Fidra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Fidra
Scottish Gaelic nameFiodra
Old Norse nameFiðrey
Meaning of nameNorse for "feather island"[1]
Fidra
Fidra
Location
Fidra is located in East Lothian
Fidra
Fidra
Fidra shown within Scotland
OS grid referenceNT5186
Coordinates56°04′N 2°47′W / 56.07°N 2.78°W / 56.07; -2.78
Physical geography
Island groupIslands of the Forth
Areac. 10 ha (25 acres)
Highest elevationc. 20 m (66 ft)
Administration
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
CountryScotland
Council areaEast Lothian
Demographics
Population0
Lymphad
References[2][3][4]
Fidra as seen from Yellowcraigs beach

Fidra (archaically Fidrey[5] or Fetheray[6]) is a currently uninhabited island in the Firth of Forth, 4 kilometres (2+12 miles) northwest of North Berwick, on the east coast of Scotland. The island is an RSPB Scotland nature reserve.

Geography[edit]

Fidra Island viewed from Yellowcraig beach

Like the other islands near North Berwick, Fidra is the result of volcanic activity around 335 million years ago. Fidra consists of three sections; a hill at one end with the lighthouse on it; a low-lying section in the middle, effectively an isthmus; and a rocky stack at the other end.[7]

History[edit]

View of Fidra from Yellowcraig

The island's name is believed to be Old Norse in origin, referring to the large number of bird feathers found there. Like the nearby Bass Rock, it has a substantial seabird population, and is now an RSPB reserve. The village of Gullane lies to the south-west, and the nature reserve of Yellowcraig and village of Dirleton, to which parish Fidra belongs,[8] are to the south. Remotely operated cameras on the island send live pictures to the watching visitors at the Scottish Seabird Centre in North Berwick.[9]

Upon the island are ruins of an old chapel, or lazaretto for the sick, which was dedicated in 1165 to St Nicholas.[8] In the 12th-century, the island formed part of the barony of Dirleton, which was granted to the Anglo-Norman John de Vaux by King David I. The de Vaux family built a stronghold, known as Castle Tarbet, on the island, but in 1220, William de Vaux gifted Fidra to the monks of Dryburgh Abbey, in the Borders. His successor built Dirleton Castle, on the mainland, as a replacement dwelling.[10]

Nature and ecology[edit]

The number of breeding puffins on the island has increased recently due to the removal of an introduced plant, tree mallow (Lavatera arborea). It is likely that it was planted by lighthouse keepers for use as toilet paper, and for its medicinal qualities. The shrub was blocking the entrances to the breeding burrows, and in 1996 the number of occupied burrows had fallen to approximately 400. Following clearance by RSPB Scotland staff and volunteers over 1,000 burrows are occupied in 2016.[11]

Cultural references[edit]

Robert Louis Stevenson often visited the beaches at the area known today as Yellowcraig and it is said that he based his map of Treasure Island on the shape of Fidra. (This claim is also made about the island of Unst in Shetland.) He also mentioned Fidra in his novel Catriona.[7] Fidra Books is a publishing house, named after the island, and which uses Fidra's outline as part of its logo.[12] The progressive rock band Marillion also briefly mention Fidra in the song, Warm Wet Circles, which contains the line "She nervously undressed in the dancing beams of the Fidra Lighthouse",[13] the coast nearby apparently being a well-known courting spot.[13]

Lighthouse[edit]

Fidra Lighthouse
FidraLighthouse.JPG
LocationFidra, East Lothian, Dirleton, United Kingdom Edit this at Wikidata
Coordinates56°04′24″N 2°47′06″W / 56.073224°N 2.785137°W / 56.073224; -2.785137
Tower
Constructed1885 Edit this on Wikidata
Designed byDavid Alan Stevenson, Thomas Stevenson Edit this on Wikidata
Constructionbrick (tower) Edit this on Wikidata
Height17 m (56 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Shapecylindrical tower with balcony and lantern[14][15]
Markingswhite (tower), black (lantern), ochre (trim) Edit this on Wikidata
OperatorForth Ports Edit this on Wikidata
Heritagecategory C listed building Edit this on Wikidata
Light
Automated1970 Edit this on Wikidata
Focal height34 m (112 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Light sourcemains power
Range15 nmi (28 km; 17 mi) Edit this on Wikidata
CharacteristicFl(4) W 30s Edit this on Wikidata

The lighthouse, which was designed by David Alan Stevenson (as his first work) in 1885 and supervised by his uncle Thomas Stevenson was manned until 1970 and is now automated, as are all Scottish lighthouses. However, Fidra was the first unmanned lighthouse.[16] It is accessible via a private jetty on the east coast of the island.[3] The light flashes 4 times every 30 seconds during hours of darkness.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ryder, N.L. "Displacement of bone waste by seagulls" (pdf) Circaea: The Bulletin of the Association for Environmental Archaeology. 6 No. 2 (1990) University of York. p. 85. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  2. ^ General Register Office for Scotland (28 Nov 2003) Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands Archived May 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  3. ^ a b Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.
  4. ^ Ordnance Survey
  5. ^ Lewis, Samuel (1846). "Faifley - Fifeshire". A Topographical. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
  6. ^ Skene, W. F. (November 1862) "Of the early Frisian Settlements in Scotland". Antiquaries of Scotland. 4 Part 1.
  7. ^ a b "Fidra". Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
  8. ^ a b Martine, John (1890) Fourteen Parishes of the County of Haddington, Edinburgh, p.50-51
  9. ^ Fidra Web Cam Archived 2007-08-13 at the Wayback Machine Scottish Seabird Centre. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  10. ^ Tabraham, Chris (2007) Dirleton Castle 2nd edition. Historic Scotland. ISBN 978-1-904966-41-8 pp.21-22
  11. ^ "RSPB Puffins thriving after herbal toilet paper removal". Birdguides. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  12. ^ "Fidra Books". Retrieved 2008-06-18.
  13. ^ a b Schipper, Jeroen (ed.) (1992–1997). "What is the Fidra Lighthouse?". Marillion Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 2008-06-18.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of Southeastern Scotland". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 2016-05-10.
  15. ^ Fidra Northern Lighthouse Board. Retrieved 10 May 2016
  16. ^ "Fidra Lighthouse | Canmore".
  17. ^ Reeds Small Craft Almanac, London, Adlard Coles Nautical, 2007

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 56°04′23″N 2°47′0″W / 56.07306°N 2.78333°W / 56.07306; -2.78333