National Day of Spain

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National Day of Spain
Official nameFiesta Nacional de España
Observed bySpain
DateOctober 12
The coat of arms of Spain displays the symbols of both medieval and modern Spain and the key transition event between them, the discovery of the New World, represented by the motto "PLUS ULTRA" (further beyond), replacing the previous one, "NON PLUS ULTRA" (nothing further beyond) the Pillars of Hercules (today's Strait of Gibraltar) which marked the edge of the known world since Antiquity.

The National Day of Spain (Spanish: Fiesta Nacional de España) is a national holiday held annually on October 12. It is also traditionally and commonly referred to as the Día de la Hispanidad (Hispanicity, Spanishness[1]), commemorating Spanish legacy worldwide, especially in Hispanic America.[2]

The National Day of Spain is the day of celebration on which the Spanish people commemorate the country's history, recognize and appreciate achievements, reconfirm their commitment to the nation's future. The day celebrates unity and fraternity, and also shows Spain's ties with the international community.[3][4][5][2]

Spanish law declares

" The date chosen, October 12, symbolizes the historical anniversary on which Spain, about to conclude a process of State construction based on our cultural and political diversity, and the integration of the kingdoms of Spain into the same monarchy, begins a period of linguistic and cultural projection beyond the boundaries of Europe. "[6]

National Day of Spain commemorates the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus for Spain on October 12, 1492. The date is a key point for Spain's overseas influence and legacy to the world and to the Americas in particular. It symbolizes Spain's vast, common heritage with today's American countries, which made up the Spanish Empire, the first global power in world history.[7]

October 12 is also the official Spanish language day, the Feasts of both Our Lady of the Pillar and the Virgin of Guadalupe as well as the Day of the Spanish Armed Forces.[8]

October 12 is also an official holiday in much of Hispanic America, though under varying names (Día de la Hispanidad, Día de la Raza, Día del Respeto a la Diversidad Cultural, Día de la Resistencia Indígena, etc.). To varying degrees, these holidays celebrate the historical and cultural ties among Hispanic American countries, ties between them and Spain, and their common Hispanic and pre-Hispanic indigenous American heritage. Furthermore, on the second Monday in October, the United States celebrates Columbus Day.[9][10]


Aerial parade by the Spanish Air Force Patrulla Águila (Eagle Patrol) drawing a Spanish flag with smoke at the Armed Forces Parade.

National Day of Spain is a holiday throughout the entire country, so all central (national) government's and autonomous communities' (provincial) institutions and administration offices are closed on that day, as are banks and stores. National Day is massively celebrated in Spain through numerous public and private events organized throughout the country to praise the nation's heritage, history, society and people. The festivity is also celebrated by Spanish communities worldwide. Solemn acts of tribute to the national flag take place at different locations in Spain and abroad. The most important by far is the one held in the capital, Madrid, along with the Armed Forces parade. Other tribute, cultural, religious and vindicative parades and demonstrations are also organized by participants from civil society across Spain.

While National Day is celebrated exclusively on October 12, the national holiday takes, with no exceptions, a long weekend (at least 3 days), for the citizens' leisure and enjoyment. Taking advantage of the short vacation, many people travel in Spain on these days, especially to visit other cities and symbolic places within the country. Common destinations are Aragon and its capital Zaragoza, where the festivity of "Our Lady of the Pillar" (La Virgen del Pilar), "Mother of the Hispanic Peoples," also falls on this date. For this reason, these holidays are also known in Spain as the "Long Weekend of the Pillar" (Puente del Pilar).

Indeed, though these holidays are short, many Spaniards take some extra days off to travel around Spain. Between five and over six million road trips occur during these holidays in Spain. As a result, the State Traffic Office plans and implements specific road and driving safety measures at this time, including speed traps and efforts to curb alcohol and drug use among drivers.[11]

Origins and evolution[edit]

Coming of Our Lady of the Pillar to Zaragoza, capital city of Aragon

The distant origin of the holiday is to be found in the Roman Catholic tradition of the Virgin Mary's apparition "in flesh and blood" in Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza's name under the Roman Empire) to Apostle Saint James the Greater in AD 40 where a temple was built by the river Ebro, the first in the world dedicated to the cult of the Blessed Mother. Pilgrimage to Zaragoza to venerate Our Lady of the Pillar started in the early 8th century. Together with Saint James in Compostela, the spirituality of Christians in the Iberian Peninsula has centered around Our Lady of the Pillar for centuries.[12]

