Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak (12 January, 1876 – 10 April 1950) was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal) and politician. He served as the Chief of General Staff from 1918 and 1919 and later the Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire in 1920. He later joined the provisional Government of the Grand National Assembly and became the Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of National Defence and later as the Prime Minister of Turkey from 1921 to 1922. He was the second Chief of the General Staff of the provisional Ankara Government and the first Chief of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey.
Graduating from the War College as a Staff Captain and assigned to the 4th Department of the General Staff, Mustafa Fevzi participated in numerous battles during the prolonged downfall of the Ottoman Empire, such as the First Balkan War and the Battle of Monastir. He was engaged as the Commander of the V Corps throughout the defence of Gallipoli, during which his younger brother was killed in the Battle of Chunuk Bair. He became a Pasha and the Chief of General Staff of the Ottoman Empire after the First World War and was appointed as the commander of the First Army Troops Inspectorate in 1919 by Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha. After briefly serving as War Minister in 1920, Fevzi left to join the dissident Grand National Assembly in Ankara as a Member of Parliament for Kozan.
He was appointed as National Defence Minister and Deputy Prime Minister by Mustafa Kemal Paşa in 1920, commanding numerous military successes throughout the Turkish War of Independence, notably during the Battle of Sakarya. He succeeded Mustafa Kemal as Prime Minister in 1921, resigning in 1922 to engage in the successful Battle of Dumlupınar. He was appointed Field Marshal (Mareşal) in 1922 at the recommendation of Mustafa Kemal. He had succeeded İsmet İnönü as the Chief of General Staff in August 1921 and continued serving after the Turkish Republic was declared in 1923. Adopting the surname 'Çakmak', he was a candidate to succeed Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as the President of Turkey after Atatürk's death in 1938, but stood down in favour of İnönü. He continued to serve as Chief of General Staff until 1944, after which he became a Member of Parliament for Istanbul from the Democrat Party. He later resigned from the Democrats and co-founded the Nation Party headed by Osman Bölükbaşı.
Fevzi Çakmak remains, alongside Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as one of the two and only field marshals of Turkey.
- 1 Biography
- 2 War of Independence
- 3 Republican era
- 4 Death
- 5 Medals and Decorations
- 6 Works
- 7 Family tree
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Family and schools
Mustafa Fevzi was born on 24 January 1876 in Cihangir (Istanbul, Ottoman Empire) to mother Hesna Hanım, daughter of Varnalı Hacı Bekir Efendi, who is the youngest son of Ömer Ağa, and father Ali Sırrı Efendi, who is son of Çakmakoğlu Hüseyin Derviş Kaptan and served for Tophane (Arsenal) as secretary. In 1879 his father Ali Sırrı Bey was appointed to Black Sea Artillery Regiment (Karadeniz Topçu Alayı) at Rumeli Kavağı, family move there. Thus Fevzi's name in the Army will become "Kavaklı Fevzi Pasha".
He studied at Sadık Hoca Mektebi in Rumeli Kavağı between 1882 and 1884. And he continued to study at Tedrisiye-i Haybiye Mektebi in Sarıyer between 1884 and 1886, at Salonica Military School (Selânik Askerî Rüşdiyesi ) between 1886 and 1887, at Soğukçeşme Askerî Rüşdiyesi between 1887 and 1890. And he learned Arabic and Persian languages from his grandfather Hacı Bekir Efendi, who had studied in Egypt and Baghdad and was one of the prominent intelligentsia at the time. He continued to Kuleli Military High School (Kuleli Askerî İdadisi) between 1890 and 1893. After graduating from Kuleli military highschool, he entered Harbiye Mektibi (Mekteb-i Füsûn-u Harbiyye-i Şâhâne) in Pangaltı, 29 April 1893. He completed the military school as the seventh of the class on 28 January 1896 and joined the Ottoman military as an Infantry Second Lieutenant (Mülâzım-ı Sani).
