Jump to content

Fez, Morocco

Coordinates: (1,100,000) 34°02′36″N 05°00′12″W / 34.04333°N 5.00333°W / 34.04333; -5.00333
This is a good article. Click here for more information.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The facade of the University of al-Qarawiyyin
The gates of the Royal Palace
Looking out across the Medina of Fez
From the top down:
Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque/University, gates of the Royal Palace, and Fes el Bali a.k.a. the Medina of Fez.
Fez is located in Morocco
Location of Fez within Morocco
Fez is located in Africa
Fez (Africa)
Coordinates: (1,100,000) 34°02′36″N 05°00′12″W / 34.04333°N 5.00333°W / 34.04333; -5.00333
Country Morocco
Founded byIdrisid dynasty
 • MayorAbdeslam Bekkali
 • GovernorSaid Zniber
 • Urban
320 km2 (120 sq mi)
Elevation414 m (1,358 ft)
 • City1,112,072
 • Rank2nd in Morocco
 • Demonym
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Area code+212 (53)
Official nameMedina of Fez
Criteriaiii, iv
Reference no.[3]
RegionArab States

Fez or Fes (/fɛz/; Arabic: فاس, romanizedfās) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fès-Meknès administrative region. It is the second largest city in Morocco, with a population of 1.11 million, according to the 2014 census.[2] Located to the northwest of the Atlas Mountains, it is surrounded by hills and the old city is centered around the Fez River (Oued Fes) flowing from west to east. Fez has been called the "Mecca of the West" and the "Athens of Africa". It is also considered the spiritual and cultural capital of Morocco.

Founded under Idrisid rule during the 8th–9th centuries CE, Fez initially consisted of two autonomous and competing settlements. Successive waves of mainly Arab immigrants from Ifriqiya (Tunisia) and al-Andalus (Spain/Portugal) in the early 9th century gave the nascent city its Arab character. After the downfall of the Idrisid dynasty, other empires came and went until the 11th century when the Almoravid Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin united the two settlements into what is today's Fes el-Bali (lit.'Old Fes') quarter, a.k.a. Medina of Fez. Under Almoravid rule, the city gained a reputation for religious scholarship and mercantile activity.

Fez reached its zenith in the Marinid era (13th–15th centuries), regaining its status as political capital. Numerous new madrasas and mosques were constructed, many of which survive today, while other structures were restored. These buildings are counted among the hallmarks of Moorish and Moroccan architectural styles. In 1276 the Marinid sultan Abu Yusuf Yaqub also founded the royal administrative district of Fes Jdid (lit.'New Fez'), where the Royal Palace (Dar al-Makhzen) is still located today, to which extensive gardens were later added. During this period the Jewish population of the city grew and the Mellah (Jewish quarter) was formed on the south side of this new district. After the overthrow of the Marinid dynasty, the growth of Fez stalled and the city subsequently competed with Marrakesh for political and cultural influence. It became the capital again under the 'Alawi dynasty up until 1912.

The city consists of two old medina quarters, Fes el-Bali and Fes Jdid, and the much larger modern urban Ville Nouvelle area founded during the French colonial era. The Medina of Fez is listed as a World Heritage Site and is one of the world's largest and oldest urban pedestrian zones (car-free areas). It contains the University of al-Qarawiyyin which was founded in 857 and is the oldest continuously functioning institute of higher education in the world. It also contains the Chouara Tannery from the 11th century, one of the oldest tanneries in the world.


The name of the city in Arabic is فاس Fās (or ڢاس in traditional Maghrebi script), from which the English names Fez, Fès, and Fas are derived. According to some traditions, the city's name comes from the Arabic word فأس Faʾs, meaning pickaxe. Various legends have been reported to explain this etymology. One tells the story of a gold pickaxe found on site during the city's construction, while another claims that Idris I used a silver and gold pickaxe to dig alongside his workers.[4]: 26 [5][6] Another account reported by Ibn Abi Zar claims that an ancient city named "Sef" had previously existed on the site and that Idris I reversed the letters of this name to create the name "Fes".[4]: 26–27 [5]

During the rule of the Idrisid dynasty (788 to 974), Fez consisted of two cities: Fās, founded by Idris I,[7] and al-ʿĀliyá, founded by his son, Idris II. During this period the capital city was known as al-ʿĀliyá, with the name Fās being reserved for the separate site on the other side of the river; no Idrisid coins have been found with the name Fez, only al-ʿĀliyá and al-ʿĀliyá Madinat Idris. It is not known whether the name al-ʿĀliyá ever referred to both urban areas. The two cities were united in 1070 and the name Fās was used for the combined site.[8]


Foundation and the Idrisids[edit]

refer to caption
View of Fes el-Bali and the minaret of the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II, which commemorates Idris II, one of the founders of Fez

The city was first founded in 789 as Madinat Fas on the southeast bank of the Jawhar River (now known as the Fez River) by Idris I, founder of the Idrisid dynasty. Idris I was an Hasanid Sharif from Arabia who was forced to flee the Hejaz after a failed revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate, eventually moving to northern Morocco and conquereing much of the area.[9][10] His son, Idris II,[11] built a settlement called al-ʿĀliyá on the opposing river bank in 809 and moved his capital here from Walili (Volubilis).[12]: 35 [13]: 35 [14]: 83  The early population was composed mostly of Berbers, along with hundreds of Arab warriors from Kairouan who made up Idris II's entourage.[12]: 35, 41 [14]: 82 

Arab immigration to Fez increased afterwards. Andalusi families of mixed Arab and Iberian descent,[15] who were expelled from Córdoba after a rebellion in 817–818 against al-Hakam I, were one major component of the immigrant population. These families mainly settled in Madinat Fas.[12]: 46–47  These two waves of immigrants gave the city its Arabic character and would subsequently give their name to the districts of 'Adwat Al-Andalus [ar] and 'Adwat al-Qarawiyyin [ar].[16]: 51  The city also had a prominent Jewish community, probably consisting of Zenata Berbers who had previously converted to Judaism, as well as a small remaining Christian population for a time. The Jews were especially concentrated in a northeastern district of al-ʿĀliyá, known as Funduq el-Yihoudi (near the present-day Bab Guissa gate).[12]: 42–44 

refer to caption
Interior of the Qarawiyin Mosque, founded in 859

Following the death of Idris II in 828 the region was divided among his sons. The eldest, Muhammad, received Fez, but some of his brothers attempted to break away from his leadership, resulting in an internecine conflict. Although the Idrisid realm was eventually reunified and enjoyed a period of peace under Ali ibn Muhammad and Yahya ibn Muhammad, it fell into decline again in the late 9th century.[17]

refer to caption
A page from a 16th-century manuscript of Rawḍ al-Qirṭās, a book about the history of Fes under the Idrisids, Banu Zanata, Almoravids, Almohads and Marinids.[18][19]

In the 10th century, the city was contested by the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba and the Fatimid Caliphate of Ifriqiya (Tunisia), who ruled the city through a host of Zenata clients.[14]: 88–91 [17][20]: 63–64, 74–75  The Fatimids took the city in 927 and expelled the Idrisids definitively, after which their Miknasa (one of the Zenata tribes) were installed there. The city, along with much of northern Morocco, continued to change hands between the proxies of Córdoba and the proxies of the Fatimids for many decades. Following another successful invasion by Buluggin ibn Ziri in 979 and a brief period of Fatimid control, the forces of Al-Mansur of Cordoba managed to retake the region again, expelling the Fatimids permanently.[17] From 980 (or from 986[21][12]), Fez was ruled by a Zenata dynasty from the Maghrawa tribe, who were allies of the Caliphate of Córdoba. They maintained this control even after the Caliphate's collapse in the early 11th century and until the arrival of the Almoravids.[13]: 16 [21][14]: 91 

Fez continued to grow under Zenata control, even though conflicts between its two settlements, Madinat Fas and al-ʿĀliyá, flared up during periods of political rivalry. Ziri ibn Atiyya, the first ruler of the new dynasty, had a troubled reign.[12]: 50  However, Ibn Atiyya's descendant Dunas ibn Hamama, ruling between 1037 and 1049, was responsible for improving the city's infrastructure.[22] He developed much of Fez's water supply system, which has largely survived up to the present day.[22][23] Other structures built in his time included hammams (bathhouses), mosques, and the first bridges over the Oued Bou Khrareb (mostly rebuilt in later eras).[12]: 51 [22][24][25] The two cities became increasingly integrated: the open space between the two was filled up by new houses and up to six bridges across the river allowed for easier passage between them.[4]: 36  A decade after Dunas, between 1059 and 1061, the two cities were ruled separately by two brothers who were rival Zenata emirs that fought with each other: al-ʿĀliyá was controlled by an emir named Al-Gisa and Madinat Fas was controlled by Al-Fetouh. Both brothers fortified their respective shores, and their names have been preserved in two of the city's gates to this day: Bab Guissa (or Bab Gisa) in the north and Bab Ftouh in the south.[26]: 31 [12]: 50, 53, 110 

Almoravids, Almohads and Marinids[edit]

In 1069–1070 (or possibly a few years later[21]), Fez was conquered by the Almoravids under Yusuf ibn Tashfin. In the same year of this conquest, Yusuf ibn Tashfin unified Madinat Fas and al-ʿĀliyá into one city. The walls dividing them were destroyed, bridges connecting them were built or renovated, and a new circuit of walls was constructed that encompassed both cities. A kasbah (Arabic term for "citadel") was built at the western edge of the city (just west of Bab Bou Jeloud today) to house the city's governor and garrison.[12]: 53 [23] Although the capital was moved to Marrakesh under the Almoravids, Fez acquired a reputation for Maliki legal scholarship and remained an important centre of trade and industry.[12]: 52–54 [13]: 17–18  Almoravid impact on the city's structure was such that Yusuf ibn Tashfin is sometimes considered to be the second founder of Fez.[27]

refer to caption
Remains of the city walls on the north side of Fes el-Bali, which were rebuilt during the Almohad period (12th-13th century)

In 1145 the Almohad leader Abd al-Mu'min besieged and conquered the city during the Almohad overthrow of the Almoravids. Due to the ferocious resistance they encountered from the local population, the Almohads demolished the city's fortifications.[12]: 55 [23] However, due to Fez's continuing economic and military importance, the Almohad caliph Ya'qub al-Mansur ordered the reconstruction of the ramparts.[26]: 36 [23]: 606  The walls were completed by his successor Muhammad al-Nasir in 1204,[26]: 36  giving them their definitive shape and establishing the perimeter of Fes el-Bali to this day.[12]: 56 [23][28]: 19  The Almohads built the Kasbah Bou Jeloud on the site of the former Almoravid kasbah[12]: 56  and also built the first kasbah occupying the site of the current Kasbah an-Nouar.[4]: 72 [26]: 109  Not all the land within the city walls was densely inhabited; much of it was still relatively open and was occupied by crops and gardens used by the inhabitants.[28]: 19  During the 12th century, the city was one of the largest in the world,[29][30] with an estimated population of 200,000.[29] By 1200, Fez and Cairo had probably become the largest Muslim cities.[31]

Interior facade of Bou Inania Madrasa in daylight
The Bou Inania Madrasa, the most important madrasa built by the Marinids in Fes (14th century)

In 1250, Fez regained its status as the capital under the Marinid dynasty. The city reached its golden age in the Marinid period.[32]: 16 [12]: 61–78 [13]: 20  In 1276, an anti-Marinid revolt resulted in a massacre of the Jewish community that was stopped by the intervention of the ruler Abu Yusuf Ya'qub.[33][34] Following the revolt, Abu Yusuf Yaqub founded Fes Jdid as the new administrative and military centre. Under the Marinids, many of the principal monuments in the medina were built and the city established its reputation as an important intellectual centre.[12]: 61–78 [35] Between 1271 and 1357 seven madrasas were built, which are among the best examples of Moroccan architecture and some of the most richly decorated monuments in Fez.[36]: 285–289, 291–293 [37][38]: 312–314 

Black-and-white group photograph of Moroccan Jews in Fez
Jews of Fez photographed in the 1900s. The Mellah was the traditional Jewish quarter of the city since the 15th century.

