Fez, Morocco

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Fez
فاس
ⴼⴰⵙ
City
Clockwise from top: View of Fes el Bali, Bou Inania Madrasa, University of Al Quaraouiyine, street view, Zaouia Moulay Idriss II, Chouara Tannery, Bab Bou Jeloud
Fez is located in Morocco
Fez
Fez
Fez is located in Africa
Fez
Fez
Location of Fez within Morocco
Coordinates: 34°2′N 5°0′W / 34.033°N 5.000°W / 34.033; -5.000Coordinates: 34°2′N 5°0′W / 34.033°N 5.000°W / 34.033; -5.000
Country  Morocco
Region Fès-Meknès
Founded 789
Founded by Idrisid dynasty
Government
 • Mayor Idriss Azami Al Idrissi
 • Governor Said Zniber
Area
 • Urban 320 km2 (120 sq mi)
Elevation[1] 410 m (1,350 ft)
Population (2014)[2]
 • City 1,112,072
 • Rank 2nd in Morocco
 • Demonym Fasi
Racial makeup
 • Arabs 53.6%
 • Berbers 32.7%
 • Moriscos 10.2%
 • Others 3.5%
Time zone GMT (UTC±0)
Area code(s) +212 (55)
Website www.fes-city.com
Official name Medina of Fes
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Designated 1981
Reference no. [3]
State Party Morocco
Region Arab States

Fez (Arabic: فاسFas, Berber languages: ⴼⴰⵙ Fas, French: Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fès-Meknès administrative region. It is the second largest city of Morocco after Casablanca,[4] with a population of 1.1 million (2014). Located to the northeast of Atlas Mountains, Fez is situated at the crossroad of the important cities of all regions; 206 km (128 mi) from Tangier to the northwest, 246 km (153 mi) from Casablanca, 169 km (105 mi) from Rabat to the west, and 387 km (240 mi) from Marrakesh to the southwest which leads to the Trans-Saharan trade route. It is surrounded by the high grounds, and the old city is penetrated by the River of Fez flowing from the west to east.

Fez was founded under the Idrisid rule during the 8th-9th century. It consisted of two autonomous and competing settlements. The migration of 2000 Arab families in the early 9th century gave the nascent city its Arabic character. After the downfall of the Idrisid dynasty, several empires came and went until the 11th century when the Almoravid Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin united the two settlements and rebuilt the city, which became today's Fes el Bali quarter. Under the Almoravid rule, the city gained the reputation for the religious scholarship and the mercantile activity. Fez was expanded during the Almohad rule and became the largest city in the world during 1170-1180 with the estimated population of 200,000.

Fez reached its zenith in the Marinid-era, regaining the status as the capital. Numerous madrasas, mosques, zawiyas and city gates were constructed which survived up until today. These buildings are considered the hallmarks of Moorish and Moroccan architectural styles. Marinid sultans also founded Fes Jdid quarter, where newer palaces and gardens were established. During this time, the Jewish population of the city grew as well, with the Mellah (Jewish quarter) attracting the Jewish migrants from other North African regions. After the overthrow of the Marinid dynasty, the city largely declined and replaced by Marrakesh for political and cultural influence, but remained as the capital under the Wattasids and modern Morocco until 1912.

Today, the city largely consists of two old medina quarters, Fes el Bali and Fes Jdid, and modern urban area of Ville Nouvelle constructed during the French colonial era. The medina of Fez is listed as a World Heritage Site and is believed to be one of the world's largest urban pedestrian zones (car-free areas).[5] It has the University of Al Quaraouiyine which was founded in 859 and the oldest continuously functioning university in the world. It also has Chouara Tannery from the 11th century, one of the oldest tanneries in the world. The city has been called the "Mecca of the West" and the "Athens of Africa," a nickname it shares with Cyrene in Libya.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The Arabic word فأس Faʾs means pickaxe, which legends say Idris I of Morocco used when he created the lines of the city. One noticeable thing was that the pickaxe was made from silver and gold.[7]

During the rule of the Idrisid dynasty, Fez consisted of two cities: Fas Elbali, founded by Idris I,[8] and al-ʿĀliyá, founded by his son, Idris II. During Idrisid rule the capital city was known as al-ʿĀliyá, with the name Fas being reserved for the separate site on the other side of the river; no Idrisid coins have been found with the name Fez, only al-ʿĀliyá and al-ʿĀliyá Madinat Idris. It is not known whether the name al-ʿĀliyá ever referred to both urban areas. It wasn't until 1070 that the two agglomerations were united and the name Fas was used for the combined site.[9]

History[edit]

Foundation and the Idrisids[edit]

VIew of the old medina, with the minaret of Zaouia Moulay Idriss II on the left, where it commemorates Idris II, the founder of Fez.

