Fifth-generation jet fighter
A fifth-generation jet fighter is a jet fighter classification used around the world that encompasses the most advanced jet fighter generation. The exact characteristics of fifth-generation jet fighters are controversial and vague, with Lockheed Martin defining them as having all-aspect stealth even when armed, low probability of intercept radar (LPIR), high-performance airframes, advanced avionics features, and highly integrated computer systems capable of networking with other elements within the battlespace for situation awareness.
Currently, the only combat-ready fifth-generation fighters are the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, which entered service with the United States Air Force in 2005; the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II, which entered service with the United States Marine Corps in 2015; the Lockheed Martin F-35A Lightning II, which entered service with the United States Air Force in 2016; and the Chengdu J-20, which entered service with the People's Liberation Army Air Force in March 2017. The Lockheed Martin F-35C Lightning II, Sukhoi PAK FA, HAL AMCA, TAI TFX, Shenyang J-31, and Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin are currently under various stages of testing and development.
- 1 Development
- 2 Common design elements
- 3 Critics and alternative definitions
- 4 Fifth-generation fighters in service or with flying prototypes
- 5 Related development
- 6 See also
- 7 References
Previous-generation stealth aircraft such as the B-2 Spirit and F-117 Nighthawk were designed to be bombers, lacking the active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars, low probability of intercept (LPI) data networks, aerial performance, and air-to-air weapons necessary to engage other aircraft. In the early 1970s, various American design projects identified stealth, speed, and maneuverability as key characteristics of a next-generation air-to-air combat aircraft. This led to the Request for Information for the Advanced Tactical Fighter project in May 1981, which resulted in the F-22.
The USMC is leveraging the USAF's experience with "fifth-generation air warfare" in the F-22, as they develop their own tactics for the F-35.
According to Lockheed Martin in 2004, the only fifth-generation jet fighter currently in operational service is their own F-22 Raptor. US fighter manufacturer Lockheed Martin uses "fifth generation fighter" to describe the F-22 and F-35 fighters, with the definition including "advanced stealth", "extreme performance", "information fusion" and "advanced sustainment". Their definition no longer includes supercruise capability, which has typically been associated with the more advanced modern fighters, but which the F-35 lacks. Lockheed Martin attempted to trademark the term "5th generation fighters" in association with jet aircraft and structural parts thereof, and has a trademark for a logo with the term.
Russian and Chinese fifth-generation fighters are expected to enter service in 2017, which is also the predicted year that the F-35 program will enter the same stages.
In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union outlined the need for a next-generation aircraft to replace the fourth-generation jet fighters Mikoyan MiG-29 and Sukhoi Su-27 in front line service. Two projects were proposed to meet this need: the 4.5 generation fighters Sukhoi Su-47 and Mikoyan Project 1.44 (although the MiG-35 was later modernized to 4.5 generation status). In 2002, Sukhoi was chosen to lead the design for the new combat aircraft.
As the first post-Soviet fighter, the fifth-generation jet fighter Sukhoi PAK FA will incorporate technology from both the Su-47 and the MiG 1.44 and when fully developed is intended to replace the MiG-29 and Su-27 in the Russian inventory. It serves as the basis of the Sukhoi/HAL FGFA project being developed with India. The PAK FA is designed to compete against the American F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightning II. It performed its first flight on 29 January 2010 and the first production aircraft is slated for delivery to the Russian Air Force by 2017.
By the late 1990s, several Chinese fifth-generation fighter programs, grouped under the program codename J-XX or XXJ, were identified by western intelligence sources. PLAAF officials have confirmed the existence of such a program, which they estimate will enter service between 2017–2019. Nevertheless, Robert Gates has claimed that the United States may possess as much as 20 times more "advanced stealth fighters" than China by 2020. By late 2010, two prototypes of the Chengdu J-20 had been constructed and were undergoing high-speed taxi trials. The J-20 made its first flight on 11 January 2011. On 26 December 2015, a new J-20 with serial number 2101 was seen leaving its Chengdu Aviation Corporation factory. It is believed to be the first of the low rate initial production (LRIP) aircraft. 2101 conducted its maiden flight on 18 January 2016.
Another stealth fighter design from SAC started to circulate on the internet in September 2011. In June 2012, photos about a possible prototype of F-60 being transferred on highway began to emerge on the internet. This aircraft was named Shenyang J-31 later, and made its maiden flight on 31 October 2012.