On May 27, 1642, the city of Zaragoza designated Our Lady of the Pillar as a symbol of Hispanidad (Hispanicity), and the date became a feast in commemoration of the appearance of La Virgen del Pilar in the city.[13]

In 1730, Pope Clement XII allowed the feast of Ourd Lady of the Pillar to be celebrated all over the Spanish Empire from then on.[3]

On September 23, 1892, the queen regent of Spain, Maria Christina of Austria, promulgated a Royal Decree in San Sebastián, as proposed by the Prime Minister, Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, declaring October 12, 1892, a national day in commemoration of the 4th centenary of the discovery of America.[3][14]

The preamble of that decree states the government had "considered appropriate to explore the position of all the American countries and Italy, as homeland of Columbus, to see if, by joint agreement, that commemoration could be vested with greater importance."

The preamble continues pointing out that "most governments of America have already adhered to the idea in principle, like that of the United States as well as those of the Hispanic American republics, with few exceptions, maybe because of temporary circumstances, which shall probably not prevent an unanimous resolution, and, for its part, the Government of his S.M. the King of Italy has also welcomed the invitation in the most cordial and satisfactory way." It is further stressed the opportunity of "perpetuating" such a commemoration as a National Day of Spain.[15]

Hispanicity was celebrated again in Spain from 1935, when the first festival was held in Madrid.[16] The day was known as Día de la Hispanidad ("Day of Hispanicity"), emphasizing Spain's connection to the international Hispanic community.[17][3][14]

Hispanicity linked to the Cathedral-Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar as historical background and symbol of the National Day of Spain are well expressed in a 1939 letter addressed by an Argentinian donor, Doña Soledad Alonso de Drysdale, to the Spanish government regarding the fundraising to complete the building of the last two of four towers of the Cathedral of the Pillar:[13]

If, effectively, the funding comes from Hispanic America, these two towers will become an enviable symbol of Hispanicity (Spanishness), raised in the capital city of the kingdom that advanced the money used for the discovery of the New Word. (...) One second of January, feast of the Coming of the Virgin Mary in mortal flesh to Zaragoza, Granada surrendered to the Catholic Monarchs; Isabel and Ferdinand could dedicate time and thought to the enterprise proposed to them by the great navigator ; on a twelfth of October, feast of Our Lady of the Pillar, the three immortal caravels arrived at the first American lands. (...) If the architecture of the cathedral is completed and culminated with money from overseas, the symbolic value of the Holy Metropolitan Temple as Sanctuary of Hispanicity will have been totally affirmed.

from the original:

«Si, en efecto, de la América Hispana viene el dinero, esas dos torres serán un símbolo envidiable de hispanidad, levantado en la capital del reino que anticipó el dinero para el descubrimiento del Nuevo Mundo. (...) En un día dos de enero, fiesta de la Venida de la Virgen en carne mortal a Zaragoza, se rendía Granada a los Reyes Católicos y podían dedicar Isabel y Fernando tiempo y meditaciones a la empresa que les proponía el gran navegante; en un día 12 de octubre, fiesta de Nuestra Señora del Pilar, las tres inmortales carabelas llegaban a las primeras tierras americanas. (...) Si es con dinero de Ultramar como (...) se completa y corona la arquitectura de la catedral, el valor simbólico del Santo Templo Metropolitano como Santuario de la Hispanidad habrá quedado consagrado totalmente.[18]

Spanish Constitution of 1978, the ninth fundamental law in the history of the Spanish constitutionalism since the Spanish Constitution of 1812

In 1981, soon after the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the national day is renamed "Fiesta Nacional de España y Día de la Hispanidad" by Royal Decree[17][19] On October 7, 1987, the reference to Hispanidad is discarded and the name is changed again to Fiesta Nacional.[6] October 12 became one of two national celebrations, along with Constitution Day on December 6.[17][8]