The city was founded on a bank of the Jawhar river by Idris I in 789, founder of the Idrisid dynasty. His son, Idris II (808),[10] built a settlement on the opposing river bank. These settlements would soon develop into two walled and largely autonomous sites, often in conflict with one another: Madinat Fas and Al-'Aliya. In 808 Al-'Aliya replaced Walili as the capital of the Idrisids.

Arab emigration to Fez, including 800 Andalusi families of Berber descent[11] in 817–818 expelled after a rebellion against the Umayyads of Córdoba, Andalusia, and 2000 Arab families banned from Kairouan (modern Tunisia) after another rebellion in 824, gave the city its Arabic character. The Andalusians settled in what is called the 'Old' Fez, while the Tunisians found their home in the 'New' Fez, also called al-'Aliya. These two waves of immigrants would subsequently give their name to the sites 'Adwat Al-Andalus and 'Adwat al-Qarawiyyin.[12] The majority of the population was of Arab descent, and the minority was of North-African Berber descent, with rural Berbers from the surrounding countryside settling there throughout this early period, mainly in Madinat Fas (the Andalusian quarter) and later in Fes Jdid.[13]

Upon the death of Idris II in 828, the dynasty’s territory was divided among his sons. The eldest, Muhammad, received Fez. The newly fragmented Idrisid power would never again be reunified. During Yahya ibn Muhammad's rule in Fez the Kairouyine mosque, one of the oldest and largest in Africa, was built and its associated University of Al Quaraouiyine was founded (859).[14] Comparatively little is known about Idrisid Fez, owing to the lack of comprehensive historical narratives and that little has survived of the architecture and infrastructure of early Fez (Al-'Aliya). The sources that mention Idrisid Fez, describe a rather rural one, not having the cultural sophistication of the important cities of Al-Andalus and Ifriqiya.

In the 10th century the city was contested by the Caliphate of Córdoba and the Fatimid Caliphate of Tunisia, who ruled the city through a host of Zenata clients. The Fatimids took the city in 927 and expelled the Idrissids, after which their Miknasa were installed there. The Miknasa were driven out of Fez in 980 by the Maghrawa, their fellow Zenata, allies of the Caliphate of Córdoba. It was in this period that the great Andalusian ruler Almanzor commissioned the Maghrawa to rebuild and refurnish the Al-Kairouan mosque, giving it much of its current appearance. According to the Rawd al-Qirtas and other Marinid era sources, the Maghrawi emir Dunas Al-Maghrawi filled up the open spaces between the two medinas and the banks of the river, dividing them with new constructions. Thus, the two cities grew into each other, being now only separated by their walls and the river. His sons fortified the city to a great extent. This could not keep the Almoravid emir Ibn Tashfin from conquering it in 1070, after more than a decade of battling the Zenata warriors in the area and constant besieging of the city.

In 1033, several thousand Jews were killed in the Fez Massacre.

Golden age and the Marinid period[edit]

Madinat Fas and Al-'Aliya were united in 1070 by the Almoravid dynasty: The walls dividing them were destroyed, bridges connecting them were built, and connecting walls were constructed that unified the medinas. Under Almoravid patronage the largest expansion and renovation of the Great Mosque of Kairouan took place (1134-1143). Although the capital was moved to Marrakesh and Tlemcen under the Almoravids, Fez acquired a reputation for Maliki legal scholarship and became an important centre of trade. Almoravid impact on the city's structure was such that the second Almoravid ruler, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, is often considered to be the second founder of Fez.[15]

Like many Moroccan cities, Fez was greatly enlarged during the Almohad Caliphate and saw its previously dominating rural aspect lessen. This was accomplished partly by the settling there of Andalusians and the further improvement of the infrastructure. At the start of the 13th century they broke down the Idrisid city walls and constructed new ones, which covered a much wider space. These Almohad walls exist to this day as the outline of Fes el Bali. Under Almohad rule the city grew to become the largest in the world between 1170 and 1180, with an estimated 200.000 people living there.[16]

