Field marshal (India)
Field marshal (FM) is a Five Star General Officer rank and the highest attainable rank in the Indian Army. Field Marshal is ranked immediately above General and is largely a ceremonial/war time rank, having been awarded only twice. A Field Marshal's insignia consists of the national emblem over a crossed baton and saber in a lotus blossom wreath. It is equivalent to an Admiral of the Fleet in the Indian Navy or a Marshal of the Air Force in the Indian Air Force.
On appointment, Field Marshals are awarded a gold-tipped baton which they may carry on formal occasions.
Sam Manekshaw, 1973
Sam Manekshaw, MC, also known as "Sam Bahadur" ("Sam the Brave"), was the first Indian Army officer to be promoted to the rank of Field Marshal. His distinguished military career spanned four decades and five wars, beginning with service in the British Indian Army in World War II. Manekshaw rose to be the 8th chief of staff of the Indian Army in 1969 and under his command, Indian forces conducted victorious campaigns against Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 that led to the Liberation of Bangladesh in December 1971. The decisive results achieved by the Indian Army during this war under the able military leadership of Manekshaw gave the nation a new sense of confidence and his services were recognized by the President of India when in January 1973, he was elevated to the rank of Field Marshal.
K M Cariappa, 1986
Kodandera Madappa Cariappa, OBE was the first Indian Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army. He led the Indian forces in Kashmir during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. He was a member of the Army Sub Committee of the Forces Reconstitution Committee, which divided the British Indian Army into the Indian and Pakistani Armies after the Partition of India in 1947. After his retirement from Indian Army in 1953, he served as the High Commissioner to Australia and New Zealand till 1956.As a token of gratitude for the exemplary service rendered by him to the nation, the Government of India conferred the rank of Field Marshal on Cariappa in his 87th year, on 14 January 1986.
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