The Jewish quarter of Fez, the Mellah, was created in Fes Jdid at some point during the Marinid period. The exact date and circumstances of its formation are not firmly established,[39][34] but many scholars date the transfer of the Jewish population from Fes el-Bali to the new Mellah to the 15th century, a period of political tension and instability. In particular, Jewish sources describe the transfer as a consequence of the rediscovery of Idris II's body in the heart of the city in 1437, which caused the surrounding area—if not the entire city—to acquire a holy (haram) status, requiring that non-Muslims be removed from the area.[39][40][41][42] The Moroccan Jewish community had initially consisted of indigenous local Jews (known as the Toshavim) but these were joined by Western Sephardic Jews fleeing from the Iberian Peninsula (known as the Megorashim) in subsequent generations, especially after the 1492 expulsion of Jews from Spain and 1496 expulsion of Jews from Portugal.[43]

The 1465 Moroccan revolt overthrew the last Marinid sultan. In 1472 the Wattasids, another Zenata dynasty which had previously served as viziers under the Marinid sultans, succeeded as rulers of Morocco from Fez.[20]: 114–115 [44] They perpetuated the structure of the Marinid state and continued its policies, but were unable to control all of Morocco.[32]: 15 [20]: 207–209  They did not contribute significantly to the physical fabric of Fez.[45]

Saadis and 'Alawis[edit]

refer to caption
Borj Nord, a Saadi fortress built in the 16th century overlooking Fez from the north

In the 16th century the Saadis, a dynasty claiming prophetic heritage, rose to power in southern Morocco and challenged the Wattasids. Around the same time, the Ottoman Empire came close to Fez after its conquest of Algeria. In January 1549, the Saadi sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh took Fez and ousted the last Wattasid sultan Ali Abu Hassun. The Wattasids later retook the city in 1554 with Ottoman support, but this reconquest was short-lived and later that same year the Wattasids were decisively defeated by the Saadis.[16]: 157  The Ottomans attempted to invade Morocco after the assassination of Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1558, but were stopped by his son Abdallah al-Ghalib at the Battle of Wadi al-Laban north of Fez.[16]: 158  After the death of Abdallah al-Ghalib a new power struggle emerged. Abd al-Malik, Abdallah's brother, captured Fez with Ottoman support and ousted his nephew Abu Abdullah from the throne. This led to the Battle of Wadi al-Makhazin (also known as Battle of the Three Kings) in which Abd al-Malik's army defeated an invading Portuguese army, ensuring Moroccan independence. Abd al-Malik was killed during the battle and was succeeded by Ahmad al-Mansur (r. 1578–1603).[46]

The Saadis, who used Marrakesh again as their capital, did not lavish much attention on Fez, with the exception of the ornate ablutions pavilions added to the Qarawiyyin Mosque's courtyard during their time.[47]: 70  Perhaps as a result of persistent tensions with the city's inhabitants, the Saadis built a number of new forts and bastions around the city which appear to have been aimed at keeping control over the local population.[a]

After the long reign of Ahmad al-Mansur, the Saadi state fell into civil war between his sons and potential successors. Fez became a rival seat of power for a number of brothers vying against other family members ruling from Marrakesh. Both cities changed hands multiple times until the internecine conflict finally ended in 1627.[46][49] Despite the reunification of the realm after 1627, the Saadis were in full decline and Fez had already suffered considerably from the repeated conquests and reconquests during the conflict.[21] In 1641, Muhammad al-Haj of the Sanhaja Dilā' Sufi order occupied Fez.[50]: 88  The time was particularly difficult for Fessi Jews.[50]: 88 

refer to caption
Patio of Moulay Rashid (17th century) inside the Royal Palace of Fez (photo from 1922)

It was only when the founder of the 'Alawi dynasty, Moulay Rashid, took Fez in 1666 that the city saw a revival and became the capital again, albeit briefly.[28]: 25  Moulay Rashid set about restoring the city after a long period of neglect. He built the Kasbah Cherarda (also known as the Kasbah al-Khemis) to the north of Fes Jdid in order to house a large part of his tribal troops.[12]: 84 [28]: 25  He also restored or rebuilt what became known as the Kasbah an-Nouar, which became the living quarters of his followers from the Tafilalt region (the 'Alawi dynasty's ancestral home).[12]: 84 [4]: 72–73  Moulay Rashid also built a large new madrasa, the Cherratine Madrasa, in 1670.[37]

After Rashid's death, Fez underwent another dark period. Moulay Isma'il, his successor, apparently disliked the city—possibly due to a rebellion there in his early reign—and chose nearby Meknès as his capital instead.[12]: 84  Although he did restore or rebuild some major monuments in the city, such as the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II, he also frequently imposed heavy taxes on the city's inhabitants and sometimes even forcibly transferred parts of its population to repopulate other cities in the country.[12]: 84–85  After his death, Morocco was plunged into anarchy and decades of conflict between his sons who vied to succeed him. Fez suffered particularly from repeated conflicts with the Udayas (or Oudayas), a guich tribe (vassal tribe serving as a garrison and military force) previously installed in the Kasbah Cherarda by Moulay Isma'il. Sultan Moulay Abdallah, who reigned intermittently during this period and used Fez as a capital, was initially welcomed in 1728–29 as an enemy of the Udayas, but relations between him and the city's population quickly soured due to his choice of governor. He immediately built a separate fortified palace in the countryside, Dar Dbibegh, where he resided instead. For nearly three more decades the city remained in more or less perpetual conflict with both the Udayas and the 'Alawi sultans.[12]: 85–86 

Starting with the reign of Moulay Muhammad ibn Abdallah, between 1757 and 1790, the country stabilized and Fez finally regained its fortunes. Although its status was partly shared with Marrakesh, it remained the capital of Morocco for the rest of the 'Alawi period up to the 20th century.[12]: 88 [13]: 25–26  The 'Alawis continued to rebuild or restore various monuments and undertook a series of extensions to the Royal Palace.[37][51] The sultans and their entourages also became more and more closely associated with the elites of Fez and other urban centers, with the ulama (religious scholars) of Fez being particularly influential. After Moulay Slimane's death, powerful families from Fez became the main players of the country's political and intellectual scene.[16]: 242–247 

The Tijani Sufi order, started by Ahmad al-Tijani (d. 1815), has had its spiritual center in Fez since al-Tijani moved here from Algeria in 1789.[16]: 244  The order spread quickly among the literary elite of North West Africa and its ulama had significant religious, intellectual, and political influence in Fez and beyond.[52] Until the 19th century the city was the only source of fezzes (also known as the tarboosh).[11]

refer to caption
The New Mechouar, created by Moulay Hassan I in the late 19th century at the northern entrance to Fes Jdid and the Royal Palace; on the left is the entrance to the Dar al-Makina, dating from the same time

The last major change to Fez's topography before the 20th century was made during the reign of Moulay Hassan I (1873–1894), who finally connected Fes Jdid and Fes el-Bali by building a walled corridor between them.[12]: 89 [28]: 25–26  New gardens and summer palaces, used by the royals and the capital's high society, were built within the corridor, such as the Jnan Sbil Gardens and the Dar Batha palace.[12]: 89–90 [51] Moulay Hassan also expanded the old Royal Palace itself, extending its entrance up to the current location of the Old Mechouar while adding the New Mechouar, along with the Dar al-Makina, to the north. The expansion separated the Moulay Abdallah neighbourhood to the northwest from the rest of Fes Jdid.[51]

Fez played a central role in the Hafidhiya, the brief civil war that erupted when Abdelhafid challenged his brother Abdelaziz for the throne. The ulama of Fez, led by the Sufi modernist Muhammad Bin Abdul-Kabir Al-Kattani, offered their conditioned support to Abd al-Hafid, which turned the tide of the conflict.[53][54] Abdelaziz was defeated in the Battle of Marrakesh in 1908.[53]: 76–78  Abdelhafid's reign soon deteriorated and in early 1911 the sultan was besieged in Fez by the tribes of the Middle Atlas. Abdelhafid appealed for French help and a French force under Colonel Charles Émile Moinier [fr] arrived in Fez on May 21 and established a command centre at Dar Dbibegh.[21][16]: 313 [53]: 78 

Colonial period[edit]

An illustration of the abdication of Abd al-Hafid published in Le Petit Journal
The abdication of Abd al-Hafid, Sultan of Morocco in 1912

In 1912, French colonial rule was instituted over Morocco following the Treaty of Fes. One immediate consequence was the 1912 riots in Fez, a popular uprising which included deadly attacks targeting Europeans as well as native Jewish inhabitants in the Mellah, followed by an even deadlier repression.[55][56] The first French resident general, Hubert Lyautey, decided to move the administrative capital of the Protectorate to Rabat in 1912–1913, which has remained the capital ever since.[57]: 149 [58][59]

A number of social and physical changes took place during this period and across the 20th century. Starting under Lyautey, one important policy with long-term consequences was the decision to largely forego redevelopment of existing historic walled cities in Morocco and to intentionally preserve them as sites of historic heritage, still known today as "medinas". Instead, the French administration built new modern cities (the Villes Nouvelles) just outside the old cities, where European settlers largely resided with modern Western-style amenities. This was part of a larger "policy of association" adopted by Lyautey which favoured various forms of indirect colonial rule by preserving local institutions and elites, in contrast with other French colonial policies that had favoured "assimilation".[60][61][62] The Ville Nouvelle also became known as Dar Dbibegh by Moroccans, as the former palace of Moulay Abdallah was located in the same area.[21]

refer to caption
A street in the modern Ville Nouvelle ("New City") of Fez

The creation of the separate French Ville Nouvelle to the west had a wider impact on the entire city's development.[62] While new colonial policies preserved historic monuments, they stalled urban development in heritage areas.[60] Scholar Janet Abu-Lughod has argued that these policies created a kind of urban "apartheid" between the indigenous Moroccan urban areas, who were forced to remain stagnant in terms of urban development and architectural innovation, and the new, mainly European-inhabited planned cities, which expanded to occupy lands formerly used by Moroccans outside the city.[63][64]: 165–166 [60] This separation was partly softened, however, by wealthy Moroccans who started moving into the Ville Nouvelles during this period.[65][13]: 26  By contrast, the old city (medina) of Fez was increasingly settled by poorer rural migrants from the countryside.[13]: 26 

Fez also played a role in the Moroccan nationalist movement and in protests against the French colonial regime. Many Moroccan nationalists received their education at the Al-Qarawiyyin University and some of their informal political networks were established thanks to this shared educational background.[66]: 140, 146  In July 1930, the students and other inhabitants protested against the Berber Dahir, decreed by the French authorities in May of that year.[67][66]: 143–144  In 1937, the Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and R'cif Mosque were rallying points for demonstrations against a violent crackdown on Moroccan protesters in the nearby city of Meknes, which ended with French troops being deployed across Fes el-Bali, including at the mosques themselves.[20]: 387–389 [66]: 168  Towards the end of World War II, Moroccan nationalists gathered in Fez to draft a demand for independence which they submitted to the Allies on January 11, 1944. This resulted in the arrest of nationalist leaders followed by the violent suppression of protests across many cities, including Fez.[68][66]: 255 

Post-independence era[edit]

After Morocco regained its independence in 1956, many of the trends begun under colonial rule continued and accelerated. Much of Fez's bourgeois classes moved to the growing metropolises of Casablanca and the capital, Rabat.[13]: 26 [69]: 40  The Jewish population was particularly depleted, either moving to Casablanca or emigrating to countries like France, Canada, and Israel. Although the population of the city grew, it did so only slowly up until the late 1960s, when the pace of growth finally accelerated.[68]: 216  Throughout this period Fez nonetheless remained the country's third largest urban center.[13]: 26 [68]: 216  Between 1971 and 2000, the population of the city roughly tripled from 325,000 to 940,000, making it the second largest city in Morocco.[14]: 376  The Ville Nouvelle became the locus of further development, with new peripheral neighbourhoods–with inconsistent housing quality–spreading outwards around it.[68] In 1963 the University of Al-Qarawiyyin was reorganized as a state university,[70] while a new public university, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, was founded in 1975 in the Ville Nouvelle.[71] In 1981, the old city, consisting of Fes el-Bali and Fes Jdid, was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[72]

Social inequalities and economic precarity were accentuated during the repressive reign of King Hassan II and the period known as the Years of Lead (roughly 1975–1990).[53]: 170  Fez was strongly affected by unemployment and lack of housing. Austerity measures led to several riots and uprisings across other cities during the 1980s. On December 14, 1990, a general strike was called and led to protests and rioting by university students and youths in Fez. Buildings were burned and looted, including the Hôtel des Mérinides, a luxury hotel overlooking Fes el-Bali and dating to the time of Lyautey. Thousands were arrested and at least five were killed. The government promised to investigate and raise wages, though some of these measures were dismissed by the opposition.[14]: 377 [73][74][75]

Today Fez remains a regional capital and one of Morocco's most important cities. Many of the former notable families of Fez still make up a large part of the country's political elite.[76] It is also a major tourism destination due to its historical heritage. In recent years efforts have been underway to restore and rehabilitate the old medina, ranging from the restoration of individual monuments to attempts to rehabilitate the Fez River.[77][78][79][80]



refer to caption
The walled district of Fes el-Bali.

