Fernando Robles

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Fernando Augusto Colaço Leal Robles or Fernando Robles was a Portuguese Second Lieutenant who participated in initial counterinsurgency operations against insurgent União dos Povos de Angola (UPA) guerrillas operating in northern Angola during 1961, at the onset of the Portuguese Colonial War.


Robles was initially commissioned a second lieutenant of infantry. In 1960, he volunteered for training and assignment to a new Portuguese special operations and counterinsurgency force, the Companhias de Caçadores Especiais (Special Hunter companies, or CCE). The initial Caçadores Especiais companies were composed of volunteers from standard infantry units who were considered better adapted for intensive training in antiguerrilla operations.[1] Trained at the Centro de Instrução de Operações Especiais (CIOE, or Center for Special Operations Instruction)[2] in Lamego, the CCE were the first troops to wear the beret and camouflage combat uniform in combat.

Robles duly graduated and was assigned to the 6ª Companhia de Caçadores Especiais, which deployed to Luanda, Angola the same year along with three other Caçadores Especiais companies.[3] While participating in operations in northern Angola against UPA rebels operating in and round the town of Dembos, in Cuanza Norte Province in Angola, the 6ª Companhia de Caçadores Especiais became notorious for its reprisals against native Angolans in a brutal “eye for eye, tooth for tooth” counterinsurgency campaign.[4][5]

For his bravery while participating in operations against the UPA, 2nd Lt. Robles was awarded the Medalha de Prata de Valor Militar com palma (Silver Military Medal of Valor with Palm).


  1. ^ Afonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Guerra Colonial (2000), ISBN 972-46-1192-2, pp. 94-97
  2. ^ Later retitled the Centro de Tropas de Operações Especiais, or CTOE
  3. ^ Afonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Guerra Colonial (2000), ISBN 972-46-1192-2, pp. 94-97
  4. ^ Marques, Ricardo, Memória: Os primeiros soldados enviados para Angola recordam o início da guerra
  5. ^ Coelho, Joaquim, GUERRAS ULTRAMARINAS - 50 ANOS, O Veterano de Guerra (APVG), 23 March 2011, retrieved 27 May 2011

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