Spain's "national day" had moved around several times during the various regime changes of the 20th century. Establishing it on the day of the international Discovery of America celebration was part of a compromise between conservatives, who wanted to emphasize the status of the monarchy and Spain's history, and the left-winged parties, who wanted to commemorate Spain's burgeoning democracy with an official holiday.[8] While the manifest ties of Spain with Hispanic America are not questioned, the removal of the Hispanidad from the name of the national festivity aims to avoid any controversy regarding the conquest, influence and rule of the Americas by Spain during the imperial period.[20]

The participation of the Armed Forces in the celebration of National Day was established in 1997 by Royal Decree, which regulates the commemoration and tribute acts to be performed by the Armed Forces on National Day of Spain. It actually transfers the most relevant acts of the Armed Forces Day, traditionally celebrated separately in springtime, to October 12. This measure aimed, on the one hand, to integrate in the same festivity all the historic and cultural elements of the Spanish nation, and on the other hand, to enhance the identification of the Armed Forces with the Spanish society whom they serve. Other civic-military events are also organized around 12 October, including military training and exhibitions, cultural and sport events, aiming to facilitate the citizens to get a better knowledge of the Armed Forces.[21]


Parade for Hispanic Day (12 October) in Granada (Spain).

Public and civil society celebrations of the National Day are numerous and of different natures. Solemn Acts of Tribute to the National Flag, symbol of unity and of national coexistence, take place in different locations of Spain. The most important is the one traditionally held in the capital, Madrid, along with the Armed Forces and State Security Forces parade. Other tribute and vindicative parades and demonstrations are also organized by figures from civil society across Spain.

While the reference to 'Hispanidad' was removed from the official name of the festivity, the tradition of somehow celebrating this phenomenon is massively observed in Spain as it is celebrated by Hispanic peoples worldwide. Celebrations emphasizing the discovering of America and the pioneering efforts and contributions of Spain in America and to the world through centuries, from the world exploration to the Spanish influence and shaping of Hispanic American societies, are traditionally held.[22][3][14][23][24]

Officially commemorated until 1987, Hispanic Day (Dia de la Hispanidad) has continued to be spontaneously celebrated by Spanish people with both a cultural and a religious dimension. It celebrates Hispanic diversity, brotherhood, common heritage and cultural ties between Hispanic countries. This section should help to seize what Spain celebrates on its National Day and how.

Tribute to the Flag and Armed Forces Parade[edit]

On 12 October, a traditional military parade takes place, which includes units of the different service branches and security forces, such as the Civil Guard.
Naval band in Madrid, 2014

The celebration traditionally includes a parade of the Spanish Armed Forces (military) and the State Security Forces (law enforcement), usually held in Madrid, attended by high institutional and political representatives including the King of Spain, head of state and commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, together with the Royal Family, the Prime Minister, the Presidents of the Cortes Generales and faction leaders of its chambers, and the President of the Supreme Court and General Council of the Judiciary, members of the cabinet, deputies and senators of the Cortes and other representatives of the central government and the governments of the autonomous communities of the state. Political and institutional delegations from other guest countries, including military forces participating in the parade, also attend the event. The parade expresses the commitment of the Armed and the State Security forces to society and their contribution to the wider international community.[25] The parade is held in one of the capital's big plazas, in recent parades the marching contingents are assigned the Paseo de la Castellana for the parade as a marching route.

But the most important role is usually reserved for the Spanish flag, a symbol of unity and of national coexistence. For several consecutive years, the Spanish Air Force aerobatics parachute demonstration unit has performed a jump carrying a massive Spanish flag to land in front of the Royal dais where the King, as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, who serves as the event's chief guest of honor, is present together with the Queen and members of the Royal Family, the Minister of Defense and the Chief of Defense Staff. Then the tribute to the national flag follows, with its raising while the national anthem, the "Marcha Real," is performed. Then, tribute is paid to the soldiers who gave their lives for Spain which is followed by a civil-military parade with mobile column and flypast segment, which usually includes a display by the Spanish Air Force's aerobatics team, the Patrulla Águila.

The Armed Forces Parade is one of the most widely-attended events in Spain, with thousands of citizens celebrating the country's most special holiday and gathering along the parade route, where they can show their affection to the Royal Family, Armed Forces and to the State Security forces as they march past the dais.