The city is divided between its historic medina (the two walled districts of Fes el-Bali and Fes Jdid) and the now much larger Ville Nouvelle (New City) along with several outlying modern neighbourhoods. The old city is located in a valley along the banks of the Oued Fes (Fez River) just above its confluence with the larger Sebou River to the northeast.[12]: 32 [11] The Fez River takes its sources from the south and west and is split into various small canals which provide the historic city with water. These in turn empty into the Oued Bou Khrareb, the stretch of the river which passes through the middle of Fes el-Bali and separates the Qarawiyyin quarter from the Andalusian quarter.[12]: 232–235 

The new city occupies a plateau on the edge of the Saïs plain. The latter stretches out to the west and south and is occupied largely by farmland. Roughly 15 km south of Fes el-Bali is the region's main airport, Fes-Saïs. Further south is the town of Sefrou, while the city of Meknes, the next largest city in the region, is located to the southwest.[81][82]


Northwest of the Middle Atlas mountains, Fez has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa) with a strong continental influence, shifting from relatively cool and wet in the winter to dry and hot days in the summer months between June and September. Rainfall can reach up to 800 mm (31 in) in good years. The winter highs typically reach around 15 °C (59 °F) and winter lows average about 4.5 °C (40 °F) in December–January. Frost is not uncommon during the winter period. The summer highs peak in July and August at approximately 34.5 °C (94 °F) with average lows of 18 °C (64 °F). The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city are 46.7 °C (116 °F) and −8.2 °C (17 °F), respectively. Snowfall on average occurs once every 3 to 5 years. Fez recorded snowfall in three straight years in 2005, 2006 and 2007.[83][84]

Climate data for Fez (Fès–Saïs Airport), altitude: 579 m (1,900 ft) 1991–2020
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 16.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.7
Record low °C (°F) −8.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 60.1
Average precipitation days 6.7 6.5 6.9 6.3 4.7 1.7 0.4 1.0 2.4 5.1 6.5 6.5 54.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 210.6 201.1 244.0 246.5 278.0 315.0 338.0 320.4 282.5 245.5 205.2 199.8 3,086.6
Percent possible sunshine 60 55 58 62 64 71 79 77 75 64 60 60 65
Source 1: NOAA (sun 1981–2010)[85][86]
Source 2: Voodoo skies for extremes[84] Weather Atlas[87]
Climate data for Fez
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 12.0
Average Ultraviolet index 3 4 6 8 9 10 11 10 8 6 4 3 6.8
Source: Weather Atlas [87]


refer to caption
Men at a Café, Fez

According to the 2014 national census, the population of the city of Fez was 1,112,072, which includes the municipalities of Fez proper and Méchouar Fès Jdid (New Fès).[2] Most of the population was Moroccan, but it also included 3,515 resident foreigners, making up 4.2 percent of the foreigner population of Morocco.[2][88] The predominant religion in Fez is Islam.[89] In the past the city had a large Jewish population, but as of 2001, less than 200 Jewish people remain.[90]


The main spoken language in Fez is Arabic Darija (Arabic: الدارجة المغربية, lit.'Moroccan vernacular'), a vernacular variety of Arabic. Like the inhabitants of other historical urban centers in Morocco, Ahl Fes (أهل فاس "the people of Fes," referring especially to old elite families) speak their own distinct dialect of Darija.[91] This Fessi dialect has traditionally been regarded as a prestige dialect over other forms of Moroccan Darija—particularly those seen as rural or 'arūbi (عروبي "of the rural Arabs")—due to its "association with the socio-economic power and dominance that its speakers enjoy at the national level," in the words of linguist Mohammed Errihani.[91][92]

The Fessi dialect has traditionally had distinctive linguistic features. On the phonological level, these include the stereotypical use of a postalveolar approximant (like the American pronunciation of /ɹ/ in the word "red") in the place of a trilled [r] for /ر/, or a pharyngealized glottal stop or voiceless uvular plosive in the place of a voiced velar plosive ([g]) for /ق/.[91] On the morphosyntactic level, gender distinction in pronouns and verb inflections is neutralized in the second person singular.[91]

Many of these features were shared with the other "pre-Hilalian" dialects in the region.[93]: 5, 24 [b] However, due to social and demographic changes that started in the 20th century such as mass rural migration into the city and the departure of most of the city's old urban elites to Casablanca, these old linguistic features are no longer dominant in the speech of Arabic speakers in Fez today.[94][93]: 5, 24  Prior to the departure of most Jewish residents in the second half of the 20th century, the Jewish community in Fez also spoke an Arabic dialect similar to the rest of city.[93]: 24 [c]

Modern Standard Arabic and Berber (Tamazight) are Morocco's two official state languages, although French is also widespread as a language of government and law.[95][96] The primary language of the literary traditions of Fes is Arabic.[97] While the daily spoken language is Darija (the Moroccan Arabic dialect), many people also speak French fluently. English is increasingly being learned by younger generations. Berber dialects are commonly spoken in the countryside around the city.[98]


A man selling produce from a cart on the side of a street
Produce peddler in the Old Medina of Fes

Historically, the city was one of Morocco's main centers of trade and craftsmanship. The tanning industry, for example, still embodied by tanneries of Fes el-Bali today, was a major source of exports and economic sustenance since the city's early history.[99] Up until the late 19th century, the city was the only place in the world which fabricated the fez hat.[11] The city's commerce was concentrated along its major streets, like Tala'a Kebira, and around the central bazaar known as the Kissariat al-Kifah from which many other souqs (markets) branched off.[12]: 112, 122–129 [13]: 52–56  The crafts industry continues to this day and is still focused in the old city, though largely reliant on tourism.[11]

Today, the city's surrounding countryside, the fertile Saïss plains, is an important source of agricultural activity producing primarily cereals, beans, olives, and grapes, as well as raising livestock.[11][100] Tourism is also a major industry due to the city's UNESCO-listed historic medina.[11] Religious tourism is also present due to the old city's many major zawiyas (Islamic shrines), such as the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II and the Zawiya of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani, which attract both Moroccan and international (especially West African) pilgrims.[101] The city and the region still struggle with unemployment and economic precarity.[102]


Two municipalities (Arabic: جماعتين حضريتين, French: communes) in the Fez Prefecture [ar] (Arabic: عمالة فاس) make up the city of Fez. Most of Fez is administered as the municipality of Fez, while the neighborhood of Fes Jdid is administered separately as the municipality of Méchouar Fès Jdid. Outside of the city, there are also three rural municipalities in the prefecture, Aïn Bida, Oulad Tayeb, and Sidi Harazem.[103]

The municipality of Fez has an area of 94 square kilometres (36 sq mi) and recorded a population of 1,091,512 in the 2014 Moroccan census.[104] It is divided into six arrondissements (مقاطعات):

Arrondissements of the municipality of Fez
Arrondissement Area[105] Population
Change Population density
Agdal 21.0 km2 (8.1 sq mi) 142,407 144,064 −1.2% 6,781/km2 (17,560/sq mi)
El Mariniyine 13.5 km2 (5.2 sq mi) 209,494 191,093 +9.6% 15,520/km2 (40,190/sq mi)
Fès-Médina 2.2 km2 (0.85 sq mi) 70,592 91,473 −22.8% 32,100/km2 (83,100/sq mi)
Jnan El Ouard 16.3 km2 (6.3 sq mi) 201,011 174,226 +15.4% 12,330/km2 (31,940/sq mi)
Saiss 20.5 km2 (7.9 sq mi) 207,345 156,590 +32.4% 10,114/km2 (26,200/sq mi)
Zouagha 20.5 km2 (7.9 sq mi) 260,663 163,291 +59.6% 12,413/km2 (32,150/sq mi)

The municipality of Fez is governed by a 91-member council, elected by direct universal suffrage every six years.[106][107] The arrondissements of Zouagha and Marininyine elect 17 councillors each; Jnane El Ward and Saiss elect 16 councillors each; Agdal elects 13, and Fès-Médina elects 12.[108] Executive power is wielded by a president and ten vice-presidents, which are elected by the council.[109] In 2021, Abdeslam Bekkali, a member of the National Rally of Independents (RNI), succeeded Driss Azami El Idrissi as the new president of the municipality of Fez.[110]

The municipality of Méchouar Fès Jdid consists of the neighborhood of Fes Jdid in the old city and forms an enclave within the municipality of Fez. Established in 1992, it is only 1.6 square kilometres (0.62 sq mi) in extent,[111] and recorded a population of 20,560 in the 2014 census.[104] The municipality possesses a special administrative status as the location of a royal palace (the Dar al-Makhzen or méchouar), one of four such municipalities (French: communes des méchouars) in Morocco. The other three are located in Casablanca, Marrakesh, and Rabat. These four municipalities are governed by special provisions that do not apply to ordinary municipalities.[105][112]

The subdivisions of Fez Prefecture are grouped into two electoral districts, North Fez and South Fez, each of which elects four members to the House of Representatives. North Fez consists of the arrondissements of El Mariniyine, Fès-Médina, and Zouagha and the municipality of Méchouar Fès Jdid. South Fez consists of the other three arrondissements of Agdal, Jnan El Ouard, and Saiss, and the three rural municipalities outside the city of Fez.[113][114]


Medina of Fez[edit]

The historic city of Fez consists of Fes el-Bali, the original city on both shores of the Oued Fes (River of Fez), and the smaller Fez Jdid, founded on higher ground to the west in the 13th century. It is distinct from Fez's now much larger Ville Nouvelle (new city). Fes el-Bali is the oldest continuously inhabited walled city in the Arab world,[115] and one of the largest and oldest urban pedestrian zones (car-free areas) in the whole world.[116][117][118] It is the site of the famous Qarawiyyin University and the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II, the most important religious and cultural sites, while Fez el-Jdid is the site of the 195 acre Royal Palace,[119] still used by the King of Morocco today. These two historic cities are linked together and are usually referred to together as the "medina" of Fez, though this term is sometimes applied more restrictively to Fes el-Bali only.[d]

Fez is becoming an increasingly popular tourist destination and many non-Moroccans are now restoring traditional houses (riads and dars) as second homes in the medina. In 1981, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designated Medina of Fez a World Heritage site, describing it as "one of the most extensive and best conserved historic towns of the Arab-Muslim world."[72] It was the first site in Morocco to be granted this status.[121]

refer to caption
Panoramic view of Fes el-Bali

Places of worship[edit]

Interior of the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II showing elaborate decorative architecture
Interior of the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II in Fes el-Bali
Interior of the Al Fassiyin Synagogue showing pillars and a chandelier
Interior of the Al-Fassiyin Synagogue in the Mellah

There are numerous historic mosques in the medina, some of which are part of a madrasa or zawiya. Among the oldest still standing today are the Mosque of al-Qarawiyyin, founded in 857 and subsequently expanded,[47][122] the Mosque of the Andalusians founded in 859–860,[123][124]: 7  the Bou Jeloud Mosque from the late 12th century,[125] and possibly the Mosque of the Kasbah en-Nouar (which may have existed in the Almohad period but was likely rebuilt much later[4][12]). The very oldest mosques of the city, dating back to its first years, were the Mosque of the Sharifs (or Shurafa Mosque) and the Mosque of the Sheikhs (or al-Anouar Mosque); however, they no longer exist in their original form. The Mosque of the Sharifs was the burial site of Idris II and evolved into the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II that exists today, while the al-Anouar Mosque has left only minor remnants.[12]: 33 

A number of mosques from the important Marinid era, when Fes Jdid was created to be the capital of Morocco, include the Great Mosque of Fez el-Jdid from 1276, the Abu al-Hasan Mosque from 1341,[126] the Chrabliyine Mosque from 1342,[127] and the al-Hamra Mosque from around the same period.[128] The Bab Guissa Mosque was also founded in the reign of Abu al-Hasan (1331–1351), but modified in later centuries.[37] Other major mosques from the more recent 'Alawi period are the Moulay Abdallah Mosque, built in the early to mid-18th century with the tomb of Sultan Moulay Abdallah,[36]: 391  and the R'cif Mosque, built in the reign of Moulay Slimane (1793–1822).[129] The Zawiya of Moulay Idris II and the Zawiya of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani include mosque areas as well, as do several other prominent zawiyas in the city.[4]: 118–131 [130][12]: 132–133  The Ville Nouvelle also includes many modern mosques, the largest of which is the Imam Malik Mosque which opened in 1994.[131][132][133]

Elsewhere, the Jewish quarter (Mellah) is the site of the 17th-century Al-Fassiyin Synagogue and Ibn Danan Synagogue, as well multiple other lesser-known synagogues, though none of them are functioning today.[41] According to the World Jewish Congress there are only 150 Moroccan Jews remaining in Fes.[134] The Church of Saint Francis of Assisi, the only Catholic church in Fez, was established in 1919 or 1920, during the French colonial period. The current building was constructed in 1928 and expanded in 1933. Today it is part of the Archdiocese of Rabat, and it was most recently restored in 2005.[135][136][137]


Interior facade of Al-Attarine Madrasa, showing ornate decoration
Al-Attarine Madrasa built in 1323–1325 in Fes el-Bali

The al-Qarawiyyin was established in 857 by Fatima al-Fihri, originally as a mosque, now a university.[138]: 9 [139]: 40  It is the oldest existing and continually operating degree-awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records.[140][72] The Marinid dynasty devoted great attention to the construction of madrasas following the Maliki school, resulting in the unprecedented prosperity of the city's religious institutions. The first madrasa built during the Marinid era was the Saffarin Madrasa in Fes el-Bali by Sultan Abu Yusuf in 1271.[38]: 312  Sultan Abu al-Hasan was the most prolific patron of madrasa construction, completing the Al-Attarine, Mesbahiyya and Sahrij Madrasas. His son Abu Inan Faris built the Bou Inania Madrasa, and by the time of his death, every major city in the Marinid Empire had at least one madrasa.[141] The library of al-Qarawiyyin, which holds a large collection of manuscripts from the medieval era, was also established under Marinid rule around 1350.[4]: 148  It is widely believed to be the oldest library in the world that is still open.[142] The largest madrasa in the medina is Cherratine Madrasa, which was commissioned by the 'Alawi sultan Al-Rashid in 1670 and is the only major non-Marinid foundation besides the Madrasa of al-Qarawiyyin.[143]

Tombs and mausoleums[edit]

Interior of the mausoleum of Ahmad al-Tijani showing chandeliers, a decorated gate, and archways
Interior of the mausoleum of Ahmad al-Tijani (d. 1815) in the Zawiya of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani in Fes el-Bali

Located in the heart of Fes el-Bali, the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II is a zawiya (a shrine and religious complex; also spelled zaouia), dedicated to and containing the tomb of Idris II (or Moulay Idris II when including his sharifian title) who is considered the main founder of the city of Fez.[11][144]: 51  Another well-known and important zawiya is the Zawiyia of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani, which commemorates Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani, the founder of Tijaniyyah tariqa from the 18th century.[145] A number of zawiyas are scattered elsewhere across the city, many containing the tombs of important Sufi saints or scholars, such as the Zawiya of Sidi Abdelkader al-Fassi, the Zawiya of Sidi Ahmed esh-Shawi, and the Zawiya of Sidi Taoudi Ben Souda.[146]: 579 [147]: 62, 149 

The old city contains several major historic cemeteries which stand outside the walls of Fes el-Bali, namely the cemeteries of Bab Ftouh (the most significant), Bab Mahrouk, and Bab Guissa. Some include marabouts or domed structures, containing the tombs of local Muslim saints (often considered Sufis), for example the Marabout of Sidi Harazem in the Bab Ftouh Cemetery.[12]: 114, 468, 604  The ruins of the Marinid Tombs, built during the 14th century as a necropolis for the Marinid sultans, are close to the Bab Guissa Cemetery.[13]: 8 


refer to caption
City walls of Fez (northern section).