In 1250 Fez regained its capital status under the Marinid dynasty. In 1276 after a massacre by the population to kill all Jews that was stopped by intervention of the Emir,[17] they founded Fes Jdid, which they made their administrative and military centre. Fez reached its golden age in the Marinid period, which marked the beginning of its official, historical narrative.[18][19] It is from the Marinid period that Fez's reputation as an important intellectual centre largely dates.[20] They established the first madrasas in the city and country.[21][22] The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid period.[23] The madrasas are a hallmark of Marinid architecture, with its striking blending of Andalusian and Almohad traditions. Between 1271 and 1357 seven madrassas were built in Fez, the style of which has come to be typical of Fassi architecture.

Jews of Fez in 1900s. Mellah was a traditional Jewish quarter of the city.

The Jewish quarter of Fez, the Mellah was built in 1438, near the royal residence in Fez Jdid. The Mellah at first consisted of Jews from Fez el Bali and soon saw the arrival of Berber Jews from the Atlas range and Jewish immigrants from al-Andalus. The Marinids spread the cult of Idris I and encouraged sharifism, financing sharifian families as a way to legitimize their (in essence secular) rule: From the 14th century onwards hundreds of families throughout Morocco claimed descent from Idris I, especially in Fez and the Rif mountains. In this regard they can be seen as the enablers of the latter sharifian dynasties of Morocco. The 1465 Moroccan revolt in 1465 overthrew the last Maranid sultan. In 1474 the Marinids were replaced by their relatives of the Wattasid dynasty, who faithfully (but for a large part unsuccessfully) continued Marinid policies.[24]

Modern period[edit]

After the fall of the Marinids, the city remained the capital of Morocco under the Wattasids. However, in the 16th century, the Saadis, based in Marrakech, would attempt to overthrow the Wattasids. In the meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire came close to Fez after the conquest of Oujda in the 16th century. In January 1549 the Saadi sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh took Fez and ousted the last Wattasid sultan Ali Abu Hassun. They later retook the city in 1553 with Ottoman support. However, this reconquest was short-lived, and in 1554 the Wattasids were decisively defeated in the battle of Tadla by the Saadis. The Ottomans would try to invade Morocco after the assassination of Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1558, but were defeated by his son Abdallah al-Ghalib at the battle of Wadi al-Laban north of Fez. Hence, Morocco remained the only North-African state to evade Ottoman occupation.[25]

After the death of Abdallah al-Ghalib a new power struggle would emerge, after Abd al-Malik would take Fez with Ottoman support and oust his nephew Abu Abdullah. The latter would flee to Portugal where he asked king Sebastian of Portugal for help to regain his throne. This would lead to the Battle of Alcacer Quibir where Abd al-Malik's army would defeat the invading Portuguese army with the support of his Ottoman allies, ensuring Moroccan independence. Abd al-Malik himself also died during the battle and would be succeeded by Ahmad al-Mansur.

After the fall of the Saadi dynasty (1649), Fez was a major trading post of the Barbary Coast of North Africa. Until the 19th century it was the only source of fezzes (also known as the tarboosh). Then manufacturing began in France and Turkey as well. Originally, the dye for the hats came from a berry that was grown outside the city, known as the Turkish kızılcık or Greek akenia (Cornus mas). Fez was also the end of a north-south gold trading route from Timbuktu. Fez was a prime manufacturing location for embroidery and leather goods such as the Adarga.

The city became independent in 1790, under the leadership of Yazid (1790–1792) and later of Abu´r-Rabi Sulayman. In 1795 control of the city returned to Morocco. Fez took part in a rebellion in 1819-1821, led by Ibrahim ibn Yazid, as well as in the 1832 rebellion led by Muhammad ibn Tayyib.

The abdication of Abd al-Hafid, Sultan of Morocco in 1912

Following the implementation of the Treaty of Fez, the city was heavily damaged in the 1912 Fez riots and belonged to French Morocco until 1956.[26]

Fez was the capital of Morocco until 1925. Rabat then remained the capital even after Morocco achieved independence in 1956.

Despite its traditional character, there is a modern section: the Ville Nouvelle or "New City". Today it is a bustling commercial center. The popularity of the Fez has increased since present ruler, King Mohammed VI of Morocco, married a woman from Fez, Salma Bennani.

