This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast, but other fermentation processes involve the use of bacteria such as lactobacillus, including the making of foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. Many fermented foods are mass-produced using industrial fermentation processes. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.
Fermented beans and seeds
|Cocoa bean fermentation for chocolate, and other cocoa products.
|A fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains both whole and ground soybeans.
|A thick bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation.
|A spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices.
|A type of fermented and salted black soybean.
|This is a fermented dish from Beijing cuisine. It is similar to soy milk, but made from mung beans. It is a by-product of cellophane noodle production. It is generally slightly sour, with an egg-like smell. (Pictured in bowl at bottom left.)
|Fermented bean curd
|Fermented bean paste
|A category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans may also be used.
|A type of fermented bean curd.
|A bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation.
|Nattō (なっとう or 納豆) is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Some eat it as a breakfast food. It is served with soy sauce, karashi mustard and Japanese bunching onion. Nattō may be an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and slimy texture. In Japan, nattō is most popular in the eastern regions, including Kantō, Tōhoku, and Hokkaido.
|A flavoring made of fermented oil seeds, such as sesame seeds or egusi seeds. The process and product are similar to iru or douchi. Its smell is like cheese, miso, or stinky tofu.
|West Java, Indonesia
|A traditional staple food closely related to tempeh, usually made from various byproducts of other foods such as tofu. Red and black oncom are made using different varieties of mold.
|Pon ye gyi
|A fermented bean paste commonly used as a condiment or marinade, traditionally made from horse gram beans, alongside other beans.
|A thick, spicy paste used with food wrapped in a leaf in Korean cuisine. The sauce is made of fermented soy beans (doenjang), red chili paste (gochujang), sesame oil, onion, garlic, green onions, and optionally brown sugar.
|Stinky tofu (chòu dòufu)
|China, Hong Kong, Taiwan
|A variety of fermented tofu.
|A traditional soy product originally from Indonesia that is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form.
|A thick, smooth, dark brown or black paste with either a mild, savory or sweet flavor, also known as sweet bean sauce, sweet flour sauce or sweet wheat paste. Peking duck and jajangmyeon (black bean noodles) are two popular dishes that feature the sauce.
|Originally, the term tương referred to a salty paste made from fermented soybeans. The word tương can also be used to refer to other condiments, such as tương cà (tomato sauce), tương xí muội (plum sauce) or tương ớt (chilli sauce). In southern Vietnam, nước tương refers to soy sauce while Northern Vietnam calls it xì dầu.
|A fermented soybean food. Tungrymbai is usually prepared by crushing the fermented beans until it almost becomes a paste, and frying in mustard oil with onion-ginger-garlic paste, black sesame seed paste, aromatics and pork.
|Yellow soybean paste (huáng jiàng)
|A fermented paste made from yellow soybeans, salt, and water.
|Ambra di Talamello
|A white cheese originating in Russia
|A Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt. The fermentation process also results in fish sauce (known as patis).
|A type of fish sauce originating from the Visayas and Mindanao islands of the Philippines made from fermented yellowfin tuna entrails.
|East and Southeast Asia
|A liquid condiment made from fish or krill that have been coated in salt and fermented for up to two years. It is used as a staple seasoning in East Asian cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine. Some garum-related fish sauces have been used in the West since the Roman times.
|A kind of Korean soy sauce made from fermented soybeans. Ganjang is a uniquely Korean condiment.
|Garum was a fish sauce made from the fermentation of fish entrails, used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and Byzantium. It is believed to have resembled the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici still produced today in Campania, Italy.
|A savory, sweet, and spicy fermented condiment popular in Korean cooking. It is made from gochu-garu (chili powder), glutinous rice, meju (fermented soybean) powder, yeotgireum (barley malt powder), and salt.
|A type of fermented and processed locust beans (Parkia biglobosa) used as a condiment in cooking, very popular among the Yoruba people and Edo people of Nigeria.
|A type of fermented condiment made with barley flour, comparable to soy sauce.
|Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia
|Pictured is traditional Korean soy sauce.
|A fermented seed condiment, traditionally prepared from néré (Parkia biglobosa) seeds, but also from other kinds of seeds, such as those of Prosopis africana, and, nowadays, soybeans. It is comparable to miso paste.
