Fertility rites are religious rituals that are intended to stimulate reproduction in humans or in the natural world. Such rites may involve the sacrifice of "a primal animal, which must be sacrificed in the cause of fertility or even creation".
"Fertility rites may occur in calendric cycles, as rites of passage within the life cycle, or as ad hoc rituals....Commonly fertility rituals are embedded within larger-order religions or other social institutions."
As with cave pictures "[that] show animals at the point of mating...[and] served magic fertility rites", such rites are "...a form of sympathetic magic" in which the forces of nature are to be influenced by the example acted out in the ritual. At times, "ceremonies intended to assure the fecundity of the earth or of a group of women...involve some form of phallic worship".
Central to fertility rites in classical Greece was "Demeter, goddess of fertility... Her rites celebrated the procession of the seasons, the mystery of the plants and the fruits in their annual cycle of coming to be and passing away." But most "women's festivals... related in some way to woman's proper function as a fertile being (which allowed her to promote the fertility of crops too, by sympathy)".
Because of his link to the grape harvest, however, "it is not surprising to see Dionysus associated with Demeter and Kore in the Eleusinian Mysteries. For he, too, represented one of the great life-bringing forces of the world."
Ancient Phoenicia saw "a special sacrifice at the season of the harvest, to reawaken the spirit of the vine"; while the winter fertility rite to restore "the spirit of the withering vine" included as sacrifice "cooking a kid in the milk of its mother, a Canaanite custom which Mosaic law condemned and formally forbade".
Durkheim explored Australian ceremonies "to assure the prosperity of the animal or vegetable species serving the clan as totem". Such ceremonies took the form both of "oblations, whether bloody or otherwise", and of "rites which...consist in movements and cries whose object is to imitate the different aspects and attitudes of the animal whose reproduction is desired".
Durkheim concluded that "as the rites, and especially those which are periodical, demand nothing more of nature than that it follow its ordinary course, it is not surprising that it should generally have the air of obeying them".
According to Ibn Ishaq, an early biographer of Muhammad, the Kaaba was itself previously addressed as a female deity. Circumambulation was often performed naked by male and sometimes female pilgrims, and worship associated with fertility goddesses. Some have noted the apparent similarity of the Black Stone and its silver frame to the external female genitalia.
- It has been suggested that "at the heart of the myth of science lie fertility rites which ensure the continued fruitfulness of technological innovation".
- Eric Berne points out that "the Adult 'helpnik' vocabularies (PTA, psychology, psychoanalysis, social science) may be used in an intellectual Rite of Spring, where the victim's dismembered psyche is left scattered over the floor on the theory that he will eventually join himself together and be more fertile afterwards".
Literature: T. S. Eliot
In The Waste Land, "Eliot waxes nostalgically for a classical society founded upon ritual praxis...fertility rites in which the participants mime the fall and return of natural cycles" – "Keeping time, Keeping their rhythm in their dancing As in their living in the living seasons", as he would subsequently put it.
- Ananti, Emmanuel. AnthonyBonanno, ed. "Archaeology and Fertility Cult in the Ancient Mediterranean: First International Conference on Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean". B R Gruner Publishing. ISBN 9789027272539.
- Aniela Jaffé, in C. G. Jung, Man and his Symbols (1978) p. 264
- Thomas Barfield, The Dictionary of Anthropology (1997) p. 184
- Jaffé, p. 261
- Willard Bohn, Apollinaire and the Faceless Man (1991) p. 66
- M. I. Finley, The World of Odysseus (Penguin 1967) p. 158
- J. Boardman et al, eds., The Oxford History of the Classical World (Oxford 1991) p. 269–70
- F. Guirand ed., The New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology (1968) p. 160
- Guirand, p. 77–9
- Guirand, p. 81–2
- Emile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (London 1971) p. 327
- Durkheim, p. 351
- Durkheim, p. 361
- Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad (1955). Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah - The Life of Muhammad Translated by A. Guillaume. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 85 footnote 2. ISBN 9780196360331.
- Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad (1955). Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah - The Life of Muhammad Translated by A. Guillaume. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 88–9. ISBN 9780196360331.
- Rice, Edward (May 1978). Eastern Definitions: A Short Encyclopedia of Religions of the Orient. New York: Doubleday. p. 433. ISBN 9780385085632.
- Tate, Karen (January 1, 2006). Sacred Places of Goddess: 108 Destinations. San Francisco: Consortium of Collective Consciousness Publishing. p. 165. ISBN 9781888729115.
- Camphausen, Rufus (1996). The Yoni, Sacred Symbol of Female Creative Power. Vermont: Inner Traditions. Bear & Company. p. 134. ISBN 9780892815623.
- F. A Kreuzinger, The Religion of Science Fiction (1986) p. 42
- Eric Berne, What Do You Say After You Say Hello? (1974) p. 325
- E. P. Comentale, Modernism, Cultural Production, and the British Avant-Garde (2004) p. 96
- T. S. Eliot, "East Coker", in The Complete Plays and Poems (London 1985) p. 178