Place Lalla Yeddouna at the heart of the Medina is currently undergoing reconstruction and preservation measures following a design competition sponsored by the Millennium Challenge Corporation (Washington D.C.)[27] and the Government of the Morocco. The construction projects scheduled for completion in 2016 encompass historic preservation of particular buildings, construction of new buildings that fit into the existing urban fabric and regeneration of the riverfront. The intention is to not only preserve the quality and characteristics of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, but to encourage the development of the area as a sustainable, mixed-use area for artisanal industries and local residents.

Climate[edit]

Located by the Atlas Mountains, Fez has a Mediterranean climate with a strong continental influence, shifting from cold and rain in the winter to dry and hot days in the summer months between June and September. Rainfall can reach up to 800 mm (31 in) per year. The winter highs typically reach only 15 °C (59 °F) in December–January. The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city are 46.7 °C (116 °F) and −8.2 °C (17 °F), respectively.(see weather-table below). Fez's climate is strongly similar to that of Seville and Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain. Snowfall on average occurs once every 5 years.[28][29][30][31]

Climate data for Fez
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
(77)
30.5
(86.9)
33.3
(91.9)
37.0
(98.6)
40.8
(105.4)
44.0
(111.2)
46.7
(116.1)
44.4
(111.9)
41.7
(107.1)
37.5
(99.5)
31.2
(88.2)
27.0
(80.6)
46.7
(116.1)
Average high °C (°F) 14.7
(58.5)
16.2
(61.2)
18.5
(65.3)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
31.3
(88.3)
35.8
(96.4)
35.6
(96.1)
30.7
(87.3)
25.2
(77.4)
18.7
(65.7)
15.3
(59.5)
24.1
(75.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
10.8
(51.4)
12.4
(54.3)
15.3
(59.5)
18.7
(65.7)
23.0
(73.4)
27.1
(80.8)
27.1
(80.8)
23.4
(74.1)
18.7
(65.7)
13.2
(55.8)
10.1
(50.2)
17.4
(63.3)
Average low °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
5.4
(41.7)
6.3
(43.3)
8.9
(48)
11.8
(53.2)
14.7
(58.5)
18.4
(65.1)
18.6
(65.5)
16.1
(61)
12.2
(54)
7.7
(45.9)
4.9
(40.8)
10.8
(51.4)
Record low °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−4.9
(23.2)
−2.5
(27.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
0.0
(32)
4.9
(40.8)
8.5
(47.3)
9.2
(48.6)
5.9
(42.6)
0.0
(32)
−1.4
(29.5)
−5.0
(23)
−8.2
(17.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 84.6
(3.331)
81.1
(3.193)
71.3
(2.807)
46.0
(1.811)
24.1
(0.949)
6.4
(0.252)
1.2
(0.047)
1.9
(0.075)
17.7
(0.697)
41.5
(1.634)
90.5
(3.563)
82.2
(3.236)
548.5
(21.595)
Average rainy days 9 10 9 10 7 3 1 1 3 7 9 9 78
Average snowy days 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 9 7 6 6 7.9
Percent possible sunshine 60 55 58 62 64 71 79 77 75 64 60 60 65.4
Source #1: Hong Kong Observatory[32]
Source #2: Meoweather.com,[31] Voodoo skies for extremes[30] Weather Atlas [33]
Climate data for Fez
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 12.0
Average Ultraviolet index 3 4 6 8 9 10 11 10 8 6 4 3 6.8
Source: Weather Atlas [33]

Subdivisions[edit]

The prefecture is divided administratively into the following:[34]

Name Geographic code Type House­holds Population (2004) Foreign population Moroccan population Notes
Agdal 231.01.01. Arrondissement 32740 144064 747 143317
Mechouar Fes Jdid 231.01.03. Municipality 6097 26078 83 25995
Saiss 231.01.05. Arrondissement 32990 156590 561 156029
Fes-Medina 231.01.07. Arrondissement 20088 91473 110 91363
Jnan El Ouard 231.01.09. Arrondissement 32618 174226 15 174211
El Mariniyine 231.01.11. Arrondissement 37958 163291 40 163251
Oulad Tayeb 231.81.01. Rural commune 3233 19144 3 19141 5056 residents live in the center, called Ouled Tayeb; 14088 residents live in rural areas.
Ain Bida 231.81.03. Rural commune 1146 6854 0 6854
Sidi Harazem 231.81.05. Rural commune 982 5133 0 5133 3317 residents live in the center, called Skhinate; 1816 residents live in rural areas.