|An aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace compounds that may include flavorings. Usually, the acetic acid is produced by a double fermentation, converting simple sugars to ethanol using yeast, and ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria. It is now mainly used in the culinary arts as a flavorful, acidic cooking ingredient, or in pickling. Various types of vinegar are also used as condiments or garnishes, including balsamic vinegar and malt vinegar. As the most easily manufactured mild acid, it has a wide variety of industrial and domestic uses, including use as a household cleaner.
|A fermented liquid condiment named after the city of Worcester in Worcestershire, England. It is frequently used to augment food and drink recipes, and used directly as a condiment on steaks, hamburgers, and other finished dishes.
|Yongfeng chili sauce
|Yongfeng, Shuangfeng County, Loudi city, Hunan province, China
|Fermented hot sauce from Hunan.
Fermented creams and yogurts
|A type of fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt.
|A soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5. It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.
|Fermented milk products
|Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.
|A mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
|A fermented, creamy dairy food similar to clotted cream, made from the milk of water buffalo, cows, sheep, or goats.
|A fermented milk product of Armenian origin.
|A traditional fermented milk variant of the Kalenjin people of Kenya. It can be made from cow or goat milk and is fermented in a specially made calabash gourd locally known as a sotet. The gourd is lined with soot from specific trees which add flavor to the fermented milk.
|A cultured dairy product, with the consistency of strained yogurt, but a milder flavor. Skyr can be classified as a fresh sour milk cheese (similar to curd cheese eaten in Estonia, Germany and Russia), but is consumed like a yogurt.
|Central and Eastern Europe
|A type of sour cream, produced by souring heavy cream. It is similar to crème fraîche.
|Obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Pictured is Smetana.
|Soured milk denotes a range of food products produced by the acidification of milk. Soured milk that is produced by bacterial fermentation is more specifically called fermented milk or cultured milk. Soured milk that is produced by the addition of an acid, with or without the addition of microbial organisms, is more specifically called acidified milk.
|Strained yogurt, Greek yogurt, yogurt cheese, sack yogurt, or kerned yogurt is yogurt that has been strained to remove most of its whey, resulting in a thicker consistency than normal unstrained yogurt, while still preserving the distinctive sour taste of yogurt.
|Middle East, Southeast Europe
|A dried food ingredient, based on a fermented mixture of grain and yogurt or fermented milk. It is usually made into a thick soup with water, stock, or milk. Tarhana is very similar to some kinds of kashk.
|A fermented milk product. Viili is similar to yoghurt or kefir, but when left unmixed, its texture is malleable, or "long".
|Unknown; thought to be ancient Mesopotamia
|A fermented milk product produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk
Fermented grains and grain-based foods
|A type of South Indian pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred to by its anglicized name, Hoppers.
|A Filipino dish consisting of cooked rice and whole raw shrimp fermented with salt and angkak (red yeast rice).
|Made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed fermented rice batter filled with seasoned ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and minced shallots.
|A traditional fermented food of Indonesia that uses rice.
|A rice-based fried pancake traditionally made in the Indian state of Odisha. It is made from fermented rice and black gram.
|A vegetarian food item made with a fermented batter derived from rice and chickpea splits.
|A fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple food in many parts of India. Pictured is rava dosa, a type of dosa.
|A traditional pitha made in the northern and central region Indian state of Odisha. A fermented batter made of rice and black gram is steamed with/without stuffing made of coconut, jaggery and black pepper.
|A type of savoury rice cake, popular as breakfast foods in Southern India and in Sri Lanka. The cakes are made by steaming a batter consisting of fermented black lentils (de-husked) and rice.
|A sourdough-risen flatbread with a unique, slightly spongy texture. Traditionally made out of teff flour, it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
|A fermented maize dumpling.
|Fermented rice noodles.
|Steamed rice and black lentils batter.
|Yunnan Province, China
|A type of fermented rice noodle, made from ordinary non-glutinous rice, generally sold fresh rather than dried.
|A fermented cereal pudding, typically made from maize, sorghum, or millet.
|A type of pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.
|A firm rice cake made by the Christians of Kerala, India, to be served on the night of Maundy Thursday (Pesaha). It is made from rice batter like palappam, but is not fermented with yeast in its preparation.
|Southeast Asia, East Asia
|A traditional fermented preparation of rice or other starchy foods.
|Philippine rice cakes. Some varieties are fermented.
|A fermented, sour porridge made using the starch remaining on the inner husks of oats after milling.
|Africa, Europe, Asia Minor
|Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using wild lactobacillaceae and yeast. Lactic acid from fermentation imparts a sour taste and improves keeping qualities.
|Southeast Asia, East Asia
|A traditional fermented preparation of rice or other starchy foods.
|White sugar sponge cake
|A type of Chinese pastry, made from rice flour, white sugar, water, and a leavening agent.