The entire medina of Fez was heavily fortified with crenelated walls with watchtowers and gates, a pattern of urban planning which can be seen in Salé and Chellah as well.[141] The oldest sections of the walls today, on the north side of Fes el-Bali, date back to the Almohad period.[13]: 36  The gates of Fez, scattered along the circuit of walls, were guarded by the military detachments and shut at night.[141] Some of the main gates have existed, in different forms, since the earliest years of the city.[12]: 40–58  The oldest gates today, and historically the most important ones of Fes el-Bali, are Bab Mahrouk (in the west), Bab Guissa (in the northeast), and Bab Ftouh (in the southeast).[12]: 56, 109, 123, 126, 138, 142 [13]: 36–41  The main gates of Fes Jdid include Bab Dekkakin, Bab Semmarine, and Bab al-Amer.[51] In modern times, the function of gates became more ceremonial rather than defensive, as reflected by the 1913 construction of the decorative Bab Bou Jeloud gate at the western entrance of Fes el-Bali by the French colonial administration.[13]: 42 

Several forts were constructed along the defensive perimeters of the medina during different time periods. A "kasbah" in the context of Maghrebi region is the traditional military structure for fortification, military preparation, command and control. Some of them were occupied as well by citizens, certain tribal groups, and merchants. Throughout the city's history, 13 kasbahs were constructed.[148] Among them is the Kasbah an-Nouar, the Kasbah Tamdert, and the Kasbah Cherarda.[13]: 36–37 [12]: 105–108  The Saadis also built a number of bastions and forts in the late 16th century including Borj Nord and its sister fort, Borj Sud.[149][12]: 84, 105 


Large open-air vats of color dyes with tannery workers amongst them
Leather tanning in Chouara Tannery

Since the city's foundation, the tanning industry has been continually operating in Fez and is considered one of the main tourist attractions. There are three tanneries in the city, largest among them is Chouara Tannery near the Saffarin Madrasa along the river. The tanneries are packed with the round stone wells filled with dye or white liquids for softening the hides. The leather goods produced in the tanneries are exported around the world.[150][151][152] The two other major tanneries are the Sidi Moussa Tannery to the west of the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II and the Ain Azliten Tannery in the neighbourhood of the same name on the northern edge of Fes el-Bali.[12]: 220 

refer to caption
Gates of the 'Alawi Royal Palace (Dar al-Makhzen)

Historic palaces and residences[edit]

Many old private residences have also survived to this day, in various states of conservation. The typical traditional house (dar) is centered around an internal courtyard. Some of these houses also had internal gardens known as a riad.[153]: 55–75 [12]: 495–496  Such private houses include the Dar al-Alami,[154] the Dar Saada (now a restaurant), Dar 'Adiyil, Dar Belghazi, and others. Larger and richer mansions, such as the Dar Mnebhi, Dar Moqri, and Jamai Palace, have also been preserved.[13]: 103–156  Numerous traditional houses, popularly known as "riads", are now utilized as hotels for the tourism industry.[155] The Jamai Palace was converted into a luxury hotel, known as Palais Jamaï, in the early 20th century.[156][13]: 116  The lavish former mansion of the Glaoui clan, known as the Dar Glaoui, is partly open to visitors but still privately owned.[157]

As a former capital, the city contains several royal palaces as well. Dar Batha is a former palace completed by the 'Alawi Sultan Abdelaziz. In 1915 it was turned into a museum of historical art and artifacts, containing around 6,000 pieces.[158] A large area of Fes Jdid is also taken up by the 80-hectare Royal Palace, or Dar al-Makhzen. Its ornate gates built in 1969–71 are the main feature visible to the public. Its grounds are not open to the public, as they are still used by the King of Morocco when visiting the city.[159]: 148 [81]


The Jnane Sbile Garden, between Fes Jdid and Fes el-Bali, is the oldest surviving garden in Fez and was created as a royal park and garden in the 19th century by Sultan Moulay Hassan I.[13]: 296 [12]: 100 [160] Many bourgeois and aristocratic mansions also had private gardens, especially in the southwestern part of Fes el-Bali.[12]: 124, 482  Other gardens also exist within the grounds of the historic royal palaces of the city, such as the Agdal and Lalla Mina Gardens in the Royal Palace or the gardens of the Dar el-Beida (originally attached to Dar Batha).[12]: 90, 97 [13]: 154, 294–296 [159]: 150 

Funduqs (historic merchant buildings)[edit]

The old city of Fez includes more than a hundred funduqs or foundouks (traditional inns, or urban caravanserais). These commercial buildings housed the workshops of artisans or provided lodging for merchants and travelers.[12]: 318  They also frequently served as venues for other commercial activities such as markets and auctions.[12]: 190–191, 280, 307–308  The Funduq al-Najjarin was built in the 18th century by Amin Adiyil to provide accommodation and storage for merchants and now houses the Nejjarine Museum of Wooden Arts & Crafts.[161][12]: 134  Other major important examples include the Funduq Shamma'in (also spelled Foundouk Chemmaïne) and the Funduq Staouniyyin (or Funduq of the Tetouanis), both dating from the Marinid era or earlier, and the Funduq Sagha which is contemporary with the Funduq al-Najjariyyin.[12][37][162][163][164]

Hammams (bathhouses)[edit]

refer to caption
Rooftop view of the domes of the Saffarin Hammam,[165] located at Place Seffarine

Fez has preserved many of its historic hammams (public bathhouses in the Muslim world) which continue to be used by local people.[166][167][168] Examples, all dating from around the 14th century, include the Hammam as-Saffarin, the Hammam al-Mokhfiya, and the Hammam Ben Abbad.[169][166][167] They were generally built next to a well or natural spring which provided water, while the sloping topography of the city allowed for easy drainage.[166] The layout of the traditional hammam in the region was inherited from the Roman bathhouse model, consisting of a changing room, a cold room, a warm room, and a hot room.[166][167] Though their architecture can be very functional, some of them, like the Hammam as-Saffarin and the Hammam al-Mokhfiya, feature more decoration. The hammams are identifiable from the exterior by the domes and vaults above their main chambers.[166]

Ville Nouvelle[edit]

A pedestrian area with benches surrounded by trees between two roadways
Avenue Hassan II in the Ville Nouvelle (New City)

The Ville Nouvelle is centered around Avenue Hassan II, a wide street laid out by the French colonial administration after 1912 and known then as Avenue de France.[170]: 139  A tree-lined park area runs along its middle between the lanes for car traffic. At the avenue's northeastern end is Place de la Résistance (originally called Place Gambetta), a large roundabout with a fountain at its center.[171][172]: 82  Further south along the same avenue is Place Florence (originally Place Lyautey), a wide plaza planted with trees and originally designed as a public garden.[173][174][172]: 82  At the southwest end of the avenue is Place Ahmed El Mansour (originally Place Galliéni).[172]: 82 

During the colonial period the main public buildings of the city were erected along and around this main avenue.[170]: 139  Buildings from this period were constructed in a mix of mauresque (neo-Moorish or Moroccan), Art Deco, and Neoclassical styles.[170]: 172–192  On the south side of Place Florence is the Bank al-Maghrib building, built between 1928 and 1931 by architect René Canu.[170]: 181  Nearby, on the east side of Avenue Hassan II, is the Central Post Office building. The first post office here was built in 1925 and 1927 by architect Edmond Pauty, but it was rebuilt and expanded in its current form by architect Emile Toulon in 1946–1947.[170]: 433  The Court of Appeals building, located southwest of the post office, was constructed in 1934–1936 by architects Adrien Laforgue and Antoine Marchisio and it originally housed the Court of First Instance (Tribunal de première instance).[170]: 181 


Fez is considered the spiritual and cultural heart of Morocco.[72][175][4]: 17–18  It is often called the "Mecca of the West" and the "Athens of Africa."[176][177][178]


Photograph of a book, Dala'il al-Khayrat, opened to a middle page.
A copy of Muhammad al-Jazuli's Sufi text Dala'il al-Khayrat, a book of prayers first written in Fes in the 15th century.[179][180]

Up until the 19th century, the al-Qarawiyyin dominated the intellectual life of the city and of the country around it. Literature was focused on religious scholarship, philosophy, and poetry.[12]: 475–476  The city's largest library was located at the Qarawiyyin Mosque, while others were attached to other major mosques. Under Sultan Abd al-Rahman (r. 1822–1859) a new library was created inside the Royal Palace and later in the 19th century the city's wealthy elites began creating their own privates libraries.[12]: 472–473 

The city is also one of the historical centers of Moroccan Sufism and a significant body of written works were devoted to its many Sufi walis ("saints" or teachers). This type of literature established itself as one of the main literary genres of Morocco by the late 14th century and Sufi written works from Fez are especially abundant from the 17th to 20th centuries.[181]: 54, 108  A study by Ruggero Vimercati Sanseverino describes the rise of the Zawiya al-Fasiyya, a Sufi order founded in 1581 by Abu l-Mahasin Yusuf al-Fasi, as the impetus for the development of a tradition of Sufi literature particular to Fez.[181]: 109, 297  This literature was a diverse mix of hagiographies (religious biographies), genealogies, and historiographies whose conventions evolved over time. Writers sought to establish a continuity between the teachings of contemporary Sufi masters and those that came before them, with the city of Fez portrayed as the center of this spiritual heritage.[181]

Towards the beginning of the 20th century Moroccan literature began to diversify, with polemic or political works becoming more common at this time. For example, there were Muhammad Bin Abdul-Kabir Al-Kattani's anti-colonial periodical at-Tā'ūn (الطاعون The Plague), and his uncle Muhammad ibn Jaqfar al-Kattani's popular Nasihat ahl al-Islam ("Advice to the People of Islam"), published in Fez in 1908, both of which called on Moroccans to unite against European encroachment.[53]: 68, 86 

refer to caption
Table of calculations from a copy of the Sefer Abudraham printed in Fez in 1516, the first book printed in Africa[182]

Fez, along with Cordoba, was one of the centers of a Jewish intellectual and cultural renaissance that took place in the 10th and 11th centuries in Morocco and al-Andalus.[41][43] Jewish literary figures associated with Fez include the poet Dunash Ben Labrat (d. c. 990), the grammarian Judah ben David Hayyuj (d. c. 1012), the Talmudist Isaac al-Fasi (d. 1103), and the scholar Joseph ben Judah ibn Aknin (d. c. 1220), who were all born in Fez or spent time there.[43][183] Maimonides (d. 1204), one of the most important Jewish intellectuals of his era, also lived in Fez from 1159 to 1165 after fleeing al-Andalus.[41] The first book printed on the African continent was printed in Fez. A copy of Sefer Abudarham (ספר אבודרהם) was printed in Hebrew in 1516 by Samuel ben Isaac Nedivot and his son, who were Jewish refugees from Lisbon.[184][185] The press was short-lived and printed 15 copies, one of which is now preserved at the Library of Congress.[186][187][97]: 99 

Printing in Arabic was introduced to Morocco in 1864–65, on the initiative of a man named Muhammad at-Tayyib ar-Rudani [ar], an Islamic scholar and judge originally from the Sous region. In 1864 Ar-Rudani, while returning from his Hajj pilgrimage, bought an Arabic printing press in Cairo and contracted an Egyptian operator, bringing both back with him to Morocco. The press appears to have been confiscated by the Moroccan authorities when it arrived at port and sent to Meknes, where Sultan Muhammad IV was residing at the time. The first book in Arabic was thus printed in Meknes in June 1865, before the press was moved again to Fez in that same year, where it continued to operate until the 1940s.[97]: 110–115  The press was installed in a central neighbourhood of Fes el-Bali and was managed by the government, which printed traditional scholarly books and made some of the productions available to the Qarawiyyin University free of charge. After 1871 the government transferred management of the press to private citizens and the applications of printing widened.[97]: 119–128, 140  After 1897 it became a regulated industry overseen by officials in Fez.[97]: 134–139  By 1908 there were at least four printing establishments in Fez, while two other Moroccan printers were in Tangier.[97]: 139  Hebrew printing presses were reintroduced to Morocco in the 1890s in Tangier and were more firmly established across the country in the 1920s.[188][187]

refer to caption
A painting of the 17th century expulsion of the Moriscos from Valencia.