Landmarks[edit]

Medina of Fez[edit]

The interior of Zaouia Moulay Idriss II, where commemorates Idris II, the founder of Fez.

The historic city of Fez consists of Fes el-Bali, the original city founded by the Idrisid dynasty on both shores of the Oued Fes (River of Fez) in the late 8th and early 9th centuries, and the smaller Fez el-Jdid, founded on higher ground to the west in the 13th century. It is distinct from Fez's now much larger Ville Nouvelle (new city) originally founded by the French. Fes el-Bali is the site of the famous Qarawiyyin University and the Mausoleum of Moulay Idris II, the most important religious and cultural sites, while Fez el-Jdid is the site of the enormous Royal Palace, still used by the King of Morocco today. These two historic cities are linked together and are usually referred to together as the medina of Fez, though this term is sometimes applied more restrictively to Fes el-Bali only.[a] Fez is becoming an increasingly popular tourist destination and many non-Moroccans are now restoring traditional houses (riads and dars) as second homes in the medina. Fez is also considered the cultural and spiritual capital of Morocco.[35] In 1981, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) proclaimed Medina of Fez a World Cultural Heritage site, as "[they] include a considerable number of religious, civil and military monuments that brought about a multi-cultural society. This architecture is characterised by construction techniques and decoration developed over a period of more than ten centuries, and where local knowledge and skills are interwoven with diverse outside inspiration (Andalousian, Oriental and African). The Medina of Fez is considered as one of the most extensive and best conserved historic towns of the Arab-Muslim world."[36]

Madrasas[edit]

The interior view of Al-Attarine Madrasa built by the Marinid sultan Abu al-Hassan in 1323-1325.

The city has traditionally retained the influential position as a religious capital in the region, exemplified by the University of Al Quaraouiyine which was established in 859 by Fatima al-Fihri originally as a mosque. The madrasa is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records.[37][38] During the Marinid rule, Fez was designated as the political and religious capital of the empire, partly due to the Sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf's intention to mitigate the tension between the ulamas in the old city. This had led to the great attention by the government to the construction of the madrasas following the Maliki orthodoxy, which resulted in the unprecedented prosperity of the city's religious institutions. The first madrasa built during the Marinid era was Saffarin Madrasa in Fes el Bali by Abu Yaqub Yusuf. Sultan Abu al-Hassan was the most prolific patron of the madrasa construction, completing the Al-Attarine, Mesbahiyya and Sahrij Madrasa in Fez alone, and several other madrasas as well in other cities such as Salé and Meknes. His son Abu Inan Faris built the famed Bou Inania Madrasa, and by the time of his death, every major city in the Marinid Empire had at least one madrasa.[39] The additional library was established as well for the Madrasa of Al Quaraouiyine in 1349, which stores a large selection of valuable manuscripts dating back to the medieval era.[40]

Fortifications[edit]

City walls and gates[edit]

City walls of Fez. The bastion on the right is Kasbah Cherarda.

The entire medina of Fez was heavily fortified with crenelated walls which equip heavy watchtowers and gates, a pattern of urban planning which can be seen in Salé and Chellah as well.[39] City walls were placed into the current positions during the 11th century, under the Almoravid rule. During this period, the two divided cities of Fez were united under the single enclosure. The structures of Almoravid era were later destroyed and subsequently rebuilt by the Almohad dynasty in the 12th century. These fortifications were completed and formed into the current shape under the Marinid rule during the 12th to 16th centuries, along with the founding of Fes Jdid.[41] The gates of Fez are adjacent to these city walls, and guarded by the military detachments and shut at night.[39] During its development in the 9th century, Fes el Bali was enclosed by the eight main gates. After the foundation of Fes Jdid by the Marinids in the 13th century on the outside of these gates, new walls and three new gates such as Bab al-Amer were established as perimeters between these two medinas.[42][43] The construction of the new gates employed the Christian labor.[39] Additional gates were constructed during the Alaouite era, most notably Bab Bou Jeloud in 1913.[44] Other remaining gates of Fez today include Bab el-Seba, Bab Semmarine, Bab al-Fetouh, Bab Mahrouk and Bab Chorfa.

Forts and Kasbahs[edit]

Bab Chorfa, the entrance gate to Kasbah An-Nouar. Open-air markets are held in front of the gate.

