- See Fernandeño for the unrelated group of Southern California.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Bioko Island, São Tomé and Príncipe|
|Fernando Poo Creole English (Pichinglis), Krio, Bube, Igbo, Equatoguinean Spanish, Spanish, French, Portuguese, English|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Bubi, Krios, Emancipados, Saros, Americo-Liberian, African Americans, Black African, Mulattoes, Creole people|
Fernandinos are creole, multi-ethnic or multi-race populations of Equatorial Guinea and former Spanish Guinea. Named in reverence of the Portuguese explorer Fernão do Pó who is given credit for discovering their indigenous and adopted homelands, each population hails from a distinct ethnic, social, cultural and linguistic history. Members of these communities were responsible for building and expanding the cocoa farming industry on Fernando Po during the 1880s and 1890s. The Fernandinos of Fernando Po were closely related to each other as well as to members of communities in Freetown, Cape Coast, and Lagos. Eventually these distinct groups integrated, and in present-day Bioko their differences barely exist.
The indigenous group of Fernandinos or Los Fernandinos, were mixed race descendants of the pre-existing indigenous population of Spanish Guinea originating from the island of Fernando Pó (modern day Bioko Island), an island discovered by Fernão do Pó. This group consisted of mulattoes of female Bubi and white male Spaniard parentage, and were part of the Emancipados social class. Incidentally, many offspring born to this type of union were not claimed by the father; however some couples did marry under Roman Catholic law. It was not uncommon for offspring of such unions to be accepted into the indigenous tribe, and identify as such.
Native Fernandinos spoke Equatoguinean Spanish, French, Bube and a form of pidgin English called Pichinglis. Pichinglis was brought to Fernando Po by Efik settlers of Akwa Akpa State (known during colonial times as Calabar State) in Nigeria. The dialect was used in trade activities, and may have varied slightly per region. The dialect was stigmatized during the Franco regime.
Through the strong religious influence under Spanish colonial rule, mulatto Fernandinos were mainly Roman Catholic, as were most Bubi living on Bioko during this era.
The other Fernandinos of Equatorial Guinea descended from English speaking freed slaves of Sierra Leone and Liberia. Essentially, Krios are descendants of liberated Africans, as well as repatriated West Indians and African-Americans who immigrated back to Africa, Liberia, in the 1800s. Supported by the American Colonization Society, groups of free African-Americans emigrated primarily from Nova Scotia and England to Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and Bioko Island where they became a dominant force in the evolution of local society and economy, assisting America as well European empires in the colonial progression of these regions. They were initially discouraged from mingling with the local, less educated and/or liberated indigenous people and more inclined to inter-marry with families of similar backgrounds. Krios eventually blended with the local populations, with Krio women and offspring taking on the surnames of indigenous families. They have contributed to the present-day existence of a very ethnically/racially mixed population that exists up and down the West Coast of Africa where the reality of such great heritage diversity, heavily influenced by the West, tends to be subdued.
The Krios arrived on the island of Fernando Po in 1827, a year after Great Britain leased the island of Fernando Po for fifty years. Thus the Krios joined an influx of several hundred freed Creole African descended immigrants from Cape Coast and other groups from British colonized Africa. The Krios began populating an area known as Clarence Cove – a harbor. The first inhabitants purchased dwellings for $3,000 to $5,000, with a handful of large plantation owners who'd engaged in cocoa and yam farming industry which was controlled by English and Spanish factory owners. Krios have been noted for their scholastic achievement and business acumen.
Throughout the generations they have managed to maintain their own language, Fernando Poo Creole English. Krio Fernandinos are exclusively concentrated around Malabo. Although they comprise a distinct ethnic group in Equatorial Guinea, their pidgin dialect is spoken in only six communities (Musola, Las Palmas, Sampaca, Basupu, Fiston and Balveri de Cristo Rey). In 1998 it was estimated that the number of fluent Equatoguinean speakers of this language was at 5,000. For 1,000 of those 5,000 speakers this was their only language. Up to 70,000 EquatoGuineans may currently use it as a trade language.
Notable Krio Fernandino families
- Henry Enrique Allen
- Juan Balboa Boneke
- Manuel Balboa
- Joseph Dougan -is the Patriarch of The Dougans' and their family home "La Casa Teodolita (1902)" in Malabo (formerly known as Santa Isabel) in Equatorial Guinea. He was the husband of Doña Mariana Kinson Bishop (The Matriarch of The Dougan's "La Casa Teodolita") also of Santa Isabel. La Casa Teodolita now considered a national patrimony today, due to its architectural design and innovative construction techniques employed at the time. Joseph Dougan was one of the country's agronomist. He was also an agricultural entrepreneur along with other notable Creole families at the time (like the Jones, Vivour etc.) that brought about economic well being and growth to the country. Vast amount of plantation land he and other families owned were devoted to the growth of cocoa and coffee.