Fermented fruits and vegetables
|A pickle made from grated unripe papaya that is popular in the Philippines. It is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods such as pork barbecue.
|Made by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted.
|Various vegetables or fruits which have been fermented by pickling with salt and brine or marinated in mixtures based on soy sauce or savory bean pastes.
|A type of lightly fermented cabbage relish. It is typical in Salvadoran cuisine and that of other Central American countries, and is usually made with cabbage, onions, carrots, and sometimes lime juice.
|Kapusta kiszona duszona
|A Polish dish of braised or stewed sauerkraut or cabbage, with bacon, mushroom and onion or garlic. It is seasoned with salt, pepper and sometimes bay leaf, caraway seeds, sugar, paprika and apples.
|A popular West African food made from cassava tubers.
|Gundruk is made by fermenting leaves of vegetables of Brassica family.
|Fermented leaves of Cassia obtusifolia. Fermentation removes the toxicity of the raw plant and allows it to be used as a protein source. It is also used as a condiment in its powdered form.
|Fermented cabbage or radish product.
|A fermented brassica product.
|A popular Burmese cuisine fermented food dish of vegetables preserved in rice wine and various seasonings, similar to Korean kimchi.
|Nata de coco
|A jelly-like dessert made from fermented coconut water.
|Nata de piña
|A jelly-like dessert made from fermented pineapple juice.
|Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar. The pickling procedure typically affects the food's texture and flavor. The resulting food is called a pickle, or, to prevent ambiguity, prefaced with pickled. Foods that are pickled include vegetables, fruits, meats, fish, dairy and eggs.
|A traditional staple food paste, with consistency ranging from highly viscous to liquid, made from starchy vegetables, usually breadfruit, taro or plantain.
|Portuguese ground red pepper (Pimenta Moida) a.k.a. Massa de pimentão
|Portugal. Salt substitute staple in the Azores. Base for many Portuguese dishes.
|Shepherd peppers or Fresno or red Banana pepper or Cubanelle Chile Pepper or even Red bell peppers and salt. The addition of olive oil, paprika, wine vinegar and garlic varies. Wash peppers and de-stem and cut in 1/2 allowing peppers to air dry. Grind peppers with or 1/3 seeds are ground, salt and allow to ferment for 24-72hrs until boiling subsides. Jar adding salt olive oil to top for enhance preservation and taste.
|Finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.
|A preserved fermented vegetable, prepared from radish tap roots.
|Vegetable preserve similar to sauerkraut, with the difference that it is prepared through the lacto-fermentation of whole heads of cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var.capitata), not separate leaves or grated mass.
|Pickled Chinese cabbage (napa cabbage) or Chinese mustard, used for a variety of purposes.
|Tianjin preserved vegetable (tung tsai)
|A preserved vegetable consisting of finely chopped Tianjin cabbage (箭杆菜; a variety of Chinese cabbage with an elongated shape) and salt. Garlic is added during preservation, if the cabbage is not to be consumed by certain Chinese Buddhist sects.
|Japanese preserved vegetables (usually pickled in salt, brine, or a bed of rice bran). They are served with rice as an okazu (side dish), with drinks as an otsumami (snack), as an accompaniment to or garnish for meals, and as a course in the kaiseki portion of a Japanese tea ceremony.
|A type of pickled mustard plant stem, made from the knobby, fist-sized, swollen green stem of Brassica juncea, subspecies tsatsai. The stem is first salted, pressed, and dried before being rubbed with hot red chili paste and allowed to ferment in an earthenware jar.