Along with the city walls and gates, several forts were constructed as defensive perimeters of the medina during the different time periods. The military watchtowers built in its early days during the Idrisid era were relatively small. However, the city rapidly developed as the military garrison center of the region during the Almoravid era, in which the military operations were commanded and carried out to other North African regions and Southern Europe to the north, and Senegal river to the south. Subsequently, it led to the construction of numerous forts, kasbahs, and towers against the foreign invasions. Kasbah in the context of Maghrebi region is the traditional military structure for fortification, military preparation, and command and control. Some of them were occupied as well by the citizens, certain tribal groups, and merchants. Throughout the history, 13 kasbahs were constructed surrounding the old city.[45] The most prominent among them is Kasbah An-Nouar, which dates back to the Almohad era, located at the western or north-western tip of Fes el-Bali. Today, the kasbah is a residential district much like the rest of the medina. The kasbah is equipped with the Friday Mosque and Bab Chorfa entrance gate.[46] Other kasbahs including the Kasbah Cherarda located on the outskirts of Fes el Bali. It was first established during the Saadi era in the 16th century and later refurbished by the Alaouite Sultan Mulai al-Rashid as a fortress.[45] Kasbah Dar Debibagh is a relatively new kasbah built in 1729 during the Alaouite era at 2km from the city wall in a strategic position.[45][47] To the north, there are remains of Borj Nord dates back to the Saadi era, now refurbished as a military museum.[48]

Tanneries[edit]

Leather tanning in Chouara Tannery.

Since the inception of the city, tanning industry has been continually operating in the same fashion as it did in the early centuries. Today, the tanning industry in the city is considered one of the main tourist attractions. There are three tanneries in the city, largest among them is Chouara Tannery near the Saffarin Madrasa along the river, built in the 11th century. The tanneries are packed with the round stone wells filled with dye or white liquids for softening the hides. The leather goods produced in the tanneries are exported around the world.[49][50][51]

Tombs and mausoleums[edit]

Located in the heart of Fes el Bali, the Zaouia of Moulay Idriss II is a zaouia (a shrine and religious complex; also spelled zawiya), dedicated to and contains the tomb of Idris II (or Moulay Idris II when including his sharifian title) who is considered the main founder of the city of Fez.[52][53] Within the medina quarter, there exists as well the Zaouia of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani, which commemorates Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani, the founder of Tijaniyyah tariqa from the 18th century.[54] To the north, there are Marinid Tombs built during the 14th century as a necropolis for the Marinid sultans.[55]

Places of worship[edit]

There are numerous old mosques in the medina, some of which are adjacent to the respective madrasa, zaouia or kasbah. Among the oldest are the Mosque of Al-Qarawiyiin, the mosque adjacent to its university, which dates back to 857,[56] Al-Andalus Mosque which dates back to 859-860 with the minaret erected in 956,[57] Masjid Ali Boughaleb from 1090,[58] Jami Qasbah Filala from 1200 which adjacent to Kasbah Filala,[59] Jami al-Djedid from 1320,[60] Abu al-Hassan Mosque from 1341,[61] Hamra Mosque from 1350,[62] Bab Guissa Mosque with adjacent madrasa built in 1760,[63] and Rasif Mosque built during 1793-1822.[64] The Zaouia of Moulay Idriss II and the Zaouia of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani have their adjacent mosques as well. The Jewish quarter has Ibn Danan Synagogue, built in the 17th century.

Residences[edit]

Gates of the Alaouite Royal Palace (Dar el Mekhzen).

The old city of Fez includes more than a hundred funduqs (traditional inns) for visiting merchants and travelers alike. Among the prominent funduqs are Funduq al-Najjariyyin, which was built in the 18th century by the Alaouite Sultan Amin Adiyil, in order to provide the stay and the storage facility for merchants.[65] Older funduqs include Funduq Achich from the 16th century.[66] There are other numerous funduqs and riads utilized as hotels for the tourism industry. Some of the historical private residences have been turned into tourist attractions, among them is Alami House of the 17th-18th century which features prevalent Moroccan architectural style.[67] As a former administrative seat, the city contains several palaces as well. Dar Batha is a former palace completed in 1897 by the Alawouite Sultan Moulai Abdelaziz, and turned into a museum in 1915 with around 6,000 collections.[68] On Fes Jdid quarter, there is the 80 hectar wide Royal Palace, or Dar el Mekhzen, with imposing gate but not open to the public.