Arabic calligraphy in black ink on white paper
The Sufi calligrapher and scholar Muhammad Bin Al-Qāsim al-Qundūsi (d. 1861) developed his unique calligraphic style in Fes.[189]

Maghrebi Arabic script is an important part of the history of visual art in Fes.[190] While some aspects of Maghrebi script are codified and prescribed, there have also been innovations, such as those by the 19th century calligrapher Muhammad al-Qandusi.[191]

Fez remains the most important production center in Morocco for the art of zellij (traditional mosaic tilework) .[192][193] Zellij workshops in other cities, such as Meknes, Salé and Marrakesh, usually follow or emulate the craftsmanship style of Fez.[193]

The modernist artist Jilali Gharbaoui studied at the Académie des Arts in Fes.[194]


Fes is associated with the tarab al-āla [ar] (Arabic: طرب الآلة, lit.'joy of the instrument') musical style, a result of a large migration of Muslims from Valencia to Fes.[195] The Fessi āla style utilizes the Moroccan forms of the Andalusi nubah melodical arrangements.[196] While this musical style is sometimes popularly referred to as Andalusi music, those who have studied it reject this naming: Mohamed El Fassi intentionally chose the name āla (Arabic: آلة, lit.'instrument') to differentiate it from the Sufi tradition of samā, which is purely vocal, while Idrīs Bin Jellūn at-Twīmī [fr], in his study of Mohammed al-Haik's Kunash al-Haik (Arabic: كناش الحائك), described the appellation "Andalusi music" as an unprecedented colonial invention "meant to detract from [the musical form's] Arabness and [Moroccans'] intellectual and artistic abilities."[197]

Cultural venues and institutions[edit]

The city's main museums are housed in historic monuments mentioned above, including the Nejjarine Museum, the Dar Batha Museum, and the Arms Museum in Borj Nord.[81][198] The Al Houria Cultural Complex, opened in 2005, is a cultural center in the Ville Nouvelle that includes a theatre, a media library, and exhibition spaces.[199][200][201] Several language institutes in Fez also organize cultural activities in addition to offering courses. The French Institute and the Cervantes Institute have branches in Fez which promote French and Spanish, respectively.[202][203] The American Language Center and the Arabic Language Institute in Fez, sister organizations that share the same location in the Ville Nouvelle, offer courses in English and Arabic, respectively.[204][205][206]


Concert stage with a band performing and the gate of Bab Dekkakin in the background
Performance at the World Sacred Music Festival in 2012 (Bab Dekkakin in the background)

Fez hosts the annual World Sacred Music Festival, which started in 1994 and showcases religious music from around the world. The festival occurs in May or June and concerts take place at multiple venues across the city, including at historic sites such as Bab Makina (the New Mechouar) in Fes Jdid.[207][208] The annual Festival of Amazigh Culture, which started in 2005, normally takes place in July and hosts performances from Amazigh (Berber) musicians and artists from across Morocco.[209][210][211] The annual Festival of Sufi Culture hosts a conference with discussions and debates on Sufism as well as Sufi musical performances and rituals such as haḍras.[212][213] The Festival of Malhoun Art features performances of malhun music and poetry from across the country.[214][215]

Multiple moussems (Sufi religious festivals) have traditionally taken place every year in honour of local Muslim saints and are typically sponsored by one or more of the city's guilds. The most important moussem in the city, and one of the most important in Morocco, is the Moussem of Moulay Idris II. This festival has taken place for hundreds of years[e] and is sponsored by all the guilds in the city, who march through the city together in a procession that culminates at the mausoleum of Idris II. Each guild donates gifts to the zawiya, one of which is a keswa, a large textile decorated with Qur'anic verses that is draped over Idris II's catafalque. The week of the moussem is also marked by other cultural events and entertainment.[216][4]: 86, 130 [217][218][12]: 301–302 

The Fez Running Festival is race that has taken place annually since 2022 with two competitions, one for kids and one for adults. It is organized by Abderrahime Bouramdane, a professional marathon runner who was born and raised in Fez. The festival sees thousands of participants every year who run a course that goes throughout the city.[219][220]


Fez has two football teams, MAS Fez (Fés Maghrebi)[221] and Wydad de Fès (WAF).[222] They both play in the Botola the highest tier of the Moroccan football system and play their home matches at the 45,000 seat Complexe Sportif de Fès stadium.[223]

Fez is one of the cities expected to host matches during the 2030 FIFA World Cup and there are plans to upgrade its sports stadium before this date.[224] It is also expected to host matches during the 2025 Africa Cup of Nations.[225]

The MAS Fez basketball team competes in the Nationale 1, Morocco's top basketball division.[226][227]



The availability of green spaces in Fez is limited and significantly deviates from the international standard, which calls for a minimum of ten square meters of green space per resident. As of 2022, the city provides only two square meters of green space per resident.[228][229]

Latin American Park is a park opened in the summer of 2015 that sits in the middle of Fez. It is around 3,700 square metres in area and employs about 40 workers. The park is dedicated to the relations of Fez and Latin America; its inauguration ceremony was attended by a delegation of ambassadors from Venezuela, Paraguay, and Panama. Latin American Park includes a number of facilities, such as a pool, a children's pavilion, cafes, and several trails.[230]

The Bird Park or Tropicana Park is another green area in Fez. Over seven acres in size, it features playgrounds, community event spaces, restaurants, and rest areas. The park was opened in June 2014 and is credited with significantly improving the recreational infrastructure of Fez. Inside the park is a "Bird Garden" which hosts more than thirty species of birds, local and imported, such as peacocks, parrots, and the North African ostrich. There are also ponds with geese and ducks.[231]


The city is served by the region's main international airport, Fès–Saïs, located roughly 15 km south of the city center.[81] A new terminal was added to the airport in 2017 which expanded the airport's capacity to 2.5 million visitors a year.[232]

The city's main train station, operated by ONCF, is located a short distance from the downtown area of the Ville Nouvelle and is connected to the rail lines running east to Oujda and west to Tangier and Casablanca.[233][81] The main intercity bus terminal (or gare routière) is located just north of Bab Mahrouk, on the outskirts of the old medina, although CTM also operates a terminal off Boulevard Mohammed V in the Ville Nouvelle. Intercity taxis (also known as grands taxis) depart from and arrive at several spots including the Bab Mahrouk bus station (for western destinations like Meknes and Rabat), Bab Ftouh (for eastern destinations like Sidi Harazem and Taza), and another lot in the Ville Nouvelle (for southern destinations like Sefrou).[81][234]

The city operates a public transit system with various bus routes.[235]


The city's water supply, sewage, and electricity networks are managed by the Régie de distribution d'eau et d'électricité de Fès (lit. transl. Water and Electricity Distribution Authority of Fez). An activated sludge treatment plant has been treating Fez's wastewater since 2014.[236]


Facade of university of al-Qarawiyyin
University of al-Qarawiyyin

Primary and secondary education in Fez is administered by Morocco's Ministry of National Education. It includes a preschool level, six years of primary school, followed by three years of middle school and three years of secondary school. Primary education, beginning at age six, is both free and obligatory. Vocational education is also offered.[237]

Fez's University of al-Qarawiyyin is considered by some to be the oldest continually-operating university in the world.[238][72] The university was first founded as a mosque by Fatima al-Fihri in 859 which subsequently became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim world.[70] It became a state university in 1963, and remains an important institution of learning today.[239]

Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University is a public university founded in 1975 and is the largest in the city by attendance, counting over 86,000 students in 2020.[71][240][241] It has 12 faculties with sites across Fez; the two main campuses are known as Dhar El Mehraz and Sais.[240] Euro-Med University of Fez [ar], another public university, was created in 2012 and is certified by the Union for the Mediterranean.[242][243]

The École polytechnique de Technologie was started in 2006 and quickly established itself as one of the leading institutions in the private higher education sector in the city of Fez. In 2013, it became the Private University of Fez [ar], the city's first private university.[244] Its main focus is its engineering school,[245] though it also offers diplomas in architecture, business, and law.[246]

International relations[edit]

Fez is twinned with:[247]

Notable people[edit]


  1. ^ They were located on higher ground overlooking Fes el-Bali, from which they would have been easily able to bombard the city with canons. These include the Kasbah Tamdert, just inside the city walls near Bab Ftouh, the fortressess of Borj Nord to the north and Borj Sud to the south, and the bastions of Borj Sheikh Ahmed, Borj Twil, and Borj Sidi Bou Nafa' to the west. These fortifications were mostly built by Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur in the late 16th century. Their design is influenced by European (probably Portuguese) military architecture in the gunpowder age.[12]: 79–80 [28]: 37 [48]: 92 
  2. ^ "Pre-Hilalian" in this context refers to dialects believed to descend from the Arabic spoken in the region prior to the arrival of the Banu Hilal and the Banu Ma'qil tribes that began in the 12th century. After this event, "Hilalian" dialects became dominant in the rural regions of central Morocco and are a major component of wider Moroccan Arabic today.[93]: 2–10 
  3. ^ There are competing theories about the historical roots of Moroccan Jewish dialects of Arabic. Some scholars argue that they were strongly influenced by Andalusi Arabic dialects (which were similar to North African dialects) brought by Jewish refugees from Spain after 1492, while other scholars argue that these same refugees mostly spoke Judeo-Spanish when they arrived and eventually adopted existing Arabic dialects in the cities.[93]: 10–12 
  4. ^ Medina is the Arabic word for "city", which in former French colonies in North Africa is also used to refer to the old part of a city, as the French largely generally built new cities (Ville Nouvelles) next to them and left the historic cities intact.[120]
  5. ^ The veneration of Idris II as a patron saint began in the 15th century and so the moussem developed some time after this.[12]: 301–302, 599 



