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Screenshot of homepage on January 18, 2016
Type of site
Fanfiction archive
OwnerXing Li
Created byXing Li
Alexa rankDecrease 881 (July 2018)[1]
LaunchedOctober 15, 1998; 21 years ago (1998-10-15)

FanFiction.Net (often abbreviated as or FFN) is an automated fan fiction archive site. It was founded on October 15, 1998[2] by Los Angeles computer programmer Xing Li, who also runs the site. As of 2018, FanFiction.Net is the largest and second most popular fan fiction website in the world, coming second in popularity to Archive of Our Own in Alexa rankings. It has over 10 million registered users and hosts stories in over 40 languages.[3]

The site is split into nine main categories: Anime/Manga, Books, Cartoons, Miscellaneous, Games, Comics, Movies, Plays/Musicals, and TV Shows. The site also includes the Crossover category, added on March 27, 2009. Users who complete the free registration process can submit their fan fiction, maintain a user profile, review other stories, apply for a beta reader position, contact each other via private messages, and maintain a list of favorite stories and authors. There are centralized communities and forums. In lieu of signing up with a new account, the website allows users to use their Google, Facebook, or Twitter accounts. The site also owns a Twitter account called FictionPress where users of the website are updated on changes and improvements made.


In 1998, Xing Li, a software designer in Los Angeles, created FanFiction.Net.[4] The site was created as a repository for fan-created stories that revolved around characters from popular literature, television, comics, or real-world celebrities. Unlike other fan fiction sites, FanFiction.Net allowed stories about any characters rather than revolving around a specific set of characters, such as those from Naruto, Harry Potter, or Kingdom Hearts. Registration was open to all people who claimed to be over 18, and by 2002 over 118,000 people were registered. (The age limit has since been moved down to 13.) At that time, one-third of the registrants self-identified as 18 or younger, and 80% were female.[2]

Rating system[edit] uses the rating system from This system contains the ratings of K, K+, T, M and MA. The MA rating and explicit violent and/or sexual themes are forbidden.[5]

Allowed ratings[edit]

Currently, the ratings K, K+, T and M are allowed.

K rating[edit]

The K rating is for audiences ages 5 or older. Any content that is rated K should be completely free of coarse language, adult themes and violence.

K+ rating[edit]

The K+ rating is for audiences ages 9 or older. Content that is rated K+ should only contain minor coarse language and violence and should be completely free of adult themes.

T rating[edit]

The T rating is for audiences ages 13 or older. Some non-explicit violence and minor coarse language, as well as minor suggestive adult themes can be used.

M rating[edit]

The M rating is for audiences ages 16 or older. Coarse language, violence and suggestive adult themes are allowed if not too explicit.

Not allowed ratings[edit]

Currently, the MA rating is strictly forbidden.

MA rating[edit]

Only for adults over 18 years old. Many M-rated stories that contain explicit adult themes still exist on and are yet to be removed.

Site content[edit]

Writers may upload their stories to the site and assign them a category and rating (such as K, K+, T, and M). The ratings are no longer done on the MPAA system, due to cease-and-desist demands from the Motion Picture Association of America in 2005.[6] A list of explanations for the rating system currently employed is available from the drop-down rating menu in each of the individual archives on the site.[7] The MA (18+) rating is not permitted on this site.[8] The site does not pay money to people for posting content or charge money for posting on the website,[4] and it uses advertisements to pay for costs. does not operate a screening or editorial board.[2] Many users leave short reviews after reading stories, most of which are positive.[4] While reviews can be left by those without accounts, it is an option for all writers on the site to moderate "anonymous reviews", made by those who are not signed into an account.

The stories are based on books, television series, films, and video games. Stories are about recent works and older works. By 2001, almost 100,000 stories were posted on the website. Steven Savage, a programmer who operated a column on, described it as "the adult version of when kids play at being TV characters" and that the content posted on the website serves as examples for "when people really care about something." A. S. Berman of USA Today said in 2001 that "reads like the 21st century successor to the poetry slams of the Beat Generation."[4] It is the most popular erotica website for women.[9]

In October 2008, the site underwent a major redesign of its admin/user area. Changes to how users check hits and reviews, post chapters, etc. were made.

