2-propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-
|Jmol 3D model||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||194.18 g/mol|
|Melting point||168 to 172 °C (334 to 342 °F; 441 to 445 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, a type of organic compound. It is an abundant phenolic phytochemical found in plant cell wall components such as arabinoxylans as covalent side chains. It is related to trans-cinnamic acid. As a component of lignin, ferulic acid is a precursor in the manufacture of other aromatic compounds. The etymology is from the genus Ferula, referring to the giant fennel (Ferula communis).
- 1 Occurrence in nature
- 2 Metabolism
- 3 Ecology
- 4 Extraction
- 5 Bio-medical considerations
- 6 Other applications
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Notes
Occurrence in nature
Ferulic acid is found in the seeds of coffee, apple, artichoke, peanut, and orange, as well as in both seeds and cell walls of commelinid plants (such as rice, wheat, oats, the Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) and pineapple). Often in the form of chlorogenic acid.
In cereals, ferulic acid is localized in the bran the hard outer layer of grain. In wheat, phenolic compounds are mainly found in the form of insoluble bound ferulic acid and be relevant to resistance to wheat fungal diseases. The highest known concentration of ferulic acid glucoside has been found in flax seed (4.1 ± 0.2 g/kg). It is also found in barley grain.
Asterid Eudicot plants can also produce ferulic acid. The tea brewed from the leaves of yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a plant traditionally grown in the Northern and Central Andes, contains quantities of ferulic acid. In legumes, the white bean variety navy bean is the richest source of ferulic acid among the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties. It is also found in horse grams (Macrotyloma uniflorum).
Although there are many sources of ferulic acid in nature, its bioavailability is limited based on the form in which it is present, with free ferulic acid having a poor water solubility hence poor bioavailability. In wheat grain, ferulic acid is found bound to cell wall polysaccharides, which has an effect on its release and absorption in the small intestine.
In herbal medicines
Ferulic acid has been identified in Chinese medicine herbs such as Angelica sinensis (female ginseng), Cimicifuga heracleifolia and Lignsticum chuangxiong. It is also found in the tea brewed from the European centaury (Centaurium erythraea), a plant used as a medical herb in many parts of Europe,
In processed foods
Ferulic acid is converted by certain strains of yeast, notably strains used in brewing of wheat beers, such as Saccharomyces delbrueckii (Torulaspora_delbrueckii), to 4-vinyl guaiacol (2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol) which gives beers such as Weissbier and Wit their distinctive "clove" flavour. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens are also able to convert trans-ferulic acid into 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In P. fluorescens, a ferulic acid decarboxylase has been isolated.
It can be extracted from wheat bran and maize bran using concentrated alkali.
Ferulic acid, like many natural phenols, is an antioxidant in vitro in the sense that it is reactive toward free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS and free radicals are implicated in DNA damage, cancer, and accelerated cell aging. Animal studies and in vitro studies suggest that ferulic acid may have direct antitumor activity against breast cancer and liver cancer. Ferulic acid may have pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cells, thereby leading to their destruction. Ferulic acid may be effective at preventing cancer induced by exposure to the carcinogenic compounds benzopyrene and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. Note that these are not randomized controlled trials done with human participants, and therefore, the results of these studies may not be directly applicable to human use.
If added to a topical preparation of ascorbic acid and vitamin E, ferulic acid may reduce oxidative stress and formation of thymine dimers in skin. There is also a small amount of research showing oral supplements of ferulic acid can inhibit melanin production in the process of skin whitening.
As a precursor to vanillin
Ferulic acid, being highly abundant, may be useful as a precursor in the manufacturing of vanillin, a synthetic flavoring agent often used in place of natural vanilla extract. However, biotechnological processes may be the most efficient method to use ferulic acid as a precursor, and as such, research is still ongoing.
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- Saulnier, Luc; Thibault, Jean-Francois (1 March 1999). "Ferulic acid and diferulic acids as components of sugar-beet pectins and maize bran heteroxylans". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 79 (3): 396–402. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(19990301)79:3<396::AID-JSFA262>3.0.CO;2-B.
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- Phenolic Compounds of Barley Grain and Their Implication in Food Product Discoloration. Zory Quinde-Axtell and Byung-Kee Baik, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, volume 54, issue 26, pages 9978–9984, doi:10.1021/jf060974w
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- "Cooking sweet corn boosts its ability to fight cancer and heart disease by freeing healthful compounds, Cornell scientists find". Cornell News. Retrieved 2009-09-07.
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- m., Andreasen; m., Nielsen; Knudsen, Bach; a., Meyer; l., Christensen; Hansen, H. Boskov; l., Larsen (2002). "Changes in dietary fibre, phenolic acids and activity of endogenous enzymes during rye bread-making". European Food Research and Technology. 214: 33–42. doi:10.1007/s00217-001-0417-6.
|last6=in Authors list (help)
- . doi:10.1104/pp.104.2.315. Missing or empty
- Huang, Z.; Dostal, L.; Rosazza, J. P. (1993). "Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 59 (7): 2244–2250. PMC . PMID 8395165.
- Huang, Z.; Dostal, L.; Rosazza, J. P. (1994). "Purification and characterization of a ferulic acid decarboxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens". Journal of Bacteriology. 176 (19): 5912–5918. PMC . PMID 7928951.
- Buranov, Anvar U.; G. Mazza (15 August 2009). "Extraction and purification of ferulic acid from flax shives, wheat and corn bran by alkaline hydrolysis and pressurised solvents". Food Chemistry. 115 (4): 1542–1548. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.059.
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- United States Patent 5,336,513
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- a Mori, H.; Kawabata, K.; Yoshimi, N.; Tanaka, T.; Murakami, T.; Okada, T.; Murai, H. (1999). "Chemopreventive effects of ferulic acid on oral and rice germ on large bowel carcinogenesis". Anticancer research. 19 (5A): 3775–3778. PMID 10625957.
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- Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau; Shyamali Saha; Meenakshi Malhotra; Michael Coussa-Charley; Imen Kahouli; Mitchell L. Jones; Alain Labbe; Satya Prakash (2012). "Probiotic Ferulic Acid Esterase Active Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 APA Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: Preparation and in Vitro Characterization". Pharmaceuticals. 5 (2): 236–248. doi:10.3390/ph5020236.