India is independently developing a twin-engine fifth-generation supermaneuverable stealth multirole fighter, called the HAL Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA). It is being developed and designed by the Aeronautical Development Agency and will be produced by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. DRDO defines AMCA as a fifth-generation-plus platform. Unofficial design work on the AMCA began in 2008, while official work started in 2011 and finished in 2014. The first flight is scheduled to occur in 2023–2024. It is a multirole combat aircraft designed for the air superiority, ground attack, bombing, intercepting, strike and other types of roles. It combines supercruise, stealth, advanced AESA radar, supermaneuverability, and advanced avionics to overcome and suppress previous generation fighter aircraft along with many ground and maritime defences. The AMCA is intended to be the successor to the SEPECAT Jaguar, Dassault Mirage 2000, MiG-23 and MiG-27 Bahadur in the Indian Air Force.
Another project of India is the Sukhoi/HAL Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA), which is a fifth-generation jet fighter being developed together by India and Russia. It is a derivative project of the PAK FA (T-50 is the prototype) being developed for the Russian Air Force. FGFA was the earlier designation for the Indian version, while the combined project is now called the Perspective Multi-Role Fighter (PMF). The completed FGFA will include a total of 43 improvements over the T-50, including stealth, supercruise, advanced sensors, networking and combat avionics. however the project is already four years delayed due to multiple issues. On 9 March 2015, media outlets reported that the both India and Russia agreed to reduce the aircraft delivery time from 92 months to 36 months with the signing of the final agreement. India is also ready to forego a 50:50 work share to prevent further delays from absorption of a new technology; both countries agreed to manufacture the first batch of aircraft in Russia and for subsequent batches to be manufactured by HAL. On 25 January 2016, it was reported that Russia and India have agreed to develop FGFA and lower investment cost to $4 billion for each nation. They will invest $1 billion in the first year and another $500 million per year for the following six years. The Indian Air Force plans to induct 60 FGFA fighters, down from an earlier estimate of around 120.
As of 2016, AMCA is under development and FGFA is under negotiation.
Japan is developing a prototype of a stealth jet fighter called the Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin, previously referred to as the ATD-X. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Japan, seeking to replace its aging fleet of fighter aircraft, began making overtures to the United States on the topic of purchasing several Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor fighters for their own forces. However the U.S. Congress had banned the exporting of the aircraft in order to safeguard secrets of the aircraft's technology such as its extensive use of stealth; this rejection necessitated Japan's development of its own modern fighter, to be equipped with stealth features and other advanced systems.
A mock-up of the X-2 Shinshin was constructed and used to study the radar cross section in France in 2009. The first prototype rolled out in July 2014 and the aircraft made its first flight on 22 April 2016. The Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin will enter service in JASDF in 2024 as Mitsubishi F-3.
In 2011 Turkish Aerospace Industries initiated a $20 million concept design phase for a fifth-generation air-to-air fighter, TAI TFX. During a State visit of the President of Turkey to Sweden on 13 March 2013, Türk Havacılık ve Uzay Sanayii AŞ (Turkish Aerospace Industries, TAI) signed an agreement with Sweden's Saab AB to provide design support services to Turkey for the TAI TFX program. Turkish Aerospace Industries has stated that the program will cost $120 billion (with engine development). Former Prime Minister Erdoğan has stated that Turkey has allocated the funds for development of the fuselage (less engine) and that it intends to have the TAI TFX fully operational prior to 2025.
On 8 January 2015, Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu announced that the TFX program will be an entirely indigenous platform with no international support shelving any cooperation with Korea, Sweden, Brazil or Indonesia. On 13 March 2015 the Turkish Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (SSM) officially issued a Request for Information from Turkish companies which had the capacity "to perform the indigenous design, development and production activities of the first Turkish Fighter Aircraft to meet Turkish Armed Forces’ next generation fighter requirements", signalling the official start of the program.
Common design elements
Giovanni de Briganti has defined the defining elements of a fifth-generation fighter to be:
- High maneuverability – which tends to include short-field capabilities.
- Advanced avionics
- Networked data fusion from sensors and avionics
- Multirole capabilities
In order to minimize their radar cross-section (RCS), all fifth-generation fighters use chines instead of standard leading edge extensions and lack canards, though the Sukhoi PAK FA T-50 has engine intake extensions that seem to function somewhat like canards and the Chengdu J-20 designers have chosen the agility enhancements of canards in spite of their poor stealth characteristics. They all have twin canted vertical tails (similar to a V-tail) also to minimize side RCS. Most fifth-generation fighters with supermaneuverability achieve it through thrust vectoring.
They all have internal weapon bays in order to avoid high RCS weapon pylons, but they all have external hardpoints on their wings for use on non-stealthy missions, such as the external fuel tanks the F-22 carries when deploying to a new theater.
All fifth-generation fighters have a high percentage of composite materials, in order to reduce RCS and weight.