Most popular sections[edit]

As of October 18, 2019, the top 20 fandoms (i.e., the fandoms with the most stories submitted) on FanFiction.Net are (the figures are rounded to nearest thousand):

Rank Fandom Category No. of stories
1 Harry Potter Books[10] 811K
2 Naruto Anime/Manga[11] 429K
3 Twilight Book 220K
4 Supernatural TV Shows[12] 125K
5 Hetalia: Axis Powers Anime/Manga 121K
6 Inuyasha Anime/Manga 119K
7 Glee TV Shows 108K
8 Pokémon Games[13] 97.7K
9 Bleach Anime/Manga 85.2K
10 Percy Jackson and the Olympians Books 76.4K
11 Doctor Who TV Shows 75.6K
12 Kingdom Hearts Games 74.3K
13 Yu-Gi-Oh! Anime/Manga 68.0K
14 Fairy Tail Anime/Manga 67.0K
15 Sherlock TV Shows 60.1K
16 Lord of the Rings Books 57.2K
17 Dragon Ball Z Anime/Manga 52.9K
18 Once Upon a Time TV Shows 51.6K
19 Star Wars Movies[14] 51.5K
20 Buffy the Vampire Slayer TV Shows 50.4K

Notable information[edit] is also home to one of the longest works of fiction ever written. The Subspace Emissary's Worlds Conquest, a Super Smash Bros. fanfiction, being written by user AuraChannelerChris, amounts to over four million words, more than three times as long as In Search of Lost Time written by Marcel Proust, and is still being written. The Subspace Emissary's Worlds Conquest fanfiction have been in the attention of several media outlets and[15][16] This was then surpassed by Ambience: A Fleet Symphony, a fanfiction of Kantai Collection, which is almost four and a half million words long.[17] Both of these fanfictions are over six times longer than War and Peace, which is just over half a million words long in English.

Notable fanfiction[edit] contains some fanfiction works of considerable length.

Some of them, like Ashes of the Past, are over 1.000.000 words long. Those stories are normally written on over the course of many years. The table below lists notable fanfictions of different categories with more than 500,000 words to boast to its name and has a large following of fans.

Notable fanfictions of different genres (500,000+)
Category Title Rating Length Author Theme Original Run
Games: Kantai Collection Ambience: A Fleet Symphony T 4.550.000+ words Hieda no Akyuu Alternate Universe May 8, 2014 — TBA
Games: Super Smash Bros. The Subspace Emissary's Worlds Conquest T 4.100.000+ words AuraChannelerChris N/A March 4, 2008 — TBA
Anime: A Certain Magical Index A Certain Unknown Level 0 T 2,500,000+ words MrQuestionMark Canon Retelling January 17, 2013 — TBA
Anime: RWBY RWBY Loops T 2,198,000+ words Leviticus Wilkes Time Travel April 25, 2015 — TBA
Cartoon: Avatar: Last Airbender Gladiator M 2,017,000+ words Seyary-Minamoto Romance May 27, 2013 - TBA
Games: Pokémon Ashes of the Past T 1.800.000+ words Saphroneth Time travel August 7, 2011 — TBA
Anime: Code Geass A Cold Calculus T 1,304,471 words Z98 Tragedy June 29, 2015 — October 15, 2018
TV shows: Harry Potter To Be a Slytherin T 1,166,000+ words Morgana Deryn Coming-of-Age May 24, 2015 — TBA
Anime: Fate/stay night (Fate/Grand Order) Fragments of Chaldea T 1,060,000+ words GhostXavier Slice of Life June 22, 2016 — TBA
Cartoons: Ever After High Through the Looking Glass T 1,002,000+ words The Celestial Sky Dragon Slice of Life November 12, 2017 — TBA
Anime/Manga: Evangelion[disambiguation needed] Shinji and Warhammer40k T 791,067 words Charles Bhepin Heavily Modified Canon Retelling November 11, 2007 — TBA
Cartoons: Avatar: Last Airbender Embers T 757,772 words Vathara N/A September 24, 2009 — January 18, 2014
Misc: Wrestling Aria's Shield M 730.000+ words LivHardy N/A August 23, 2013 — TBA
Anime: Hetalia Switzerland's Trigger Happy Letters to the World T 724,353 words ConfoederatioHelvetica Humor/Adventure June 17, 2011 — October 10, 2015
Anime: Naruto Dreaming of Sunshine T 711.000+ words Silver Queen Original Character Self-insert September 2, 2011 — TBA
Cartoon: The Loud House Reeling in the Years T 1,415,363+ words Flagg1991 Alternate Universe November 15, 2017 — TBA
TV shows: Teen Wolf Rising Moon T 706,000+ words BehindGrayEyes Alternate Universe September 15, 2013 - TBA

There are also fanfictions that do not have five hundred thousand words but are still very popular. The next table shows some fanfiction between 100.000 and 500.000 words that are still very popular.

Notable fanfiction of different genres (100,000-499,999)
Category Title Rating Length Author Theme Original run
Games: Pokémon Alola to our Savior M 348.000+ words The Poke Spectre Alternate Universe November 27, 2016 — TBA
Anime/Manga: Naruto Team 8 T 276.000+ words S'TarKan Alternate Universe January 2, 2006 — April 24, 2015
Books: Harry Potter New Blood T 100.000+ words artemisgirl N/A August 31, 2018 — TBA
Movies: Avengers Drown T 200.000+ words Ordis Alternate Universe May 14, 2012 — March 19, 2015
Books/Movies: Lord of the Rings Avengers of the Ring T 269, 301 words Dr Matthattan Crossover December 8, 2012 – December 3, 2013

Disallowed fanfiction[edit]

Copyright and trademark issues[edit]

FanFiction.Net instituted several policy changes as it grew in size and popularity.[18] These policies frequently led to the deletion of fanfiction based on the copyrighted works of certain published authors or containing specifically targeted content.