  1. ^ "Fez, Morocco" Archived 2020-08-07 at the Wayback Machine Weatherbase.
  2. ^ a b c d "Note sur les premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat 2014" (in French). High Commission for Planning. 20 March 2015. p. 8. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  3. ^ "Medina of Fez – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-09-20.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gaudio, Attilio (1982). Fès: Joyau de la civilisation islamique (in French). Paris: Les Presses de l'Unesco: Nouvelles Éditions Latines. ISBN 2-7233-0159-1. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  5. ^ a b Bressolette, Henri (2016). "Fondation de Fès El Bali par Idriss Ier et Idriss II". A la découverte de Fès. L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-343-09022-1. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  6. ^ Dumper, Michael R. T.; Stanley, Bruce E., eds. (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5.
  7. ^ Bigon, Liora (2016). Place Names in Africa: Colonial Urban Legacies, Entangled Histories. Springer. p. 83. ISBN 978-3-319-32485-2.
  8. ^ O'Meara, Simon M. (2004). An architectural investigation of Marinid Wattasid Fes Medina (674–961/1276–1554) in terms of gender, legend and law (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Leeds. pp. 19–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2018.
  9. ^ A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period, Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, 1987, pp. 51–52
  10. ^ Fage, J. D.; Clark, Desmond J.; Oliver, Roland (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 526. ISBN 978-0-521-20981-6.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 Mar. 2007
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av Le Tourneau, Roger (1949). Fès avant le protectorat: étude économique et sociale d'une ville de l'occident musulman (in French). Casablanca: Société Marocaine de Librairie et d'Édition.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Métalsi, Mohamed (2003). Fès: La ville essentielle (in French). Paris: ACR Édition Internationale. ISBN 978-2-86770-152-8.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Rivet, Daniel (2012). Histoire du Maroc: de Moulay Idrîs à Mohammed VI (in French). Fayard.
  15. ^ The Places Where Men Pray Together at Google Books
  16. ^ a b c d e f Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. (1987). A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33767-0.
  17. ^ a b c Eustache, D. (2012). "Idrīsids". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill.
  18. ^ Witkam, Jan Just (2007), Inventory of the Oriental Manuscripts of the Library of the University of Leiden (PDF), Ter Lugt Press, archived (PDF) from the original on 2023-05-28, retrieved 2023-05-23
  19. ^ "Anīs al-Muṭrib bi-Rawḍat al-Qirṭās fī akhbār mulūk al-Maġrib wa-Madīnat Fās – Or. 17 | Digital Collections". hdl:1887.1/item:3324568.
  20. ^ a b c d Abun-Nasr, Jamil (1987). A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33767-4.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Le Tourneau, Roger; Terrasse, Henri (2012). "Fās". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill.
  22. ^ a b c Madani, Tariq (1999). "Le réseau hydraulique de la ville de Fès". Archéologie islamique. 8–9: 119–142.
  23. ^ a b c d e Marcos Cobaleda, Maria; Villalba Sola, Dolores (2018). "Transformations in medieval Fez: Almoravid hydraulic system and changes in the Almohad walls". The Journal of North African Studies. 23 (4): 591–623. doi:10.1080/13629387.2017.1371596. S2CID 219625871.
  24. ^ Gaillard, Henri (1905). Une ville de l'Islam: Fès. Paris: J. André. pp. 32.
  25. ^ "La magnifique rénovation des 27 monuments de Fès – Conseil Régional du Tourisme (CRT) de Fès" (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-02-27. Retrieved 2020-03-31.
  26. ^ a b c d Gaillard, Henri (1905). Une ville de l'Islam: Fès. Paris: J. André.
  27. ^ The Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad at Google Books
  28. ^ a b c d e f Métalsi, Mohamed (2003). Fès: La ville essentielle. Paris: ACR Édition Internationale. ISBN 978-2-86770-152-8.
  29. ^ a b Morocco 2009, p. 252, at Google Books
  30. ^ Roth, Norman (2014-04-08). Medieval Jewish Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-77155-2.
  31. ^ Coatsworth, John; Cole, Juan; Hanagan, Michael P.; Perdue, Peter C.; Tilly, Charles; Tilly, Louise (2015-03-16). Global Connections. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19189-0.
  32. ^ a b O'Meara, Simon M. (2004). An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Wattasid Fes Medina (674–961/1276–1554), in Terms of Gender, Legend, and Law (PDF). University of Leeds. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-11-02. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
  33. ^ Roudh el-Kartas: Histoire des souverains du Maghreb, p. 459, at Google Books
  34. ^ a b Rguig, Hicham (2014). "Quand Fès inventait le Mellah". In Lintz, Yannick; Déléry, Claire; Tuil Leonetti, Bulle (eds.). Maroc médiéval: Un empire de l'Afrique à l'Espagne. Paris: Louvre éditions. pp. 452–454. ISBN 978-2-35031-490-7.
  35. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam at Google Books
  36. ^ a b Marçais, Georges (1954). L'architecture musulmane d'Occident. Paris: Arts et métiers graphiques.
  37. ^ a b c d e Touri, Abdelaziz; Benaboud, Mhammad; Boujibar El-Khatib, Naïma; Lakhdar, Kamal; Mezzine, Mohamed (2010). Le Maroc andalou: à la découverte d'un art de vivre (2nd ed.). Ministère des Affaires Culturelles du Royaume du Maroc & Museum With No Frontiers. ISBN 978-3-902782-31-1.
  38. ^ a b Kubisch, Natascha (2011). "Maghreb – Architecture" in Hattstein, Markus and Delius, Peter (eds.) Islam: Art and Architecture. h.f.ullmann.
  39. ^ a b García-Arenal, Mercedes (1987). "Les Bildiyyīn de Fès, un groupe de néo-musulmans d'origine juive". Studia Islamica. 66 (66): 113–143. doi:10.2307/1595913. JSTOR 1595913.
  40. ^ Zafrani, H. "Mallāḥ". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill.
  41. ^ a b c d Gilson Miller, Susan; Petruccioli, Attilio; Bertagnin, Mauro (2001). "Inscribing Minority Space in the Islamic City: The Jewish Quarter of Fez (1438–1912)". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 60 (3): 310–327. doi:10.2307/991758. JSTOR 991758.
  42. ^ Ben-Layashi, Samir; Maddy-Weitzman, Bruce (2018). "Myth, History, and Realpolitik: Morocco and its Jewish Community". In Abramson, Glenda (ed.). Sites of Jewish Memory: Jews in and From Islamic Lands. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-75160-1.
  43. ^ a b c Chetrit, Joseph (2014). "Juifs du Maroc et Juifs d'Espagne: deux destins imbriqués". In Lintz, Yannick; Déléry, Claire; Tuil Leonetti, Bulle (eds.). Maroc médiéval: Un empire de l'Afrique à l'Espagne. Paris: Louvre éditions. pp. 309–311. ISBN 978-2-35031-490-7.
  44. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2004). "The Waṭṭāsids". The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-9648-2.
  45. ^ O'Meara, Simon (2013). "Fez". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Three. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-25267-7. ISSN 1873-9830.
  46. ^ a b Véronne, Chantal de la (2012). "Saʿdids". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill.
  47. ^ a b Terrasse, Henri (1968). La Mosquée al-Qaraouiyin à Fès; avec une étude de Gaston Deverdun sur les inscriptions historiques de la mosquée. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck.
  48. ^ Salmon, Xavier (2016). Marrakech: Splendeurs saadiennes: 1550–1650. Paris: LienArt. ISBN 978-2-35906-182-6.
  49. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2004). "The Sa'did Sharifs". The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-9648-2.
  50. ^ a b Gottreich, Emily (2020). Jewish Morocco: a history from pre-Islamic to postcolonial times. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-83860-361-8. OCLC 1139892409.
  51. ^ a b c d Bressolette, Henri; Delaroziere, Jean (1983). "Fès-Jdid de sa fondation en 1276 au milieu du XXe siècle" (PDF). Hespéris-Tamuda: 245–318. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-09-29. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  52. ^ Brigaglia, Andrea (2013–2014). "Sufi Revival and Islamic Literacy: Tijaniyya Writings in Twentieth-Century Nigeria". Annual Review of Islam in Africa. 12 (1). Archived from the original on 2021-09-03. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  53. ^ a b c d e Miller, Susan Gilson. (2013). A history of modern Morocco. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-62469-5. OCLC 855022840.
  54. ^ "الكتاني، ثمن البيعة المشروطة". زمان (in Arabic). 2017-06-12. Archived from the original on 2020-04-10. Retrieved 2020-06-25.
  55. ^ Gershovich, Moshe (2000). "Pre-Colonial Morocco: Demise of the Old Mazhkan". French Military Rule in Morocco: colonialism and its consequences. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4949-X.
  56. ^ H. Z. (J. W.) Hirschberg (1981). A history of the Jews in North Africa: From the Ottoman conquests to the present time, edited by Eliezer Bashan and Robert Attal. BRILL. p. 318. ISBN 90-04-06295-5.
  57. ^ Pennell, C.R. (2003). Morocco: From Empire to Independence. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-85168-634-6.
  58. ^ Théliol, Mylène (2014-01-30). "Aménagement et préservation de la médina de Rabat entre 1912 et 1956". Les Cahiers d'EMAM (Études sur le Monde Arabe et la Méditerranée) (in French) (22): 47–70. doi:10.4000/emam.548. ISSN 1969-248X. Archived from the original on 2021-10-28. Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  59. ^ Rabinow, Paul (2014). French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Social Environment. University of Chicago Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-0-226-22757-3.
  60. ^ a b c Wagner, Lauren; Minca, Claudio (2014). "Rabat retrospective: Colonial heritage in a Moroccan urban laboratory". Urban Studies. 51 (14): 3011–3025. Bibcode:2014UrbSt..51.3011W. doi:10.1177/0042098014524611. S2CID 145686603.
  61. ^ Holden, Stacy E. (2008). "The Legacy of French Colonialism: Preservation in Morocco's Fez Medina". APT Bulletin. 39 (4): 5–11.
  62. ^ a b Jelidi, Charlotte (2012). Fès, la fabrication d'une ville nouvelle (1912–1956). ENS Éditions.
  63. ^ Abu-Lughod, Janet (1975). "Moroccan Cities: Apartheid and the Serendipity of Conservation". In Abu-Lughod, Ibrahim (ed.). African Themes: Northwestern University Studies in Honor of Gwendolen M. Carter. Northwestern University Press. pp. 77–111.
  64. ^ Abu-Lughod, Janet (1980). Rabat: Urban Apartheid in Morocco. Princeton University Press.
  65. ^ Aouchar, Amina (2005). Fès, Meknès. Flammarion. pp. 192–194.
  66. ^ a b c d Wyrtzen, Jonathan (2016). Making Morocco: Colonial Intervention and the Politics of Identity. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-1-5017-0424-6.
  67. ^ Hart, David M. (1997). "The Berber Dahir of 1930 in colonial Morocco: then and now (1930–1996)". The Journal of North African Studies. 2 (2): 11–33. doi:10.1080/13629389708718294.
  68. ^ a b c d Aouchar, Amina (2005). Fès, Meknès. Flammarion.
  69. ^ Istasse, Manon (2019). Living in a World Heritage Site: Ethnography of Houses and Daily Life in the Fez Medina. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-030-17450-7.
  70. ^ a b Lulat, Y. G.-M.: A History Of African Higher Education From Antiquity To The Present: A Critical Synthesis, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005, ISBN 978-0-313-32061-3, pp. 154–157
  71. ^ a b "Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University". Times Higher Education (THE). 2020-09-18. Archived from the original on 2020-10-17. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  72. ^ a b c d e "Medina of Fez". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2020-04-23. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  73. ^ "33 Dead in 2-Day Riot in Morocco Fed by Frustration Over Economy (Published 1990)". The New York Times. Reuters. 1990-12-17. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  74. ^ "5 Die, 127 Hurt as Worst Riots in 7 Years Sweep Morocco City". Los Angeles Times. 1990-12-16. Archived from the original on 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  75. ^ Bidwell, Robin (1998). "Fez Riots (1990)". Dictionary Of Modern Arab History. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-7103-0505-3.
  76. ^ Hiel, Elizabeth (2009). "Fez". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-986125-5.
  77. ^ "La magnifique rénovation des 27 monuments de Fès – Conseil Régional du Tourisme (CRT) de Fès" (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-02-27. Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  78. ^ "Facelift helps Morocco's Old City of Fez lure tourists |". AW. Archived from the original on 2021-01-13. Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  79. ^ "Revitalization of the Fez River: A Reclaimed Public Space | Smart Cities Dive". www.smartcitiesdive.com. Archived from the original on 2020-09-16. Retrieved 2020-03-31.
  80. ^ "Aziza Chaouni presents a 2014 TED Talk on her efforts to uncover the Fez River in Morocco". Daniels. 2014-03-20. Archived from the original on 2020-06-27. Retrieved 2020-03-31.
  81. ^ a b c d e f The Rough Guide to Morocco (12th ed.). Rough Guides. 2019. pp. 158–181.
  82. ^ Aouchar, Amina (2005). Fès, Meknès. Flammarion. p. 123.
  83. ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981–2010) – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología – AEMET. Gobierno de España". Archived from the original on 2012-11-18. Retrieved 2014-09-13.
  84. ^ a b "Voodoo Skies – Fes Monthly Temperature weather history". October 6, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
  85. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 5 October 2023. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  86. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  87. ^ a b "Fes, Morocco – Climate data". Weather Atlas. Archived from the original on March 2, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
  88. ^ El Masaiti, Amira (2017-12-19). "In just Ten Years, Foreign Population in Morocco Increased by 63%". Morocco World News. Archived from the original on 2023-11-07. Retrieved 2023-11-07.
  89. ^ "Morocco", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2023-11-14, retrieved 2023-11-29
  90. ^ Kosansky, Oren (2001). "Reading Jewish Fez: On the Cultural Identity of a Moroccan City". Journal of the International Institute. 8 (3). hdl:2027/spo.4750978.0008.305. ISSN 1558-741X.
  91. ^ a b c d Hachimi, Atiqa (2012-05-23). "The urban and the urbane: Identities, language ideologies, and Arabic dialects in Morocco". Language in Society. 41 (3): 321–341. doi:10.1017/s0047404512000279. ISSN 0047-4045. S2CID 144607607.
  92. ^ Errihani, Mohammed (2016-07-28). "Language and social distinction: speaking Darija* with the right accent". The Journal of North African Studies. 21 (5): 741–764. doi:10.1080/13629387.2016.1212706. ISSN 1362-9387. S2CID 147855077.
  93. ^ a b c d e Heath, Jeffrey (2002). Jewish and Muslim Dialects of Moroccan Arabic. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-56778-7.
  94. ^ Hachimi, Atiqa (2011). "The story of old urban vernaculars in North Africa". In Mc Laughlin, Fiona (ed.). The Languages of Urban Africa. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4411-5813-0.
  95. ^ "Languages in Morocco, Miscellaneous in Morocco". Expat. Archived from the original on 2021-09-20. Retrieved 2021-09-20.
