Ficus neriifolia

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Ficus neriifolia
Starr 080117-1887 Ficus neriifolia var. nemoralis.jpg
var. nemoralis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Ficus
Species: F. neriifolia
Binomial name
Ficus neriifolia
Sm.
Synonyms

Ficus fieldingii Miquel
Ficus gemella Wallich ex Miquel
Ficus nemoralis Wallich ex Miquel
Ficus nemoralis var. fieldingii (Miquel) King
Ficus nemoralis var. gemella (Wallich ex Miquel) King
Ficus nemoralis var. trilepis (Miquel) King
Ficus neriifolia var. fieldingii (Miquel) Corner
Ficus neriifolia var. nemoralis (Wallich ex Miquel) Corner
Ficus neriifolia var. trilepis (Miquel) Corner
Ficus trilepis Miquel
Ficus wardii C. E. C. Fischer

Ficus neriifolia is a species of fig (Ficus). It is native to Asia, including Bhutan, Burma, China, India, and Nepal.[1]

Description[edit]

Ficus neriifolia grows as a tree up to 15 m (50 ft) tall with smooth, dark grey bark on its trunk. The hairless, leathery oval to lanceolate (spear-shaped) leaves are up to 8–18 cm (3 14–7 in) long by 3–6.5 cm (1 182 12 in) wide, and often asymmetrical in shape. The 8–10 cm (3 14–4 in) diameter figs are rounded, oval, or cylindrical and grow in pairs off older branches.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

James Edward Smith described Ficus neriifolia in 1810.

In 1965, E.H.Corner regarded the species as having three valid varieties : F. neriifolia var. nemoralis, F. neriifolia var. fieldingii and F. neriifolia var. trilepis. However, Wu and colleagues did not treat them as distinct in 2003. Chaudhary and colleagues observed that the receptacles are distinct and hence further investigation is needed.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Ficus neriifolia is found in Mêdog County in southern Tibet and western Yunnan province in China, as well as Bhutan, Myanmar,[1] central and western Nepal,[3] northeastern India including Sikkim,[1] Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Uttar Pradesh.[2]

It grows in forests of both coniferous and broadleaved trees at elevations of 1,700–2,900 m (5,600–9,500 ft) above sea level in China,[1] and 500–2,200 m (1,600–7,200 ft) above sea level in India.[2]

Ecology[edit]

The figs and leaves are eaten by the endangered black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in Yunnan province, particularly between May and September where it is the most commonly eaten plant species.[4] It is also an important food item of the eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys)[5]

Uses[edit]

Ficus neriifolia as bonsai, San Diego

The foliage of Ficus neriifolia is used as fodder and its wood used as fuel in Nepal. The juice of the stem bark is used as a folk remedy for conjunctivitis and boils[3] This fig tree is considered good for indoor bonsai in temperate climates, and it is easily shaped and pruned.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Ficus neriifolia. Flora of China.
  2. ^ a b c Chaudhary, Lal Babu, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari, and G. V. S. Murthy (2012). "Synopsis of the genus Ficus L.(Moraceae) in India" (PDF). Taiwania. 57 (2): 193–216 [196]. 
  3. ^ a b Kunwar, Ripu M.; Rainer W. Bussmann (2006). "Ficus (Fig) species in Nepal: a review of diversity and indigenous uses" (PDF). Lyonia. 11 (1): 85–97. 
  4. ^ Fan, Pengfei; Qingyong Ni; Guozheng Sun; Bei Huang & Xuelong Jiang (2009). "Gibbons under seasonal stress: the diet of the black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) on Mt. Wuliang, Central Yunnan, China" (PDF). Primates. 50 (1): 37–44. doi:10.1007/s10329-008-0114-1. 
  5. ^ Zhang, Dao; Han-Lan Fei; Sheng-Dong Yuan; Wen-Mo Sun; Qing-Yong Ni; Liang-Wei Cui & Peng-Fei Fan (2014). "Ranging behavior of eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) in a northern montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China" (PDF). Primates. 55 (2): 239–47. doi:10.1007/s10329-013-0394-y. 
  6. ^ Derderian, C. T. Subtropical Bonsai for Indoor Gardening. Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. 1976.