Fermented meat and seafood
|Prepared by fermenting salted anchovies.
|Made by salting and fermenting the bonnetmouth fish.
|Raw fish, fermented in red rice and salt for up to one week. Similar to Japanese narezushi.
|Made by mixing crablets, and salt and left in a jar to ferment thoroughly. It can be eaten after 2–5 days. In the some communities, calamansi, chili, dayap, and/or soy sauce is/are added to enhance the flavor while fermentation is occurring.
|Fermented shrimp dish.
|Cod liver oil (Traditional preparation method)
|Cod liver oil was traditionally manufactured by filling a wooden barrel with fresh cod livers and seawater and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to a year before removing the oil.
|A traditional preparation of fish. Before refrigeration, canning, and other modern preservation techniques became available, fermenting was an important preservation method.
|Gejang (게장) or gejeot (게젓) is made by marinating fresh raw crabs either in ganjang (soy sauce) or in a sauce based on chili pepper powder.
|Made by fermenting shark meat, then hanging it to dry. Pictured is hákarl hanging to dry in Iceland.
|A type of fermented fish dish from Korea's Jeolla province. Hongeo-hoe is made from skate and emits a very strong, characteristic ammonia-like odor.
|North American Arctic, Northeast Asia
|A method of preparing meat, particularly walrus and other marine mammals. Meat and fat caught in the summer is buried in the ground as steaks, which then ferment over autumn and freeze over winter, ready for consumption the next year.
|A category of salted preserved dishes made with seafood such as shrimps, oysters, clams, fish, and roe. Depending on the ingredients, jeotgal can range from flabby, solid pieces to clear, broth-like liquid.
|A variety of jeotgal (salted seafood), made with yellow croakers.
|Simmered, smoked and fermented skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis, sometimes referred to as bonito). It is also known as bonito flakes.
|Kiviak or kiviaq is a traditional wintertime Inuit food made of auks, a type of seabird, preserved in a seal skin.
|A traditional salted and fermented fish dish originating in the Izu Islands, and often eaten with sake, shōchū, or a local drink called Shima Jiman.
|A variety of jeotgal (salted seafood), made by salting and fermenting anchovies.
|Nem chua is a Vietnamese fermented pork dish, usually rolled or cut in bite sizes. The meat is sweet, sour, salty and spicy. It is often served with bird's eye chili, garlic and Vietnamese coriander.
|A pungent paste made of either fish or shrimp, usually made by fermenting fish or shrimp that is salted and ground then sundried.
|A fish dish made from trout or char, salted and autolyzed for two to three months (or even up to a year), then eaten without cooking.
|A salted and fermented food made with small shrimp. Saeujeot is a variety of jeotgal.
|A cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically pork, popular under various names across Europe.
|Shark meat is sometimes fermented.
|A food made from various marine animals that consists of small pieces of meat in a brown viscous paste of the animal's heavily salted, fermented viscera.
|Shrimp paste (Belacan)
|Southeast Asia, China
|Fermented shrimp paste.
|A fermented pork sausage with a sour flavor, often eaten in raw form after the fermentation process has occurred.
|A lightly-salted fermented Baltic Sea herring.
|Taba ng Talangka, aligi
|The crab roe and meat of a sack of crablets are carefully taken out and preserved in a single jar using sea salt. Traditionally, the number of female (V-lined underbelly) and 'gay' crabs (D-lined underbelly) should always have more weight than the male crabs (T-lined underbelly). Taba ng talangaka is usually used as a condiment to enhance the flavor of rice and other seafood.
Fermented drinks and beverages
This is a list of fermented drinks. Although many fermented drinks are alcoholic beverages, not all fermented drinks are alcoholic.
|Fermented milk product with Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria.
|A traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.
|A cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt. In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran is found in Iran (there called doogh), Afghanistan, Armenia (here called tan), Azerbaijan, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Syria and across the Caucasus. Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt.
|A traditional alcoholic (depending on recipes) beverage made from grains and hops.
|Northwestern Scandinavia, Scotland
|A fermented milk product made from whey with a very low alcohol content.
|Water in which wheat or barley bran, sometimes sugar beet, or a slice of bread have fermented.
|A traditional fermented grain drink with alcohol found in many countries.
|A fermented dairy drink.
|An uncarbonated soft drink manufactured by Calpis Co., Ltd. that is produced using lactic acid fermentation.
|The word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati. Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India.
|In South America and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize. Chicha includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada.
|A savory yogurt-based beverage similar to Turkish ayran.
|A fermented milk drink, similar to a thin yogurt or ayran, that is made from kefir grains, a specific type of mesophilic symbiotic culture.
|A fermented, lightly effervescent, sweetened black or green tea drink commonly consumed for its purported health benefits.
|Fermented mare's milk product.
|Fermented low-alcohol beverage based on rye bread.
|A buttermilk-type drink.
|A fermented maize-based drink.
