Ferungulata ("wild beasts and ungulates") is a grandorder of placental mammals that groups together mirorder Ferae and clade Pan-Euungulata. It has existed in two guises, a traditional one based on morphological analysis and a revised one taking into account more recent molecular analyses. The Fereungulata is a sister group to the order Chiroptera (bats) and together they make clade Scrotifera.
The traditional Ferungulata was established by George Gaylord Simpson in 1945. It grouped together the extant orders Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla with the Tubulidentata and the superorder Paenungulata, as well as a number of orders known only from fossils.
Simpson established the grouping on the basis of morphological criteria, but this traditional understanding of Ferungulata has been challenged by a more recent classification, relying upon genetic criteria. These studies separated his ungulate orders into two distinct placental groups, within Afrotheria and Laurasiatheria, respectively. The 'true' ungulates (mirorder Euungulata), Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla, are included in the revised group, along with the Carnivora, and with the addition of pangolins (order Pholidota), but the Tubulidentata and paenungulates are excluded. Although Simpson placed whales (Cetacea) in a separate cohort, recent evidence linking them to Artiodactyla would mean that they belong here as well. To reflect this difference, the revised clade is usually referred to as Fereungulata.
|Phylogeny within grandorder Ferungulata|
|The cladogram has been reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA and protein characters, as well as the fossil record.|
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