- Teofilo Jorge Dougan Kinson The elder son of Joseph Dougan and Mariana Kinson-Bishop, one of the notable aristocratic Creole families – The Dougan and The Kinson (descendants and related to The royal Aqua House of The Republic of Cameroon) family in Equatorial Guinea. He studied in Spain at an early age before going on to study Law at the University of Barcelona, Spain. He was the first native from Equatorial Guinea to became a lawyer (when the country was then known as Spanish Guinea). He died in Barcelona in the early 1960s.
- Joseph Walterio Dougan Kinson The son of one of the notable aristocratic Creole families – Joseph Dougan and Mariana Kinson-Bishop (The Kinson being descendants and related to The royal Aqua House of The Republic of Cameroon) family in Equatorial Guinea. He studied at the prestigious Fourah Bay College in Freetown, Sierra Leone and later in Spain where he studied Agriculture. He later became a notable politician and Diplomat of Equatorial Guinea holding the post of Ambassaador and Plenipotentiary of The Republic of Equatorial Guinea to many African Nations and The Organisation of African Unity. He also held the post of Minister of Justice before going on exile. He died in exile In Nigeria in 1984. His elder brother was Teofilo Dougan Kinson a notable lawyer who studied law at the University of Barcelona in Spain.
- Jose Domingo Dougan Beaca – is the son of Joseph Walterio Dougan Kinson. He studied in Italy and Switzerland where he holds a degree in International law. He became a United nations Diplomat Chief where he held the post of Coordinator Head of the Latin America and Caribbean Unit and later The Head of The Anti-Discrimination Unit of the Human Rights High Commissioners office (Geneva Switzerland) of The United Nations. He is also currently, The Vice-President of The World Organisation Against Torture based in Switzerland.
- Angel Serafin Seriche Dougan Malabo – is the son of Teofilo Dougan Kinson. He is a career diplomat and member of government of Equatorial Guinea. He was made The First Secretary Of the Republic of The Equatorial Guinea Embassy to The Kingdom of Morocco before being appointed Ambassador and Plenipotentiary to Nigeria and later to Cameroon. He was then appointed Prime Minister of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea Government and was later appointed the President/Speaker of The Nation's House of Representatives. He was also the President of the Panel of The African Parliamentary Union Assembly. Since July of 2013, he was made Senator for Life (Senador Vitalicio) as promulgated by the Law of the Land of the State of Equatorial Guinea.
- Jose Dougan Chubum- One of the sons of Joseph Okori Dougan Kinson and younger brother of Jose Dougan Beaca. He is a trained Aviation Pilot who later went to Cuba to study Law. He later became the Director of the American company in Equatorial Guinea (Amarak Inc.) as the Director of Human Resources. He later established his own business dealing with oil "The Oil Fuel Company." He is currently the Ambassaador and Plenipotentiary of The Republic of Equatorial Guinea to Portugal which he has held since 2013 to this present day.
- Eleanor Sono Dougan Ngongolo- One of the daughters of Joseph Okori Dougan Kinson. She studied Business Administration in London England to which she holds an Honours Degree from The University of London. Before retiring in 2004 she was one of the Chief Financial Accountants/Financial Managers of London Transport (A local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London in England- www.tfl.gov.uk ).
- William Fergusson Nicol
- Samuel Kinson
- J. W. Knox
- Daniel Niger
- Theophilus (Theopilo) Thompson
- Catherine (Catalina) Willis
- formerly part of the island front named Fernando Pó or Fernando Poo which included Bioko Island.
- Foreign-born Afro-Americans
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- Saros (Nigeria)
- Sierra Leone Krio people
- Spanish Guinea
- Spanish Equatoguineans
- Yakpo, Kofi (2009) "A Grammar of Pichi", 692 pp. This link opens a pdf of the most comprehensive linguistic description of Pichinglis (Pichi/Fernando Po Creole English) so far by the linguist Kofi Yakpo (University of Nijmegen)
- [African and European Cocoa Producers on Fernando Póo, 1880s to 1910s, W. G. Clarence-Smith, The Journal of African History, Volume 35, Issue 02, Jul 1994, pp 179–199, doi:10.1017/S0021853700026384, Published online by Cambridge University Press 22 Jan 2009]
- From slaving to neoslavery: the bight of Biafra and Fernando Po in the era of abolition, 1827–1930; by I. K. Sundiata; Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1996; ISBN 0-299-14510-7, ISBN 978-0-299-14510-1; p.152
- Glimpses of Africa, West and Southwest coast. By Charles Spencer Smith; A.M.E. Sunday School Union, 1895; p. 164
- Glimpses of Africa, West and Southwest coastBy Charles Spencer Smith; A.M.E. Sunday School Union, 1895
- Sundiata, Ibrahim K. (1996), From slaving to neoslavery: the bight of Biafra and Fernando Poin the era of abolition, 1827–1930 (online ed.), Univ of Wisconsin Press, retrieved 21 December 2010
- Fegley, Randall (1991), Equatorial Guinea. Volume 136 of World bibliographical series. Volume 136 of ABC-CLIO World Bibliographical (online ed.), Clio, retrieved 21 December 2010