Fidyah and Kaffara
Fidyah (Arabic: الفدية) and Kaffara (Arabic: كفارة) are religious donations made in Islam when a fast (notably in Ramadan) is broken. The donations can be of food, or money, and it is used to feed those in need. They are mentioned in the Qur'an which distinguishes the two, but unifies them into one idea. Some organizations have online Fidyah and Kaffara options.
Fidyah (also romanized as Fidya) is a religious donation of money or food made to help those in need. Fidyah is made when someone is ill or of extreme age (old or young), cannot fast for the required number of days, and will not be able to make up for the fast. In Ramadan, the Fidyah must be paid for each fast missed. If, however, one misses their fast due to being sick or on a journey, but will be healthy enough to make up for it, they should preferably make up for the fast at a later date, as prescribed in the Qur'an.
Kaffara (also romanized as Kaffarah) like Fidyah, is a religious donation of money or food made to help those in need. Kaffara is made when someone deliberately misses a fast or intentionally breaks their fast, such as by having intercourse, or eating.
In the Qur'an
Fidyah and Kaffara are mentioned in the Qur'an in the selection below:
"[Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know."— Quran: 2:184