhir (died 1566)
- Cú Connacht Óg Mag Uidhir (died 1589)
- Aodh Mag Uidhir (died 1601)
- Cú Chonnacht Óg Mag Uidhir (fled 1607)
- Livingstone, Peadar (1969). The Fermanagh Story: A Documented History of the County Fermanagh from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Cumann Seanchais Chlochair.