The Fifth Modernization

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The Fifth Modernization
Traditional Chinese 第五個現代化
Simplified Chinese 第五个现代化

"The Fifth Modernization" is an essay by human rights activist Wei Jingsheng, originally begun as a signed wall poster placed on the Democracy Wall in Beijing on December 5, 1978.[1]


The poster called on the Communist Party of China to add democracy to the list of Four Modernizations which includes industry, agriculture, science and technology and national defense.[2] It openly stated democracy as an additional modernization which needs to be taken if China truly wants to modernize itself. The five Modernizations would include:


  1. ^ Brook, Daniel. [2005] (2005). Modern revolution: social change and cultural continuity in Czechoslovakia and China. University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-3193-2, ISBN 978-0-7618-3193-8.
  2. ^ Schell, Orville. Shambaugh, David L. [1999] (1999). The China reader: the reform era. Random House, Inc. ISBN 0-679-76387-2, ISBN 978-0-679-76387-1.

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