On 28 January 1898, he entered the War Academy (Staff College, Mekteb-i Erkân-ı Harbiye-i Şâhâne), present day: Harp Akademisi) and on 16 March 1897, he was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant (Mülâzım-ı Evvel). On 25 December 1898, he graduated from Academy as a Staff Captain (Erkân-ı Harp Yüzbaşısı) and was assigned to the 4th department of the General Staff.
On 11 April 1899, he became the staff officer of 18th Regular Division (On Sekicinsi Nizamiye Fırkası) under the command of Şemsi Pasha at Metroviça (present day: Mitrovica) of the 3rd Army. He studied Serbian, Bulgarian, Albanian languages to read their newspapers for collecting information. On 20 April 1900, he was promoted to the rank of Kolağası, on 20 April 1902, Major (Binbaşı), on 19 July 1906, Lieutenant Colonel (Kaymakam) and on 17 December 1907, Miralay.
According to some researchers, he was in contact with Committee of Union and Progress and elected the member of the secret board of directors of the Metroviça blanch of the committee. On 3 July 1908, Senior Captain Ahmed Niyazi Bey stationed at Resne (present day: Resen), an ethnic Albanian, took to the hills with 200 soldiers and a number of civilians, and issued a manifesto which demanded the restoration of constitutional government. Şemsi Pasha, an ethnic Albanian, was ordered to crush the rebel and went to Monastir with two battalions. But he was shot and killed by Second Lieutenant Bigalı Atıf Bey.
On 19 August 1909, he was demoted to Major, because of the Law for the Purge of Military Ranks (Tasfiye-i Rüteb-i Askeriye Kanunu).
On 29 December 1908 he was appointed to Governor (mutassarıf) and commander of Taşlıca (present day: Pljevlja), and at the same time, the commander of the 35th Brigade (Otuzbeşinci Liva). On 15 January 1910, he was temporarily assigned to the headquarters of the Kosovo Provisional Corps (Mürretep Kosova Kolordusu), on 29 September, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel (Kaymakam) and on 27 July, became the chief of staff of the same corps.
On 15 January 1911, he was assigned to the 4th department of the General Staff. On 2 October 1911, when he was staying in İşkodra (present day: Shkodër), because Italo-Turkish War (29 September 1911 – 18 October 1912) broke out, he was assigned to the Western Army that was formed for the defense of Western Rumelia under the command of Birinci Ferik Ali Rıza Pasha. On 6 October, he was appointed to the Governor (mutassarıf) of İpek Sancağı (present day: District of Peć). On 19 October, he went back to Istanbul to continue his task at the 4th department of the General Staff. On 11 February 1912, he was appointed to the member of the committee that was formed under the chairmanship of the Minister of the Interior Hacı Adil Bey with the decision about reform of Albania and three vilayet (Salonica, Monastir, Kosova). 9 May, he was appointed to a secretariat formed in the Sadaret and on 3 July, to the deputy commander of the 21th[clarification needed] Infantry Division (Yirmi Birinci Fırka) at Yakova (present day: Gjakova), on 6 August, to the staff of the General Forces of Kosovo (Kosova Kuva-yi Umumiyesi).
On 29 September 1912, he was appointed to the chief of the 1st department (chief of operations) of the Vardar Army under the command of Ferik Halepli Zeki Pasha, formed within the Western Army. During the First Balkan War (8 October 1912 – 30 May 1913), after the defeat at the Battle of Kumanovo ( 23–24 October 1912), Fevzi wrote that the distributions of the Ottoman forces over a wide area gave initiative to the enemy and that mobilization and concentration plan was poorly designed and flawed. He also noted that there were great deficiencies in artillery, wireless, and air units. But he wrote that he had put the idea of creating a six-corps army of one hundred thousand men operation on interior lines from the Monastir (present day: Bitola) area. The Vardar Army retreated to Monastir.