  96. ^ "Moroccan Arabic – Darija | Qalam wa Lawh Center for Arabic Studies". Qalam Wa Lawh (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-09-21. Retrieved 2021-09-20.
  97. ^ a b c d e f Abdulrazak, Fawzi (2015), Davis, Caroline; Johnson, David (eds.), "Printing as an Agent of Change in Morocco, 1864–1912", The Book in Africa, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 44–64, doi:10.1057/9781137401625_3, ISBN 978-1-349-48644-1, archived from the original on 2023-08-06, retrieved 2023-08-06
  98. ^ "What language is spoken in Fez Morocco?". archinfos.com. Archived from the original on 2021-11-01. Retrieved 2021-09-20.
  99. ^ Le Tourneau, Roger; Paye, L. (1935). "La corporation des tanneurs et l'industrie de la tannerie à Fès". Hespéris. 21: 167–240. Archived from the original on 2020-09-16. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  100. ^ "Business in Fez, Othman Benjelloun (Morocco)". Africa EENI Global Business School & University. Archived from the original on 2020-09-30. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  101. ^ Berriane, Johara (2015). "Pilgrimage, Spiritual Tourism and the Shaping of Transnational 'Imagined Communities': the Case of the Tidjani Ziyara to Fez". International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage. 3 (2). Archived from the original on 2020-07-23. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  102. ^ "Fez-Meknes". Oxford Business Group. 2019-03-13. Archived from the original on 2020-10-30. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  103. ^ "Fès" (in French). Region of Fès-Meknès. Archived from the original on 2021-10-16. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  104. ^ a b c "Population Légale des Régions, Provinces, Préfectures, Municipalitiés, Arrondissements et Communes du Royaume d'Aprés les Résultats du RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning. 8 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 May 2022.
  105. ^ a b c Signoles, Pierre, ed. (2014). Territoires et politiques dans les périphéries des grandes villes du Maghreb. Éditions Karthala. pp. 425, 431. ISBN 978-2-8111-1328-5. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  106. ^ "Abdeslam Bekkali du RNI, élu président du Conseil communal de Fès" (in French). MAP. 2021-09-20. Archived from the original on 2021-10-16. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  107. ^ Le rôle des élus au sein des communes du Maroc: vers une gouvernance locale plus proche des citoyens (PDF) (Report) (in French). OECD. 2017. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-10-16. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  108. ^ "Fès: Bekkali prend les rênes de la mairie". LesEco.ma (in French). 2021-09-15. Archived from the original on 2021-10-16. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  109. ^ Benabdellah, Yahya (2021-09-20). "Abdeslam Bekkali (RNI) élu nouveau maire de Fès". Médias 24 [fr] (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-10-16. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  110. ^ Kasraoui, Safaa (2021-09-20). "RNI's Abdeslam Bekkali Becomes New Mayor of Fez". Morocco World News. Archived from the original on 2021-10-16. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  111. ^ Jettou, Driss. Rapport d'activités relatif à l'exercice 2013: Volume II, Livre III (PDF) (Report). Court of Accounts of Morocco. p. 47. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-04-04. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  112. ^ Es-Sallak, Nada (2021-06-14). "Histoire urbaine de la ville de Fès et Pouvoirs politiques". InteraXXIons (1): 25–40. Archived from the original on 2021-10-16. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  113. ^ "Ambiance électorale à Fès: Sur un air de changement". Le Matin. 2011-11-25. Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  114. ^ Benabdellah, Yahya (2021-09-17). "Législatives 2021: qui a été élu dans votre circonscription ? (17 cartes interactives)". Médias 24 (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  115. ^ Salameh, Ramy (2016-05-27). "Fez celebrates Morocco's women through sacred music". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 2023-08-06. Retrieved 2023-08-06.
  116. ^ Zeunert, Joshua (2017). Landscape Architecture and Environmental Sustainability: Creating Positive Change Through Design. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-350-03382-5.
  117. ^ Roquet, Vincent; Bornholdt, Luciano; Sirker, Karen; Lukic, Jelena (2017). "Livelihood Restoration for Informal Urban Occupations: Examples from Morocco and Pakistan". Urban Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement: Linking Innovation and Local Benefits. World Bank Publications. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-4648-0981-1.
  118. ^ The Report: Morocco 2009. Oxford Business Group. 2009. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-907065-07-1.
  119. ^ "The 10 Best Royal Palace of Fez (Fes Dar el-Makhzen) Tours & Tickets 2021 | Viator". www.viator.com. Archived from the original on 2021-10-20. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  120. ^ "What does Medina mean?". www.definitions.net. Archived from the original on 2021-10-20. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  121. ^ "Morocco". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2023-02-17. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  122. ^ "Qantara – The al-Qarawīyīn Mosque". www.qantara-med.org. Archived from the original on 2021-09-30. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  123. ^ "Jami' al-Andalusiyyin". Archnet. Archived from the original on 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  124. ^ Terrasse, Henri (1942). La mosquée des Andalous à Fès (in French). Paris: Les Éditions d'art et d'histoire.
  125. ^ Terrasse, Henri (1964). "La mosquée almohade de Bou Jeloud à Fès". Al-Andalus. 29 (2): 355–363.
  126. ^ Abu al-Hassan Mosque Archived 2021-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  127. ^ Fez. Archnet. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  128. ^ Salmon, Xavier (2021). Fès mérinide: Une capitale pour les arts, 1276–1465. Lienart. p. 92. ISBN 978-2-35906-335-6.
  129. ^ El Mghari, Mina (2017). "Tendances architecturales de la mosquée marocaine (XVIIème-XIXème siècles)". Hespéris-Tamuda. LII (3): 229–254.
  130. ^ Mezzine, Mohamed. "Mulay Idris Mausoleum". Discover Islamic Art – Virtual Museum. Archived from the original on 2021-10-19. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  131. ^ "Mosquée Imam Malik". www.madein.city (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-02-27. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  132. ^ "La mosquée Imam Malik, un joyau architectural au cœur de la capitale spirituelle". MapFes (in French). 2021-04-21. Archived from the original on 2021-10-20. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  133. ^ "Fès | Masjid Tunis". Archnet. Archived from the original on 2021-09-02. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  134. ^ Congress, World Jewish. "World Jewish Congress". World Jewish Congress. Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  135. ^ Audurier Cros, Alix. "L'Église St François d'Assise, Fes, Maroc" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-12-07.
  136. ^ "Diocèse de Rabat". www.dioceserabat.org. Archived from the original on 2020-07-11. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  137. ^ "Église de Saint François d'Assise". GCatholic. Archived from the original on 2020-08-11. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  138. ^ Terrasse, Henri (1942). La mosquée des Andalous à Fès. Paris: Les Éditions d'art et d'histoire.
  139. ^ Bloom, Jonathan M. (2020). Architecture of the Islamic West: North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula, 700–1800. Yale University Press.
  140. ^ "Oldest higher-learning institution, oldest university". Guinnessworldrecords.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  141. ^ a b c Penell, C.R. (2013), Morocco: From Empire to Independence; Oneworld Publications. pp. 66–67.[ISBN missing]
  142. ^ Shaheen, Kareem (2016-09-19). "World's oldest library reopens in Fez: 'You can hurt us, but you can't hurt the books'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2019-04-29. Retrieved 2023-08-06.
  143. ^ Shiratin Madrasa. Archnet. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  144. ^ Abun-Nasr, Jamil (1987). A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33767-4.
  145. ^ Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani Zawiya Archived 2021-01-12 at the Wayback Machine. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  146. ^ Vimercati Sanseverino, Ruggero (2014). Fès et sainteté, de la fondation à l'avènement du Protectorat (808–1912): Hagiographie, tradition spirituelle et héritage prophétique dans la ville de Mawlāy Idrīs. Rabat: Centre Jacques-Berque. ISBN 979-10-92046-17-5. Archived from the original on 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-06-15.
  147. ^ Skali, Faouzi (2007). Saints et sanctuaires de Fés. Marsam. ISBN 978-9954-21-086-4.
  148. ^ نفائس فاس العتيقة : بناء 13 قصبة لأغراض عسكرية Archived 2021-01-28 at the Wayback Machine. Assabah. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  149. ^ البرج الشمالي Archived 2018-01-22 at the Wayback Machine. Museum with no Frontiers. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  150. ^ Chouara Tannery Archived 2021-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  151. ^ Why You Need to Visit Fez in 20 Photos Archived 2021-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. Bloomberg. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  152. ^ Aziza Chaouni: Hybrid Urban Sutures: Filling in the Gaps in the Medina of Fez." Archit 96 no. 1 (2007): 58–63.
  153. ^ Wilbaux, Quentin (2001). La médina de Marrakech: Formation des espaces urbains d'une ancienne capitale du Maroc. Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2-7475-2388-8.
  154. ^ "Alami House". Archnet. Archived from the original on 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  155. ^ "Accommodation in Morocco | Where to stay in Morocco". Rough Guides. Archived from the original on 2021-10-06. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  156. ^ "Histoire du Maroc: Palais Jamai, Patrimoine universel. – Cabinet Consulting Expertise International" (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-04-11. Retrieved 2020-06-15.
  157. ^ "Palais Glaoui | Fez, Morocco Attractions". www.lonelyplanet.com. Archived from the original on 2017-09-07. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  158. ^ Mezzine, Mohamed. "Batha Palace". Discover Islamic Art, Museum With No Frontiers. Archived from the original on 2021-01-20.
  159. ^ a b Parker, Richard (1981). A practical guide to Islamic Monuments in Morocco. Charlottesville, VA: The Baraka Press.
  160. ^ "Jnane Sbile or Bab Bou Jeloud garden in Fez". Morocco.FalkTime. 2018-07-09. Archived from the original on 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2019-05-09.
  161. ^ Funduq al-Najjariyyin Archived 2021-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  162. ^ "Fès: Les fondouks de la médina restaurés et labellisés". L'Économiste (in French). 2016-04-08. Archived from the original on 2021-01-17. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  163. ^ "Qantara – The al-Shammā'īn Funduq". www.qantara-med.org. Archived from the original on 2021-01-23. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  164. ^ El Idrissi El Omari, Mouhcine; Laoukili, Montaser; Akasbi, Mounir (2017). "Fouilles archéologiques à Funduq Ṣāgha à Fès: Éléments pour une lecture de l'urbanisme de la ville". Hespéris-Tamuda. LII (3): 209–227.
  165. ^ Sibley, Magda; Jackson, Iain (2012). "The architecture of Islamic public baths of North Africa and the Middle East: an analysis of their internal spatial configurations". Architectural Research Quarterly. 16 (2): 155–170. doi:10.1017/S1359135512000462. S2CID 111065262.
  166. ^ a b c d e Sibley, Magda (2013). "The historic hammams of Damascus and Fez". In Weber, Willi; Yannas, Simos (eds.). Lessons from vernacular Architecture. London: Routledge. pp. 77–91. ISBN 978-1-84407-600-0.
  167. ^ a b c Raftani, Kamal; Radoine, Hassan (2008). "The Architecture of the Hammams of Fez, Morocco". Archnet-IJAR. 2 (3): 56–68. Archived from the original on 2020-09-16. Retrieved 2020-09-16.
  168. ^ Secret, Edm. (1942). "Les hammams de Fes" (PDF). Bulletin de l'Institut d'Hygiène du Maroc. 2: 61–78. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-08-30. Retrieved 2020-09-16.
  169. ^ Terrasse, Henri (1950). "Trois Bains Mérinides du Maroc". Mélanges offerts à William Marçais par l'Institut d'études islamiques de l'Université de Paris. Paris: Éditions G.-P. Maisonneuve. pp. 311–320.
  170. ^ a b c d e f Jelidi, Charlotte (2012). Fès, la fabrication d'une ville nouvelle (1912–1956). ENS Éditions. ISBN 978-2-84788-239-1. Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  171. ^ "Place de la Résistance". www.madein.city (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-10-20. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  172. ^ a b c Hassa, Samira (2016). "From 'Avenue de France' to 'Boulevard Hassan II': Toponymic Inscription and the Construction of Nationhood in Fès, Morocco". In Bigon, Liora (ed.). Place Names in Africa: Colonial Urban Legacies, Entangled Histories. Springer. pp. 79–92. ISBN 978-3-319-32485-2.
  173. ^ "Place de Florence". www.madein.city (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-10-20. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  174. ^ "Un concours d'architecture maroco-italien pour restaurer une place de Fès". Bladi.net (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-10-20. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  175. ^ Usman, Aribidesi (2017). "Fez". In Aderinto, Saheed (ed.). African Kingdoms: An Encyclopedia of Empires and Civilizations. ABC-CLIO. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-61069-580-0. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  176. ^ Johnston, Keith; Keane, Augustus Henry (1880). Africa. E. Stanford. p. 33.
  177. ^ Harris, Lawrence (1909). With Mulai Hafid at Fez: Behind the Scenes in Morocco. Smith, elder & Company. p. 139. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  178. ^ Conder, Josiah (1834). A dictionary of geography, ancient and modern. T. Tegg. p. 226. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  179. ^ أبو عبد الله محمد بن سليمان الجزولي (توفي 1465) (1885). دلائل الخيرات (دلایل الخیرات). Archived from the original on 2017-05-13. Retrieved 2021-11-03.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  180. ^ "خزانة جامعة القرويين ترقمن مخطوطات نفيسة بخط ابن رشد وابن خلدون". Hespress – هسبريس جريدة إلكترونية مغربية (in Arabic). 2021-10-14. Archived from the original on 2021-11-03. Retrieved 2021-11-03.
  181. ^ a b c Sanseverino, Ruggero Vimercati (2014). Fès et sainteté, de la fondation à l'avènement du Protectorat (808–1912): Hagiographie, tradition spirituelle et héritage prophétique dans la ville de Mawlāy Idrīs. Rabat: Centre Jacques-Berque. ISBN 979-10-92046-17-5. Archived from the original on 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-06-15.
  182. ^ Hoh, Anchi (2019-08-16). "Stargazing: Yiddish Theater and Hebrew Calendars Come Together in the Library of Congress | 4 Corners of the World: International Collections and Studies at the Library of Congress". blogs.loc.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-03-23. Retrieved 2021-11-03.