Since the site's founding, several professional authors and producers have asked that stories based on their copyrighted or trademarked works be removed, including Anne Rice, P. N. Elrod, Archie Comics, Dennis L. McKiernan, Irene Radford, J.R. Ward, Laurell K. Hamilton, Nora Roberts/J.D. Robb, Raymond Feist, Robin Hobb, Robin McKinley, and Terry Goodkind.[19]

In addition, stories based on real-life celebrities were disallowed around 2003. Fan fiction based on professional wrestling, however, is still allowed, being the number one fandom in the "Miscellaneous" category.[19]

NC-17 ratings[edit]

On September 12, 2002, FanFiction.Net banned and removed material that was rated NC-17. Prior to the new policy, the site would use a pop-up to prompt readers to say whether they were over 17 or not, but since then, the site has relied on its users to report stories that are inappropriately rated. Some NC-17 material was moved to (previously AdultFanFiction.Net), a similar site which was created to serve the adults who write R and NC-17 rated fan fiction. However, many stories containing explicit material still exist and have yet to be removed.

Story titles and summaries must be rated K-M.[19]

CYOA (Choose-Your-Own-Adventure)/Reader-Insertion fics[edit]

These have been banned since 2005, and the site removed all material that had the potential of inserting the reader into a fanfiction. Under the heading of "Entries not allowed," Item #5 says: Any form of interactive entry: choose your adventure, second person/you based, Q&As, etc.[19]


In 2005, banned songfics which contain copyrighted lyrics. Public domain lyrics (such as those to "Amazing Grace") or lyrics written by the author of the fanfiction are allowed, however.


Until April 21, 2002, in addition to fiction stories based on existing characters, the site had a section devoted to lists, generally humor-related, for example "20 Ways to Dump Your Girlfriend".


At first,'s server was accessible mainly only in the West; and worked poorly, if at all, in other parts of the world. In late 2006, announcements were made of special web links designed for Europe and Asia. These were supposed to give other areas of the world a significant boost in server speed on the website. In 2007, all three web links were combined under one worldwide link. In an announcement on the home page, it was stated that the site would go global that year.

Prior to the reorganizations of 2002, FanFiction.Net contained approximately 20% of English-language fanfiction.[20]

According to Hitwise, as of August 2007 FanFiction.Net comprised 34.7% of all traffic directed to sites in the Entertainment, Books and Writing category. For the week ending August 25, 2007, the site was ranked 159 out of over 1 million websites in terms of hits.[21][edit]
Type of site
Fiction archive
OwnerXing Li
Created byXing Li
Alexa rankDecrease 49,847 (July 2018)[22]
CommercialYes[citation needed]
Current statusLive's sister site,, contains over 1 million original stories, poems, and plays. The site has a similar format and rules to, except that no fan fiction is allowed. Currently, there are more poems than prose.[23]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ " Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2017-12-09.
  2. ^ a b c Buechner, Maryanne Murray (March 4, 2002), "Pop Fiction", Time Magazine, retrieved 2008-01-07
  3. ^ Li, Xing. "FanFiction.Net". FanFiction.Net. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d Berman, A.S. "Lame TV season? Write your own episodes online." USA Today. August 20, 2001. Retrieved on May 19, 2011.
  5. ^ "Guidelines - FanFiction.Net". FanFiction.Fet. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  6. ^ O'Connell, Pamela Licalzi (April 18, 2005). "Please Don't Call It a G-Rated Dispute". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  7. ^ "Fiction Ratings". Fiction Ratings. Archived from the original on 2013-10-09. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  8. ^ "Terms of Service". Retrieved 2011-08-26.
  9. ^ Ogas, Ogi (2011-04-30). "The Online World of Female Desire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
  10. ^ "Books".
  11. ^ "Anime/Manga".
  12. ^ "TV Shows".
  13. ^ "Games".
  14. ^ "Movies".
  15. ^ "Proust is no match for these two fanfics". July 24, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
  16. ^ "". August 2015.
  17. ^ "". May 3, 2018.
  18. ^ "Privacy Policy". 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  19. ^ a b c d "Content Guidelines". 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  20. ^ " Statistics".
  21. ^ Tancer, Bill (August 30, 2007), "Life after Potter, Bonanza, and Gunsmoke", Time Magazine, retrieved 2008-01-07
  22. ^ " Site Info". Retrieved 2014-02-01.
  23. ^ "".

External links[edit]