On 16 November, during the Battle of Monastir ( 16–19 November 1912), his younger brother Muhtar Efendi was killed in action at the heights of Oblakovo, northwest of Bitola. After the defeat at the Battle of Bitola, he wrote that the Vardar Army's effective strength for its 78 infantry battalions was 39,398 men. The Vardar Army retreated to Albania. On 10 May, because Miralay Ibrahim Halil Bey (Sedes), who was the chief of staff of the Vardar Army, went to Istanbul, Fevzi deputized the chief of staff. On 19 June the headquarters of the Vardar Army, left pier at Seman with steamships named Karadeniz and Gülcemal and arrived at Istanbul on 22 June.
On the morning of June 6, 1329, Karadeniz, in late afternoon Gülcemal, left pier at Seman. I also got on board Gülcemal. We've bid farewell to five centuries of Turkish rule of Western Rumelia. When the sun went down, the coast of Albania was gradually ceasing to be visible in front of our eyes. The cession of the part of our homeland, where our ancestors irrigated with their blood for centuries and many old and new martyrs were buried, brought unacceptable heartbreak and nostalgia to our hearts. Today, Western Rumelia that is the victim of ignorance and politics, was fluttering in pathetic sorrows.
On 2 August 1913, he was appointed to the commander of the Ankara Reserve Division (Ankara Redif Fırkası), on 6 November, to the commander of the 2nd Infantry Division (İkinci Fırka) and on 24 November, he was promoted to the rank of Miralay.
World War I
On 22 December 1913, he was appointed to the commander of the V Corps. His corps engaged in the defense of Gallipoli. On 2 March 1915, he was promoted to the rank of Mirliva. He arrived at the Gallipoli Front on 13 July and command his corps in battles of Achi Baba (İkinci Kerevizdere Muharebesi) and Sari Bair. On 8 August, his younger brother, the commander of the 1st Company of the 2nd Battalion of the 64th Regiment, Lieutenant Mehmed Nazif Efendi was killed in action in the Battle of Chunuk Bair.
On 6 December 1915, he served concurrently as the commander of the Anafartalar Group. In April 1916, he was appointed to the 3rd military district of Eastern Front and on 7 September 1916, to the commander of II Caucasian Corps consisted of 5th, 11th and 37th Caucasian divisions. On 5 July 1917, he was appointed to the commander of the 2nd Army at Diyârbekir.
On 9 October 1917, he was assigned to the command of the 7th Army at the Sinai and Palestine Front and he remained in Aleppo until 18 October and began to move his headquarters forward to Halilürrahman and arrived there on 23 October. Erich von Falkenhayn gave Fevzi control of Beersheba and the eastern half of the Palestine Front on 28 October. But Falkenhayn gave alternating orders on the same day. According to these orders, gave the command of all units on the Sinai Front Kress von Kressenstein until the new command arrangements are functional
On 15 February 1918, he wrote to Erich von Falkenhayn, serious problems with the inefficient lines of communication and the supply and recruiting Zone proportionate with the strength and situation of the army. Moreover, he mentioned that here were combat skills proficiency problems caused by the inability of his under-strength army to withdraw front-line units for training in the rear area.
After World War I, on 24 December 1918, Fevzi Pasha was appointed to the Chief of the General Staff (Erkân-ı Harbiye Umûmiye Riyaseti) of the Ottoman Empire. In April 1919, he met with Şevket Turgut Pasha, Cevat Pasha secretly in Constantinople and prepared a report called "Trio Oath" (Üçler Misâkı) to establish army inspectorate for the defense of homeland. In late April, Fevzi Pasha submitted this report to the Minister of War Şakir Pasha. On 30 April 1919, the War Ministry and Sultan Mehmed VI ratified the decision about the establishing of army inspectorates that had been accepted by the Chief of General Staff On 14 May 1919, he was appointed to the commander of the Inspector of the 1st Army Troops Inspectorate (Birinci Ordu Kıt'aatı Müfettişi). On 3 November, he assigned to the task in Heyet-i Nasîha and on 31 December, he was appointed to the member of the Military Council (Askerî Şûra). He became the Minister of War of Ali Rıza Pasha Cabinet (3 February – 3 March 1920) and Salih Pasha Cabinet (8 March – 2 April 1920).
