Ferula tingitana

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Giant Tangier Fennel
Ferula tingitana Inflorescence (8806590199).jpg
Scientific classification
F. tingitana
Binomial name
Ferula tingitana

Ferula tingitana (the giant Tangier fennel) is a species of the Apiaceae genus Ferula. Despite the name, the plant is not a type of fennel proper, which belongs to another genus (Foeniculum).

Ferula tingitana is a tall perennial herb. It has alternate leaf arrangement and yellow, unisexual flowers which, like other Apiaceae, grow in umbels. It grows in scrubland (batha and phrygana) and rocky areas.[1] Its range is the Mediterranean coast, in Spain, Morocco, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Cyprus, and Turkey.[2] [3] In the 1980s there was chemical interest in esters and ethers extracted from it.[4][5][6]

This species has been considered to have abortive and menstruation-inducing properties.[7] The species has been suggested as a possible identity for the controversial silphium, a plant used as a spice and for various medical purposes in classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region.[8] Among the many uses of silphium was promoting menstruation, and possibly contraceptive or abortifacient properties, which has been suggested to link it to Ferula.


  1. ^ "Ferula tingitana L." Flora of Israel Online. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 2012-09-30. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. ^ "Ferula tingitana L." Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
  3. ^ "Ferula tingitana L." The Euro+Med PlantBase.
  4. ^ Miski, M.; Ulubelen, A.; Mabry, T. J.; Watson, W. H.; Vickovic, I.; Holub, M. (1984). "A New Sesquiterpene Ester from Ferula tingitana". Tetrahedron. 40 (24): 5197–5201. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)91270-0.
  5. ^ Miski, M.; Mabry, T. J. (1986). "New Daucane Esters from Ferula tingitana". Journal of Natural Products. 49 (4): 657–660. doi:10.1021/np50046a016. PMID 3783161.
  6. ^ Miski, M.; Ulubelen, A. (1985). "Sesquiterpene-Coumarin Ethers of Ferula tingitana". Journal of Natural Products. 48 (2): 326–327. doi:10.1021/np50038a024. PMID 4009187.
  7. ^ Jöchlea, W. (1974). "Menses-Inducing Drugs: Their Role in Antique, Medieval and Renaissance Gynecology and Birth Control". Contraception. 10 (4): 425–439. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(74)90042-0. PMID 4614935.
  8. ^ Koerper, H.; Kolls, A. L. (1999). "The Silphium Motif Adorning Ancient Libyan Coinage: Marketing a Medicinal Plant". Economic Botany. 53 (2): 133–143. doi:10.1007/BF02866492. JSTOR 4256173.