  183. ^ Sirat, Colette (1990). A History of Jewish Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-521-39727-8.
  184. ^ "Samuel ben Isaac Nedivot & his Son Isaac Issue the First Book Printed on the Continent of Africa: History of Information". 2019-12-15. Archived from the original on 2019-12-15. Retrieved 2021-11-02.
  185. ^ "Hebraic Collections: The Books of the People of the Book". Library of Congress. 2019-04-20. Archived from the original on 2019-04-20. Retrieved 2021-11-02.
  186. ^ le Roux, Elizabeth (2019). "Africa". In Eliot, Simon; Rose, Jonathan (eds.). Companion to the History of the Book. Wiley Blackwell. p. 350. ISBN 978-1-119-01821-6.
  187. ^ a b Deshen, Shlomo (1989). The Mellah Society: Jewish Community Life in Sherifian Morocco. University of Chicago Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-226-14340-8.
  188. ^ Nizri, Yigal S. (2020). ""Fit to Sacrifice on the Altar of Print": Approbation Letters and the Printing of 19th-Century Moroccan Halakhic Books". In Bar-Levav, Avriel; Rebhun, Uzi (eds.). Textual Transmission in Contemporary Jewish Cultures. Oxford University Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-19-751649-2.
  189. ^ Islamkotob. الأعلام – ج 7 – محمد بن قاسم – نافع بن الحارثpublisher=IslamKotob (in Arabic).
  190. ^ Kane, Ousmane (2016). Beyond Timbuktu: An Intellectual History of Muslim West Africa. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05082-2.
  191. ^ Habibeh Rahim (1996). Inscription as Art in the World of Islam: Unity in Diversity: at the Emily Lowe Gallery, April 14–May 24, 1996. Hofstra Museum, Hofstra University. p. 65.
  192. ^ Shafer, Ann (2019). "No man is an island: globalisation and resilience in the Fez zillīj tradition". The Journal of North African Studies. 24 (5): 758–785. doi:10.1080/13629387.2018.1483877. S2CID 149949424. Archived from the original on 2022-10-01. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  193. ^ a b Erzini, Nadia (1992). "L'École de Tétouan". Zillīǧ: L'Art de la Céramique Marocaine (in French). Garnet Publishing Limited. p. 174. ISBN 1-873938-49-7.
  194. ^ a b "Composition". Barjeel Art Foundation. 2017-08-24. Archived from the original on 2021-07-22. Retrieved 2021-07-22.
  195. ^ "مالكة العاصمي: أنواع الأدب الشعبي بالمغرب – طرب الآلة – – وزارة الثقافة". 2021-10-08. Archived from the original on 2021-10-08. Retrieved 2021-11-03.
  196. ^ Dossier I, Musiques d'Algérie Dossier II, Algérie: histoire, société, cultures, arts. Vol. 47. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail. 2002. ISBN 2-85816-657-9. OCLC 496273089.
  197. ^ "طرب الآلة.. ذلك الفن الباذخ". مغرس. Archived from the original on 2022-04-09. Retrieved 2021-11-03.
  198. ^ "Museums and Galleries – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  199. ^ "Le Matin – Le complexe Al Houria ouvre enfin ses portes". Le Matin (in French). 21 April 2005. Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  200. ^ "Cultural Complex al Houria – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2021-10-23. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  201. ^ "Complexe culturel de Fès Al Houria, concert, spetacle,humour,fès, maroc". www.babelfan.ma (in French). Archived from the original on 2020-10-01. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  202. ^ "French Institute of Fez – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  203. ^ "Cervantes Institute in Fez – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2021-10-24. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  204. ^ "American Language Center (ALC) and the Arabic Language Institute (ALIF) – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  205. ^ "General Information about the Arabic Language Institute in Fez". Arabic Language Institute in Fez. Archived from the original on 2021-11-01. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  206. ^ Hemidach, Amjad. "ALC-ALIF in Fez: Learn Language, Understand Culture, Serve the Community". Morocco World News. Archived from the original on 2021-11-01. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  207. ^ "Spotlight on: Fes Festival of World Sacred Music". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  208. ^ "Fès et son Festival – Festival de Fès des Musiques Sacrées du Monde" (in French) (26ème ed.). Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  209. ^ Ennaji, Moha. "Fez Celebrates its 15th International Festival of Amazigh Culture". Morocco World News. Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  210. ^ "Festival Amazigh Fès". www.festivalamazighfes.com. Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  211. ^ "Festival of Amazigh Culture – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  212. ^ "Spotlight on: Festival of Sufi Culture in Fez, Morocco". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  213. ^ "Fez Festival of Sufi Culture – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2021-09-27. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  214. ^ Staff Writer. "Fes to Host 15th Annual Festival of Malhoun Art July 21–29". Morocco World News. Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  215. ^ "Music Festival el Malhoun – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2020-02-03. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  216. ^ The Rough Guide to Morocco (12th ed.). Rough Guides. 2019. pp. 43–44, 186.
  217. ^ "Moussem of Moulay Idriss – Regional Council of Tourism Fez". Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  218. ^ "Fès: Ouverture du Moussem annuel de Moulay Idriss Al Azhar". LesEco.ma (in French). 2019-09-26. Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  219. ^ a b Echabouch, Elmahdi (2022-03-20). "Fez To Host Its First-Ever Long-Distance Running Festival". Morocco World News.
  220. ^ "Qui Somme Nous". Fes Running Festival (in French). Retrieved 2023-12-26.
  221. ^ "Site officiel du MAS". MAS. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  222. ^ "Wydad Athletic Club de Fès". SoccerWay. Archived from the original on 2021-11-01. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  223. ^ "Stadiums: Complexe sportif de Fès". Goalzz. Archived from the original on 2021-09-15. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  224. ^ "Morocco to build new stadium, upgrade six others before 2030 World Cup". Reuters. 20 October 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  225. ^ "Morocco and East African co-bid to host future Africa Cup of Nations finals". Reuters. 27 September 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  226. ^ "MAR – Hope in Morocco basketball". FIBA.basketball. Archived from the original on 2021-09-15. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  227. ^ "Moroccan Basketball, News, Teams, Scores, Stats, Standings, Awards – afrobasket". www.afrobasket.com. Archived from the original on 2021-05-26. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  228. ^ "Le projet du Jardin botanique de Fès n'a toujours pas vu le jour" [The Fez Botanical Garden project has still not been created]. Le Matin (in French). 2014-04-24. Retrieved 2023-12-28.
  229. ^ "Fès : la ville manque d'espaces verts" [Fez: the city lacks green spaces]. LesEco.ma (in French). 2022-02-07. Retrieved 2023-12-28.
  230. ^ Al-Zaghari, Muhammad (2015-08-08). "الجماعة الحضرية تفتح حديقة أمريكا اللاتينية في وجه الزوار بمدينة فاس" [The Urban Community opens the Latin American Garden to visitors in Fez]. Al-Obour Media (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 2017-12-09.
  231. ^ Al-Kuirti, Rachid (2016-08-06). "حديقة الطيور بفاس .. منتزه يوفر الراحة لزوار العاصمة العلمية" [Bird Park in Fez...a park that provides comfort for visitors to the scientific capital]. Hespress (in Arabic). Retrieved 2023-12-28.
  232. ^ "Tourism in Fez-Meknes grows on the strength of religious and wellness visitors". Oxford Business Group. 2019-03-13. Archived from the original on 2020-10-01. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  233. ^ "::.. Oncf ..::". Oncf.ma. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  234. ^ "Transportation in Fez, Morocco". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  235. ^ "Bus in Fez, Morocco". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2021-09-03. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  236. ^ Misane, Laila. "The city of Fez: Technical and Institutional strengthening for a sustainable management of water resources". International Water Association. Archived from the original on 2023-05-11. Retrieved 2023-05-11.
  237. ^ Benoliel, Sharon (June 2003). "Strengthening Education in the Muslim World: Country Profiles and Analysis" (PDF). United States Agency for International Development.
  238. ^ Guinness World Records, Oldest University Archived 2014-10-07 at the Wayback Machine
  239. ^ Larbi Arbaoui, Al Karaouin of Fez: The Oldest University in the World Archived 2013-09-17 at the Wayback Machine, Morocco World News, 2 October 2012.
  240. ^ a b "Présentation institutionnelle". Portail USMBA (in French). Archived from the original on 2020-09-22. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  241. ^ "l'USMBA en chiffres". Portail USMBA (in French). Archived from the original on 2020-09-22. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  242. ^ "UEMF – Tout sur Université Euromed de Fès". Etudiant.ma. Archived from the original on 2021-01-16. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  243. ^ "L'UEMF | UEMF". www.ueuromed.org. Archived from the original on 2020-08-21. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  244. ^ "Daoudi autorise une première université privée à Fès". L'Economiste (in French). 2013-12-26. Archived from the original on 2018-10-05. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  245. ^ "Fès se dote d'une école d'ingénieurs". L'Economiste (in French). 2006-07-20. Archived from the original on 2018-10-05. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  246. ^ "Université Privée de Fès – 1ère Université Privée à Fès Reconnue par l'Etat" (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-16. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  247. ^ "Twin Towns". fescity.com. Fes City. 8 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  248. ^ "Profile of Sister Cities". gochengdu.cn. Go Chengdu. Archived from the original on 2020-12-05. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  249. ^ "Cidades Geminadas". cm-coimbra.pt (in Portuguese). Coimbra. Archived from the original on 2020-10-24. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  250. ^ "Las 12 hermanas de Córdoba". diariocordoba.com (in Spanish). Diario Córdoba. 2020-02-10. Archived from the original on 2020-10-21. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  251. ^ "العلاقات التي تربط مدينة أريحا بالمدن الأجنبية". jericho-city.ps (in Arabic). Jericho. Archived from the original on 2020-12-06. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  252. ^ "Sister Cities". wuxinews.com.cn. Wuxi News. Archived from the original on 2021-01-28. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  253. ^ "Sister cities". xa.gov.cn. Xi'an. Archived from the original on 2019-05-27. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  254. ^ "Abd al-Hafid". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A–Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  255. ^ Strack-Zimmermann, Benjamin. "Abdelilah Bagui (Player)". National Football Teams. Archived from the original on 2022-01-09. Retrieved 2022-06-05.
  256. ^ Abdellatif Laâbi, Victor W. Reinking, Anne O. George, The world's embrace: selected poems, Foreword by Ammiel Accalay, pp. x–xi
  257. ^ "Abdessalam Benjelloun – Player Profile – Football". Eurosport. Archived from the original on 2023-08-06. Retrieved 2022-06-05.
  258. ^ "Adel Taarabt". Ligue de Football Professionnel. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  259. ^ "Throne Day: King Decorates Three Moroccans for Outstanding Scientific and Academic Achievements". Morocco World News. 2017-07-31. Retrieved 2024-04-07.
  260. ^ El-Rouayheb, Khaled (2015). Islamic Intellectual History in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-107-04296-4.
  261. ^ "Akram Roumani Biography and Statistics". Sports-Reference.com. Archived from the original on 2020-04-18. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  262. ^ "Al-Lamiya de az-Zaqqaq, al-'Amal al-Fasi de 'Abd ar-Rahman al-Fasi, y al-'Amal al-Mutlaq de as-Siyilmasi" by Henry Toledano, International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 5, 1974.
  263. ^ "Anas Zniti, MAS goalkeeper" (in French). Affaire Maroc. Archived from the original on 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  264. ^ José Martínez Delgado, 'Dunash ben Labraṭ ha-Levi', in Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World, ed. by Norman A. Stillman and others (Leiden: Brill, 2010), s.v.
  265. ^ "السيرة الذاتية للسيد حميد شباط". Chabatonline.net. Archived from the original on 2018-01-22. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  266. ^ Singer, Isidore, ed. (1901–1906). "Uziel". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Archived from the original on 2023-09-05.
  267. ^ "Bennani, Karim". Benezit Dictionary of Artists.
  268. ^ "Bennani Claims First WTCC Victory in Second Shanghai Race – WTCC – The Checkered Flag". The Checkered Flag. 2014-10-12. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16. Retrieved 2017-12-16.
  269. ^ Maddy-Weitzman, Bruce (2011). The Berber Identity Movement and the Challenge to North African States. University of Texas Press, Austin.
  270. ^ "Morocco's Royal Family Celebrates Birthday of Princess Lalla Salma". Morocco World News. 10 May 2015. Archived from the original on 2022-06-05. Retrieved 2022-06-05.
  271. ^ Chechik, Sonya (12 June 2019). "Moroccan Scientist Rachid Yazami: The Man Who Gave us Cell Phone Power". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2024-03-08.
  272. ^ Vázquez de Balmaseda, Ignacio (5 May 2016). "Leyendas de la Real: López Ufarte" [Real legends: López Ufarte] (in Spanish). Vavel. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  273. ^ García-Arenal, Mercedes; Wiegers, Gerard (2003). A Man of Three Worlds. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7225-9.
  274. ^ 2014 African Championships in Athletics Results Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Marrakech2014. Retrieved on 19 August 2016.
  275. ^ Babas, Latifa (August 3, 2018). "Touria Chaoui, Morocco's first female pilot and daring teenager". yabiladi.com. Retrieved June 23, 2024.
  276. ^ Okeleji, Oluwashina (10 February 2019). "Morocco's En-Nesyri makes La Liga history". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 2022-06-05. Retrieved 2022-06-05.
  277. ^ David Criekemans (2007). Geopolitiek: "geografisch geweten" van de buitenlandse politiek?. Garant. pp. 544–546. ISBN 978-90-441-1969-5. Retrieved 12 January 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Le Tourneau, Roger (1974) [1961]. Fez in the Age of the Marinides. Translated by Besse Clement. Oklahoma University. ISBN 0-8061-1198-4.
  • Vigo, Julian (2006). "The Renovation of Fes' medina qdima and the (re)-Creation of the Traditional". Writing the City, Transforming the City. New Delhi: Katha. pp. 44–58.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Fes at Wikimedia Commons
  • Fez travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • The dictionary definition of Fez at Wiktionary
  • ArchNet – "Fès" (Contains catalogue of monuments, pictures, and explanatory text)