Panoramic view of the Old Medina

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

The University of Al Quaraouiyine is the oldest continually-operating university in the world.[69] The al-Karaouine mosque was founded by Fatima al-Fihri in 859 with an associated school, or madrasa, which subsequently became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim world.[70] It became a state university in 1963, and remains an important institution of learning today.[71]

Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University is a public university that was founded in 1975 and has two primary campuses in the city (Dhar El Mehraz and Sais).

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

The city has a French international school, Groupe scolaire Jean-de-La-Fontaine, serving moyenne section through collège (junior high school).[72]

Transport[edit]

Gare de Fes, train station in the modern urban area of Fez.

The city is served by Saïss Airport. It also has an ONCF train station with lines east to Oujda and west to Tangier and Casablanca.[73]

Sport[edit]

Fez has two football teams, MAS Fez (Fés Maghrebi) and Wydad de Fès (WAF). They both play in the Botola the highest tier of the Moroccan football system and play their home matches at the 45,000 seat Complexe Sportif de Fès stadium.

The MAS Fez basketball team competes in the Nationale 1, Morocco's top basketball division.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Fez is twinned with:

Partnerships[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Medina is the Arabic word for "city", which in former French colonies in North Africa is also used to refer to the old part of a city, as the French largely generally built new cities (Ville Nouvelles) next to them and left the historic cities intact.