|Nailao, also known as Beijing yogurt (北京酸奶; Běijīng suānnǎi), is a traditional fermented milk drink that is popularly consumed throughout China. The word suānnǎi means "acid milk".
|Soft drink usually made from grain coffee, hops, yeast, water and sugar, which undergo fermentation.
|An ancient drink possibly created by the Olmecs or Toltecs of South-Central Mexico. It is made from the fermented sap of the Agave Americana plant and appears very similar to milk. During the epoch of Mesoamerican history, it was believed by the Indigenous Peoples to be a sacred beverage and contain godly powers when drunk. Pulque is very much like its sister drinks, (however, the more clearer) Tequila and Mezcal. The original Classical Nahuatl name for the drink is Iztāc Octli.
|A rice wine made from glutinous rice that has been fermented with the aid of yeast and steamed in a banana leaf.
|A traditional fermented milk product in Ukraine and Russia, made from baked milk by lactic acid fermentation.
|Şalgam is a popular beverage from southern Turkey's cities of Adana and Mersin. It is made with the juice of red carrot pickles, salted, spiced, and flavoured with aromatic turnip (çelem) fermented in barrels with the addition of ground bulgur.
|A cold beverage made from fermented corn. It usually made from corn dough, the same kind used for tortillas and tamales. The dough is mixed with water and piloncillo (cone-shaped unrefined cane sugar) and boiled until the liquid is very thick. The liquid is then allowed to ferment very slightly. The resulting drink is generally served cold, with lime juice, a pinch of salt and a scoop of shaved ice or lime sorbet.
|A fermented beverage made from the peel and the rind of pineapples, and sweetened either with piloncillo or brown sugar, seasoned with powdered cinnamon, and served cold. Though tepache is fermented for several days, the resulting drink does not contain much alcohol. In Mexican culinary practice, the alcoholic content of tepache may be increased with a small amount of beer.
|An artisanal corn beer produced by several Uto-Aztec people, from maize.
|Tibicos (water kefir)
|A traditional fermented drink made with water and a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY).
|A alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grapes. Wines not made from grapes involve fermentation of other crops including rice wine and other fruit wines such as plum, cherry, pomegranate, currant and elderberry.
|Žinčica (in Slovakia), Žinčice (in the Czech Republic), Żentyca (in Poland)
|A drink made of sheep milk whey as a by-product in the process of making bryndza cheese.
- Fermentation (wine)
- Food microbiology
- List of fermented soy products
- List of fish sauces
- List of pickled foods
- Fermented milk products
- The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
- J. Dagoon (2000). Agriculture & Fishery Technology III. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-971-23-2822-0.
- National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992). Applications of biotechnology to traditional fermented foods: report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academies. pp. 132–133. ISBN 9780309046855.
- Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0., p. 181f
- "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
- "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". Homecooking.about.com. 2010-06-14. Archived from the original on 2016-11-01. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- Lonely Planet Vietnam (Italian) "bánh cuốn – involtini di carta di riso cotti a vapore, ripieni di carne di maiale tritata e gamberi disidratati;"
- T.H. Yellowdawn: Fermented Foods (2008); p.302-p.304
- Redhead, J. F. (1989). Utilization of tropical foods. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-102774-5.
- Science of Bread: Ethiopian injera recipe
- Gänzle, Michael G. (2014). "Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation". Food Microbiology. V International Symposium on Sourdough - Cereal Fermentation for Future Foods, Helsinki 10–12 October 2012. 37: 2–10. doi:10.1016/j.fm.2013.04.007. ISSN 0740-0020. PMID 24230468.
- Gadsby, Patricia; Weeks, Eric. "The Biology of... Sourdough". Discover. Discover Magazine. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Science of Pickles: Fermentation and Food | Exploratorium". Exploratorium.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4.
- "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10.
- A. Y. Tamime, ed. (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387.
- For popularity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081.
For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996.
- For use in Afghanistan by Kirghiz, see Nazif Shahrani, M. (2013). The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan. University of Washington Press. pp. 92–93. ISBN 9780295803784.
- For Lebanon, see A. Y. Tamime, ed. (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 96. ISBN 9781405172387.
- For presence in the North Caucasus, see Smih, Sebastian (2006). Allah's Mountains: The Battle for Chechnya. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 25. ISBN 9781850439790.
- Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7.
-  Michael Andrew Malpass, Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Retrieved 31 August 2008