As for many other public events, the 2020 Armed Forces Parade was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the country and substituted by a civil-military institutional act in the Royal Palace's court where the Tribute to the Spanish flag could be paid followed by a short parade and a tribute to all actively fighting the pandemic.

The parade is a televised event produced by Televisión Española and is livestreamed online to millions around the world.

Expanded summary of the parade[edit]

At 9 am the Guardia Real's Honours Battalion forms up at the front of the royal dais where members of the Cabinet, deputies and senators of the Cortes, federal and regional government representatives, military attaches and veterans are assembled. Formed up with the regimental band of the Guard in companies, the guards of honour, in full dress with shakos and rifles, await the arrival of the King and Queen.

At 10 am, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Minister of Defense and Chief of Defense Staff, the Royal Family arrives. As the "Marcha Real" is played by the Guard Band, the guard battalion presents arms and a 21-gun salute is fired. As the music ends, the guard battalion orders arms. After this, the guard commander informs the King that the guard battalion has been formed for the ceremonial segment of the ceremony, and the King and Queen inspects the guard of honour battalion to music by the band. As the music stops, the royal party takes its leave of the guard and proceeds to the dais to meet other representatives of the federal government and regional leaders.

Spanish culture[edit]

Military parade on the day of the national holiday, Madrid.

An expression of the rich cultural diversity of Spain, National Day is celebrated massively through numerous public and private events to praise the nation's heritage, history, society and people.[26] The October 12 holiday actually celebrates the unique "Spanish lifestyle"[27] and shows the essence of the many local, regional and national festivities and traditions celebrated in Spain throughout the year, some enjoying international fame. Tens of thousands of people invade the streets to show their national pride, whether in colorful parades and demonstrations or just spontaneously on their own. People dressed in traditional regional or historic costumes as well as folk, classical and modern music concerts and street shows are unavoidable features of the celebrations. Spanish American communities in Spain also participate in parades, displaying their national colors and their countries' typical garments marching along to the sound of their respective upbeat folk tunes. Hispanicity is in the air.

"No food, no feast." Spaniards usually gather around a good meal in reunions of family and friends, whether at home, or in bars and restaurants, and they do not skip that tradition on National Day. Open air or indoor meals organized by institutions or other non-military organizations are very popular as well. On the menu: the marvel of Spanish cuisine, with all its distinctive regional peculiarities. Apart from the world-famous tapas, paellas, jamón serrano and tortilla de patatas, an amazing festival of flavorful dishes, salads, soups, stews and roasts, fish and seafood, etc., can be enjoyed anywhere in Spain as they are a manifestation not only of the Spanish gastronomy but also of the great ages-old fishing, agricultural, and cattle-raising traditions of Spain.[28]

Then, over two thousand years of viniculture are sure to harmoniously pair those meals with a good wine produced in virtually any corner of the Spanish countryside. Spanish people do know how to celebrate around the table, and they do so especially on October 12.

Spanish art and architecture, too, play an important role in the celebration of National Day. October 12 is an Open Doors Day in many museums and historical sites. From Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages, through Roman, Visigothic, Al-Andalus, Romanesque, Gothic, Mudéjar, Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical, to 20th century Modernism and Contemporary, Spanish architecture legacy is simply awesome reflecting the great historical and geographical diversity of the country.

Ranking third worldwide in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites' list, with 49 Spanish sites listed there by 2021, is truly only a tiny hint of the countless artistic and architectural treasures spread all over the territory of Spain. Many citizens take the opportunity each October 12 to visit such sites as well as to admire the masterpieces of the classical and contemporary Maestros (Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Velázquez, Miró, etc.) and other artists held in Spanish museums. Some of these are world-class art institutions, like the Madrid triad of El Prado, Reina Sofía or Thyssen-Bornemisza Museums, the so-called "Golden Triangle of Art:" for many, the world's best pictorial hub.[29]