War of Independence
After the resignation of Salih Pasha Cabinet, he went to Anatolia to participate in the national movement arriving at Ankara on 27 April 1920. On 3 May, he was elected the Minister of Defense (Milli Müdafaa Vekili) and Vice Prime Minister (Heyet-i Vekile Riyaseti Vekili) as a parliamentary deputy from Kozan.
On 9 November, in addition to his existing tasks, he was temporarily appointed Vice Minister of the Chief of the General Staff, because the Chief of the General Staff İsmet Bey was continuously at the front as the commander of Western Front. On 24 January 1921, in addition to his other tasks, he became Prime Minister (Heyet-i Vekile Riyaseti) and on 3 April, he was promoted to Birinci Ferik.
Battle of Kütahya-Eskişehir
Battle of Sakarya
The Army of Grand National Assembly defeated the Greek forces at the Battle of Sakarya on the outskirts of Ankara.
On 12 July 1922, he resigned as the Prime Minister.
Fevzi Çakmak and Mustafa Kemal planned and commandeered the Battle of Dumlupınar. On 31 August 1922, he was promoted to rank of Müşir (Mareşal) with the recommendation of Mustafa Kemal.
Musul offensive plan
On 14 August 1923, he was elected a deputy from Istanbul.
On 3 March 1924, he was appointed as the Chief of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey.
İzmir assassination attempt and purge
He quit politics by resigning from the parliament on 31 October 1924.
Candidate to be Atatürk's successor
He retired on 12 January 1944.
He died on the morning of 10 April 1950 in his house in Teşvikiye. His funeral service was held at the Beyazıt and he was laid to rest in Eyüp Cemetery, Istanbul, on 12 April 1950. His family rejected an effort to exhume his body and effect a transfer to Turkish State Cemetery in Ankara.
Medals and Decorations
- Imtiyaz Medal in Silver (23 January 1900)
- Order of Medjidie, 5th class (22 August 1900)
- Order of Osmanieh, 4th class (17 July 1906)
- Harp Madalyası (2 October 1915)
- Silver (18 November 1915)
- Iron Cross, 2nd class (Germany, 26 December 1915)
- Gold Liakat Medal (17 January 1916)
- War Medal (Germany, 21 October 1916)
- İmtiyaz Medal in Gold (11 November 1916)
- Military Merit Cross, 2nd class (Austria-Hungary, 3 April 1917)
- Order of the Osmanî with Swords, 2nd class (23 September 1917)
- Order of the Osmanî with Swords, 1st class (7 January 1918)
- Order of the Crown (Württemberg, 19 June 1918)
- Medal of Independence with Red-Green Ribbon (21 November 1923) & Citation
- Fevzi Çakmak (Mareşal), Garbî Rumeli'nin Suret-i Ziya-ı ve Balkan Harbinde Garp Cephesi Hakkında. Konferanslar, Erkan-ı Harbiye Mektebi Matbaası, İstanbul, 1927.
- Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak, Büyük Harpte Şark Cephesi Hareketleri, Gen.Kur. Basımevi, Ankara, 1936.
|Limnili Hacı Derviş|
|Üzile||Hoca Bekir Efendi|
|Hesna||Ayşe Şahver||Ali Nuri|
(1882 – 8 August 1915 †)
(1884 – 16 November 1912 †)
|MUSTAFA FEVZİ ÇAKMAK|
|M. Şefik Çakmak|
|Professor emeritus of Princeton University|
Ahmet S. Çakmak
|Noriko Nagafuji Çakmak|
- Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, Genelkurmay Basım Evi, 1997, ISBN 978-975-409-098-7, p. 2, TBMM Arşivi; VIII. Dönem İstanbul millet vekili Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın hâl tercümesi, sicil no. 293, defter no. 486, zarf no. 32. (in Turkish)
- Nilüfer Hatemi, Günlükleri, II. Cilt, p. 907.