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Fes, Kingdom of Morocco", Lat34North.com & Yahoo! Weather, 2009, webpages: L34-Fes and Yahoo-Fes-stats.
  2. ^ Morocco 2014 Census
  3. ^ {cite web|author=UNESCO World Heritage Centre |url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/170 |title=Medina of Fez – UNESCO World Heritage Centre |publisher=Whc.unesco.org |date= |accessdate=2017-09-20}}
  4. ^ "Note de présentation des premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat 2014" (in French). High Commission for Planning. 20 March 2015. p. 8. Retrieved 9 October 2017. 
  5. ^ Mother Nature Network, 7 car-free cities
  6. ^ History of Fes
  7. ^ Cities of the Middle-East and North-Africa A historical enceclopedia. Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley, pagina 151.
  8. ^ Bigon, Liora. Place Names in Africa: Colonial Urban Legacies, Entangled Histories. Springer. p. 83. ISBN 9783319324852. 
  9. ^ An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Watasid Fes p. 19
  10. ^ "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 Mar. 2007
  11. ^ The Places Where Men Pray Together, p. 463, at Google Books p. 55
  12. ^ A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period By Jamil Mir'i Abun-Nasr. p. 51.
  13. ^ Realm of Saints, p. 9, at Google Books
  14. ^ Merriam Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia. p.574.
  15. ^ The Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad, p. 43, at Google Books (p.51)
  16. ^ Morocco 2009, p. 252, at Google Books (p.252)
  17. ^ Roudh el-Kartas: Histoire des souverains du Maghreb, p. 459, at Google Books
  18. ^ http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Watasid Fes (p.16)
  19. ^ http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Watasid Fes (p.23)
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 896, at Google Books (p. 605)
  21. ^ The Berbers and the Islamic State, p. 91, at Google Books (p. 90)
  22. ^ Islamic Art a Visual Culture, p. 121, at Google Books (p. 121)
  23. ^ 'http://www.al-hakawati.net/english/Cities/fez.asp
  24. ^ http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Watasid Fes (p.5)
  25. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071219212840/http://www.bartleby.com/67/822.html
  26. ^ H. Z(J. W.) Hirschberg (1981). A history of the Jews in North Africa: From the Ottoman conquests to the present time, edited by Eliezer Bashan and Robert Attal. BRILL. p. 318. ISBN 90-04-06295-5. 
  27. ^ https://www.mcc.gov/where-we-work/program/morocco-compact Millennium Challenge Corporation, Washington D.C.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-18. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  29. ^ http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/africa/mor_al/Fes_e.htm[permanent dead link]
  30. ^ a b http://voodooskies.com/weather/morocco/fes/monthly/temperature
  31. ^ a b "Weather history for Fez, Figuig, Morocco : Fez average weather by month". Meoweather.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  32. ^ "Climatological Information for Fez, Morocco". Hong Kong Observatory. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012. [permanent dead link]
  33. ^ a b "Fes, Morocco - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved March 2, 2017. 
  34. ^ "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat de 2004" (PDF). Haut-commissariat au Plan, Lavieeco.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  35. ^ Gaudio, Attilio (1982). Fès: Joyau de la civilisation islamique. Paris: Les Presses de l'Unesco: Nouvelles Éditions Latines. ISBN 2723301591. 
  36. ^ 170. UNESCO. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  37. ^ Oldest University
  38. ^ "Medina of Fez". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 April 2016. 
  39. ^ a b c d Penell, C.R. Morocco: From Empire to Independence; Oneworld Publications, Oct 1, 2013. pp.66-67.
  40. ^ Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University. Muslim Heritage. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  41. ^ Fortifications of Fès. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  42. ^ Meredith, Martin. (2014). Fortunes of Africa: A 5,000 Year History of Wealth, Greed and Endeavour. Simon and Schuster.
  43. ^ Hakluyt Society, (1896). Works Issued by the Hakluyt Society, p.592.
  44. ^ Bab Bu Jallud. Archnet Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  45. ^ a b c نفائس فاس العتيقة : بناء 13 قصبة لأغراض عسكرية. Assabah. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  46. ^ Le Tourneau, Roger (1949). Fès avant le protectorat : étude économique et sociale d'une ville de l'occident musulman. Casablanca: Société Marocaine de Librairie et d'Édition. pp. 74, 84, 107–108, 188, 265–266. 
  47. ^ Qasbah Dar Debibagh. 'Archnet Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  48. ^ البرج الشمالي. Museum with no Frontiers. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  49. ^ Chouara Tannery. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  50. ^ Why You Need to Visit Fez in 20 Photos. Bloomberg. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  51. ^ Aziza Chaouni: Hybrid Urban Sutures: Filling in the Gaps in the Medina of Fez." Archit 96 no. 1 (2007): 58-63.
  52. ^ "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 Mar. 2007
  53. ^ Abun-Nasr, Jamil (1987). A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521337674. 
  54. ^ Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani Zawiya. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  55. ^ Métalsi, Mohamed (2003). Fès: La ville essentielle. Paris: ACR Édition Internationale. pp. 8, 273. ISBN 978-2867701528. 
  56. ^ Jami' al-Qarawiyyin. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  57. ^ Jami' al-Andalusiyyin. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  58. ^ Masjid Ali Boughaleb. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  59. ^ Jami' Qasbah Filala. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  60. ^ Jami al-Djedid. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  61. ^ Abu al-Hassan Mosque. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  62. ^ Hamra Mosque. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  63. ^ Bab Guissa Mosque and Madrasa. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  64. ^ Rasif Mosque. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  65. ^ Funduq al-Najjariyyin. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  66. ^ Fondouk Achich. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  67. ^ Alami House. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  68. ^ مدينة فاس. Ministry of Culture. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  69. ^ Guinness World Records, Oldest University
  70. ^ UNESCO, World Heritage Listing for Medina of Fez.
  71. ^ Larbi Arbaoui, Al Karaouin of Fez: The Oldest University in the World, Morocco World News, 2 October 2012.
  72. ^ "Groupe scolaire Jean-de-La-Fontaine." AEFE. Retrieved on June 16, 2016.
  73. ^ "::.. Oncf ..::". Oncf.ma. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  74. ^ "Sister cities of İzmir (1/7)" (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  75. ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal de Coimbra – Praça 8 de Maio – 3000-300 Coimbra. Retrieved 2009-06-25.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  76. ^ "Kraków - Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Le Tourneau, Roger (1974) [1961]. Fez in the Age of the Marinides. Translated by Besse Clement. Oklahoma University. ISBN 0-8061-1198-4. 
  • Vigo, Julian (2006). "The Renovation of Fes' medina qdima and the (re)Creation of the Traditional". Writing the City, Transforming the City. New Delhi: Katha. pp. 44–58. 
  • "Place Lalla Yeddouna A Neighborhood in the Medina of Fez, Morocco: International open project competition in two phases".  Announced in September 2010 in collaboration with the Union International des Architectes (UIA) and the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), to renew the area and upgrade the living and working standards of the artisans in the medina. The approach of the project is probably one of the most ambitious for an Arab medina and therefore of exemplary character. The open international project was won by the London-based architecture practice Mossessian & Partners.

External links[edit]


Preceded by
Aleppo
Capital of Islamic Culture
2007
Succeeded by
Alexandria, Djibouti, Lahore