The Hispanic dimension of the day's festivities also to recall the Spanish artistic and architectural legacy overseas, mainly in the Americas at the Imperial age, including present-day United States soil. Spanish manufacture and design of Renaissance and Baroque styles erected historic quarters and buildings of most beautiful American towns and cities, today symbols of identity and object of pride of the Hispanic people.[30] As an expression of this Hispanic cultural heritage, several dozens of sites built by Spain all along the Americas, from Chile to Canada, as well as in Italy and the Philippines, are also listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, a legacy revealing Spain, as by far the largest historical contributor to UNESCO's list.[31][32]

Much of the above has been achieved with a common instrument, the Spanish language, the world's second-most spoken native language today (soon 500 million people) and the world's third-most spoken language.[33] Institutions such as the Instituto Cervantes organize events, workshops and other cultural activities in different locations worldwide to celebrate Hispanic legacy through the phenomenon of the Spanish language and its fruitful literature through centuries. For some years since 2010, Spanish Language Day was also celebrated on October 12 by the United Nations, but was later moved to April 23 to commemorate the anniversary of Miguel de Cervantes' death on that day.

Religious dimension[edit]

The Spanish legacy has a strong religious component expressed with the traditional celebration of the Day of Our Lady of the Pillar, "Mother of the Hispanic Peoples" and very popular in Spain; and of the Our Lady of Guadalupe, "Queen of the Hispanidad" who enjoys a high popularity in Hispanic America, both festivities being held as well on 12 October.

Our Lady of the Pillar (la Virgen del Pilar) is patroness saint of both the autonomous community of Aragon and its capital, the city of Zaragoza as well as of the Guardia Civil (Spanish Civil Guard) and the Spanish Navy submarine force among others. It commemorates the coming of the Virgin Mary to Zaragoza in AD 40, according to tradition, her only apparition while she was still alive and the first to the Hispanic people. Since the religious feast day coincides with the discovery of the Americas (October 12, 1492), Pope John Paul II praised El Pilar as "Mother of the Hispanic Peoples" during both his visits to the Cathedral-Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar.[34][35]

October 12, also popularly known in Spain as "Día del Pilar" (Day of the Pillar), attracts many people from other Spanish regions to Zaragoza, where the traditional "Ofrenda de flores a la Virgen" (Offering of flowers to the Virgin Mary), a massive parade with broad social participation, including from Hispanic American communities, takes place all day long. Every nation of Hispanic colonial origin has donated national vestments for the fifteenth-century statue of the Virgin, which is housed in the chapel of the cathedral.[36]

Celebration of the Day of Hispanicity by the Basilica-Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Extremadura, one of 48 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Spain

Another relevant symbol of Hispanic heritage both in Spain and in Hispanic America is the cult of Our Lady of Guadalupe, which feast is celebrated in Extremadura on the Día de la Hispanidad, each October 12, since she holds the title of Queen of Hispanicity since 1928. The origin of this religious tradition is the Christian legend of the apparition of the Blessed Mother to a shepherd in the 14th century indicating the place to find a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary carved by Luke the Evangelist buried centuries ago by local clergymen to prevent any damage of it from the Moorish invaders. The Monastery later built on the site where the statue was found soon became the most important place of pilgrimage in Castile and fair rich.[37][38]