- Fevzi Çakmak Archived 27 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Chief of the General Staff (in Turkish)
- Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 3.
- Nilüfer Hatemi, Günlükleri, II. Cilt, p. 910.
- Nusret Baycan, "Büyük Taarruz'da Komuta Kademelerinde Görev Alanlarla Üst Düzeydeki Karargâh Subayları", Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı 26, Cilt: IX, Mart 1993,  (in Turkish)
- T.C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Yayınları, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, Genelkurmay Başkanlığı Basımevi, Ankara, 1972, p. 52. (in Turkish)
- Genelkurmay, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, p. 53.
- Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 9.
- Ayfer Özçelik, "Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak", Millî Kültür, Sayı: 83, Nisan 1991, Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları, Ankara, 1991, p. 56. (in Turkish)
- Nilüfer Hatemi, "Marshal Fevzi Cakmak’s Family and Education: A Formation Process" in Identity and Identity Formation in the Ottoman Middle East and the Balkans: A Volume of the Essays in Honor of Norman Itzkowitz, Baki Tezcan (ed.), International Journal of Turkish Studies, 13:1&2, (Fall 2007): p. 203.
- Genelkurmay, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, p. 54.
- Edward J. Erickson, Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913, Praeger, 2003, ISBN 0-275-97888-5, p. 183.
- Nilüfer Hatemi, Günlükleri, I. Cilt., p. 191.
- Erickson, Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913, p. 194.
- Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 14.
- Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 15.
- Fevzi Çakmak (Mareşal), Garbî Rumeli'nin Suret-i Ziya-ı ve Balkan Harbinde Garp Cephesi Hakkında. Konferanslar, Erkan-ı Harbiye Mektebi Matbaası, İstanbul, 1927, p. 475, modern Turkish text: ... 6 Haziran 1329 sabahı Karadeniz, akşama doğru da Gülcemal, seman iskelesinden hareket ettiler. Ben de Gülcemal'de indim. Garbî Rumeli'nde beş asırlık Türk hâkimiyetine veda ettik. Güneş batarken Arnavutluk sahilleri tedricen gözümüzün önünden siliniyordu. Atalarımızın asırlarca müdded kanlarıyla suladığı ve eski yeni birçok şühedamızın gömüldüğü vatan parçasının terki kalplerimizde nâ kabul izale acılar, hasretler tevlîd ediyordu. Cehalet ve politika kurbanı olan Garbî Rumeli elyevm elîm hicrânlar içinde çırpınmakadır.
- Kemal Arı, "Mülâzım-ı Evvel Mehmed Nazif Efendi'nin Conkbayırı'nda Şehit Düşüşü ve Buna İlişkin Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk)'in Bir Mektubu", Türk Tarih Kurumu, Belleten, LVIII/222 (Ağustos, 1994), pp. 451–459. (in Turkish)
- Edward J. Erickson, Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: A comparative study, Routledge, 2007, ISBN 978-0-415-77099-6, p. 115.
- Erickson, Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: A comparative study, p. 120.
- Erickson, Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: A comparative study, p. 143.
- Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918–1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, p. 105. (in Turkish)
- "Fotoğraflarla Büyük Taarruz". Archived from the original on 16 February 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2010., Afyon Kocatepe University (in Turkish)
- Genelkurmay, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, p. 55.
- Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 45.
- Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 44.
