Fetor hepaticus

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Fetor hepaticus or foetor hepaticus (see spelling differences), also known as breath of the dead or hepatic foetor, is a condition seen in portal hypertension where portosystemic shunting allows thiols to pass directly into the lungs. It is a late sign in liver failure and is one of the clinical features of hepatic encephalopathy. Other possible causes are the presence of ammonia and ketones in the breath. The breath has a sweet, fecal smell to it and also described as having the odour of freshly mown hay.

The compound dimethyl sulfide has been associated with it,[1] raising the possibility of an objective noninvasive measure of liver failure. Furthermore, the volatile dimethyl sulfide is thought by some researchers to be the main contributor to the odor of fetor hepaticus.[2][3] A secondary form of trimethylaminuria is also associated with liver failure, and it has been suggested that that trimethylamine is also a contributor to the odor of fetor hepaticus.[4]

Foetor hepaticus is sometimes (often?) associated with an acid - base disorder such as diabetic ketoacidosis or isopropyl alcohol intoxication.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Van den Velde S, Nevens F, Van Hee P, van Steenberghe D, Quirynen M (November 2008). "GC-MS analysis of breath odor compounds in liver patients". J. Chromatogr. B. 875 (2): 344–8. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.08.031. PMID 18938115.
  2. ^ Kaji, H; Hisamura, M; Saito, N; Murao, M (May 1, 1978). "Gas chromatographic determination of volatile sulfur compounds in the expired alveolar air in hepatopathic subjects". Journal of Chromatography. 145 (3): 464–8. doi:10.1016/s0378-4347(00)81377-8. PMID 659533.
  3. ^ Tangerman, A; Meuwese-Arends, MT; Jansen, JB (Feb 19, 1994). "Cause and composition of foetor hepaticus". Lancet. 343 (8895): 483. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(94)92729-4. PMID 7905979.
  4. ^ Mitchell, S; Ayesh, R; Barrett, T; Smith, R (May 1999). "Trimethylamine and foetor hepaticus". Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 34 (5): 524–8. doi:10.1080/003655299750026281. PMID 10423071.
  5. ^ Berend, Kenrick; deVries, A; Gans, R (October 9, 2014). "Physiological Approach to Assessment of Acid-Base Disturbances". New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (15): 1434–45. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1003327. PMID 25295502.