The Catholic Monarchs met in the Monastery with Columbus in June 1492, which resulted in the Monarchs' authorization of the exploration endeavor and the dispatch of the first Royal injunctions to organize the "voyage into the unknown." In 1493, Columbus went back to the Monastery to thank Our Lady of Guadalupe for his successful first voyage. On his second, he baptized a newly found Caribbean island as Guadalupe, in honor to the Spanish Virgin. This, together with the fact that many Spanish explorers came from Extremadura, and the utmost popularity of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Castile, are the reason behind the spread of the worship throughout America and her canonical coronation as Queen of Hispanicity.[37][38]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ""hispanidad"". Collins Spanish-English Dictionary.
  2. ^ a b Paloma Aguilar, Carsten Humlebæk, "Collective Memory and National Identity in the Spanish Democracy: The Legacies of Francoism and the Civil War", History & Memory, April 1, 2002, pag. 121–164
  3. ^ a b c d e David MARCILHACY « América como factor de regeneración y cohesión para una España plural: "la Raza" y el 12 de octubre, cimientos de una identidad compuesta », Hispania (Madrid), vol. LXXIII, no. 244 (mayo-ag. 2013), p. 501-524
  5. ^ "Día de la Fiesta Nacional | 12 de octubre | Ministerio de Defensa".
  6. ^ a b, free translation
  7. ^ Thomas, Hugh (11 August 2015). World Without End: Spain, Philip II, and the First Global Empire. Random House. pp. 496 pages. ISBN 0812998111
  8. ^ a b c Molina A. de Cienfuegos, Ignacio; Martínez Bárcena, Jorge; Fuller, Linda K. (Ed.) (2004). "Spain: National Days throughout the History and the Geography of Spain". National Days/National Ways: Historical, Political, and Religious Celebrations Around the World: 253. ISBN 978-0-275-97270-7. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
  9. ^ Congress, The Library of; Administration, National Archives and Records; Humanities, National Endowment for the; Art, National Gallery of; Service, National Park; Institution, US Smithsonian; Museum, US Holocaust Memorial. "National Hispanic American Heritage Month 2021".
  10. ^ "Hispanic History Milestones: Timeline".
  11. ^ "Preparado el operativo especial de Tráfico "El Pilar 2017"".
  12. ^ "Nuestra Senora del Pilar (Our Lady of the Pillar)".
  13. ^ a b Cenarro, Ángela (1997). "La Reina de la Hispanidad: Fascismo y Nacionalcatolicismo en Zaragoza. 1939–1945" (PDF). Revista de historia Jerónimo Zurita. Institución Fernando el Católico. 72: 91–102. ISSN 0044-5517.
  14. ^ a b c David MARCILHACY « Las fiestas del 12 de octubre y las conmemoraciones americanistas bajo la Restauración borbónica: España ante su pasado colonial », Revista de Historia Jerónimo Zurita (Zaragoza), n°86 (2011), p. 131-147
  15. ^, a free translation
  16. ^ ""Día de la Hispanidad"/"Fiesta de la Hispanidad"". (in Spanish). 2004. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  17. ^ a b c Prakke, L.; C. A. J. M. Kortmann; J. C. E. van den Brandhof (2004). Constitutional Law of 15 EU Member States. Kluwer. p. 748. ISBN 90-13-01255-8. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
  18. ^ Heraldo de Aragón, 25-5-1939 y 26-5-1939, a free translation
  19. ^[bare URL PDF]
  20. ^ Encarnación, Omar Guillermo (2008). Spanish Politics: Democracy after Dictatorship. Polity. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-7456-3992-5. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  21. ^ Royal Decree 862/1997, of June 6,
  22. ^ "Desde cuándo el 12 de octubre es Fiesta Nacional y qué se celebra en España". 10 October 2020.
  23. ^ Charles F. Lummis (1936). The Spanish Pioneers. A. C. McClurg & Co.
  24. ^ Gustavo Bueno, "España no es un mito. Claves para una defensa razonada" Temas de Hoy, Madrid 2005, ISBN 84-8460-495-0
  25. ^ "The 12th of October Parade". Turismo Madrid.
  26. ^ "Art and culture in Spain | in english".
  27. ^ "Spain – Daily life and social customs".
  28. ^
  29. ^ "Madrid's Golden Triangle: El Prado, Reina Sofia & Thyssen-Bornemisza". 31 January 2016.
  30. ^[bare URL PDF]
  31. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Latin America and the Caribbean". UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
  32. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – World Heritage List".
  33. ^ El español, una lengua viva. Informe 2020.
  34. ^ (2011-10-12). "At the centre of Marian faith: Spain’s National Holiday and the Feast of the Virgin of Pilar". Custodia Terræ Sanctæ. Retrieved on 25 February 2013.
  35. ^ "Our Lady of the Pillar". 3 December 2008.
  36. ^ "Our Lady of the Pillar :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)". Archived from the original on 18 October 2012.
  37. ^ a b "Our Lady of Guadalupe in Spain". Our Lady in the Old World and New. Medieval Southwest, Texas Tech University.
  38. ^ a b Richard C. Trexler, Religion in Social Context in Europe and America 1200–1700 (Tempe, Arizona: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2002)

External links[edit]