- Sadri Karakoyunlu, "Sakarya Meydan Muharebesi'nin Yankıları (Melhâme-i Kübrâ Büyük Kan Seli veya büyük Savaş Alanı)", Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı 31, Cilt: XI, Mart 1995,  (in Turkish)
- Zekeriya Türkmen, "Özdemir Bey’in Musul Harekatı ve İngilizlerin Karşı Tedbirleri (1921–1923)", Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı 49, Cilt: XVII, Mart 2001,  (in Turkish)
- Hasan Rıza Soyak, Atatürk's secretary, quotes Atatürk on the subject of his successor, “Of course, the right to speak and elect belongs to nation and its representative Grand National Assembly. But I'll state my opinion about this issue. Firstly İsmet Paşa comes to mind; he has performed many great contributions to this country. However, for some reason he seems not to get (sic) public sympathy. So he should not be very attractive (sic). And Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak, he has great contributions in this country and also he fared well with everyone, he always has appreciated opinions of owners of authority; he is in a fight with nobody. In this regard, I think he is the most appropriate friend for the Head of State.” Atatürk'ten Hatıralar, Yapıkredi Yayınları, 2004, ISBN 975-08-0882-7, p. 717.(in Turkish)
- "Mareşal Fevzi Çakmağı dün sabah kaybettik", Cumhuriyet, 26 ncı yıl Sayı: 9221, Tuesday 11 April 1950. (in Turkish)
- "Mareşal Çakmağı Dün Toprağa Verdik", Cumhuriyet, 26 ncı yıl Sayı: 9223, Thursday 13 April 1950. (in Turkish)
- Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, appendix: 25, İstanbul Milletvekili Seçilen Fevzi Paşa için tanzim edilen tutanak.
- "Cakmak, Irby, Keaney, Miner, Obeyesekere, Peebles transfer to emeritus status", Princeton Weekly Bulletin, 22 May 2000, Princeton University.
- Ahmet Çakmak named 2000 SEAS Distinguished Professor of the department of operations research and financial engineering
- Ahmet Çakmak, Professor Emeritus, the department of operations research and financial engineering
- Süleyman Külçe, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak: Askerî Hususî Hayatı, Yeni Asır Matbaası, İzmir, 1946. (in Turkish)
- Sinan Omur, Büyük Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın Askerî Dehâsı, Siyasî Hayatı, Sinan Matbaası, İstanbul, 1962. (in Turkish)
- Ziya Tütüncü, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak: büyük milletin, büyük askeri, Milliyetçi Yayınlar, İstanbul, 1968. (in Turkish)
- Ali Gümüş, Kahraman Asker Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak, Tercüman Aile ve Kültür Kitaplığı, İstanbul, 1986. (in Turkish)
- Veli Yılmaz, Fevzi Çakmak, Kastaş Yayınları, İstanbul, 2006. (in Turkish)
- Rahmi Akbaş, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak: 1876–1950, Ötüken Neşriyat, İstanbul, 2008. (in Turkish)
- Adnan Çakmak, "Fevzi Çakmak'ın Hatıraları", Hürriyet Gazetesi, 10 April – 20 May 1975 (41 volumes). (in Turkish)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fevzi Çakmak.|
- General Staff official site (in Turkish)
- "Fevzi Çakmak." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- "Fevzi Çakmak Diaries, 1911–1950." Manuscripts Division. 2002. Princeton University Library.
- Mesut Çevikalp, "Mareşal'in gözyaşları", Aksiyon, Sayı: 800, 5 April 2010. (in Turkish)
- "Bir telefon bile etmedi. Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak’ın Amerika’daki öz torunu Ahmet Çakmak VATAN’a konuştu", Vatan, 16 April 2010. (in Turkish)
Hulusi Salih (Kezrak)
| Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire
3 February 1920 – 3 March 1920
Title next held byHimself
Title last held byHimself
| Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire
8 March 1920 – 2 April 1920
|New title|| Minister of National Defense of the Ankara Government
3 May 1920 – 5 August 1921
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk)
| Prime Minister of the Ankara Government
24 January 1921 – 9 July 1922
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk)
| Commander of the Second Army
5 July 1917 – 9 October 1917
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk)
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk)
| Commander of the Seventh Army
9 October 1917 – 7 August 1918
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk)
| Chief of the General Staff of the Ottoman Empire
24 December 1918 – 14 May 1919
| Chief of the General Staff of the Ankara Government
5 August 1921 – 29 October 1923
|New office|| Chief of the General Staff of Turkey
29 October 1923 – 12 January 1944