Software defined aircraft
All revealed fifth-generation fighters use commercial off-the-shelf main processors to directly control all sensors to form a consolidated view of the battlespace with both onboard and networked sensors, while previous-generation jet fighters used federated systems where each sensor or pod would present its own readings for the pilot to combine in their own mind a view of the battlespace. The F-22A was physically delivered without synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or situation awareness infra-red search and track. It will gain SAR later through software upgrades. However any flaw in these huge software systems can knock out supposedly unrelated aircraft systems and the complexity of a software defined aircraft can lead to a software crisis with additional costs and delays. By the end of 2013 the biggest concern with the F-35 program was software, especially the software required to do data fusion across the many sensors.
Sukhoi calls their expert system for sensor fusion the artificial intelligence of the PAK-FA. Flight tests of their integrated modular avionics started in 2017 on a fiber optic networked multicore processor system.
An automatic software response to an overheat condition apparently has contributed to at least one fatal crash of an F-22.
The F-35 uses Software-defined radio systems, where common middleware controls Field-programmable gate arrays. Col. Arthur Tomassetti has said that the F-35 is a "software intensive airplane and software is easy to upgrade, as opposed to hardware."
Steve O'Bryan of Lockheed Martin has said that the F-35 may gain the ability to operate UAVs through a future software upgrade. The USN is already planning to place its Unmanned Carrier-Launched Airborne Surveillance and Strike system under the control of a manned aircraft, to act as a flying missile magazine.
Fifth-generation jet fighters use the newest generation of high performance jet engines and only the American Pratt & Whitney F119 is fully developed. The engines for the F-35 are still under development, the Chinese are dependent on Russian engines, and even the Russians are falling short in the development of the latest jet engines.
The combination of stealthy airframes, stealthy sensors, and stealthy communications is designed to allow fifth-generation fighters to engage other aircraft before those targets are aware of their presence. Lt. Col. Gene McFalls of the USAF has said that sensor fusion will feed into inventory databases to precisely identify aircraft at a distance.
Sensor fusion and automatic target tracking are projected to give the fifth-generation jet fighter pilot a view of the battlespace superior to that of legacy AWACS aircraft that may be forced back from the front lines by increasing threats. Therefore, tactical control could be shifted forwards to the pilots in the fighters. Michael Wynne, former Secretary of the United States Air Force, has suggested elimination of the Boeing E-3 Sentry and Boeing E-8 Joint STARS in favor of more F-35s, simply because so much effort is being made by the Russians and Chinese to target these platforms that are built to commercial airliner standards.
However, the more powerful sensors, such as AESA radar which is able to operate in multiple modes at the same time, may present too much information for the single pilot in the F-22, F-35 and T-50 to adequately use. The Sukhoi/HAL FGFA offered a return to the two-seat configuration common in fourth generation strike fighters, but this was rejected over cost concerns.
There is ongoing research to apply Track-before-detect across Sensor fusion in the core CPU to allow fifth-generation fighters to engage targets that no single sensor has by itself detected. Probability theory is used to determine "what data to believe, when to believe and how much to believe".
These sensors produce too much data for the onboard computers to fully process so sensor fusion is achieved by comparing what is observed against preloaded threat libraries that contain known enemy capabilities for a given region. Items that do not match known threats are not even displayed.
The limits of stealth
Even committed fifth-generation fighter users such as the Israelis concede that advances in sensors and computing will overcome a pure stealth configuration within a decade. This is why the Israelis insisted that the F-35 have defined interfaces so that the electronic warfare systems could be constantly improved to match the threat. All known fifth-generation designs have extensive electronic warfare systems, partly in response to an incident where the limited EW systems on an F-117 may have led to its loss in combat. Stealth is now seen as "part of the overall electronic warfare issue", in that a stealthy platform is easier to hide with the assistance of jamming.
Chinese state media has claimed that their UHF JY-26 radar has tracked an F-22 on deployment to South Korea.
The combat cloud
Gilmary M. Hostage III has suggested that fifth-generation jet fighters will operate together in a "combat cloud" along with future unmanned combat aircraft, and Manazir has suggested that this might come as quickly as loading a UCLASS with AMRAAMs to be launched at the command of an F-35.
Critics and alternative definitions
The definition of the term fifth-generation fighter from Lockheed Martin has been criticized by companies whose products do not conform to these particular specifications, such as Boeing and Eurofighter, and by other commentators such as Bill Sweetman: "it is misleading to portray the F-22 and F-35 as a linear evolution in fighter design. Rather, they are a closely related pair of outliers, relying on a higher level of stealth as a key element of survivability – as the Lockheed YF-12 and Mikoyan MIG-25, in the 1960s, relied on speed and altitude."
The United States Navy and Boeing have placed the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in a "next generation" fighter category along with the F-22 and F-35, as the Super Hornet has a "fifth-generation" AESA radar, modest radar cross-section (RCS) reductions and sensor fusion. A senior USAF pilot has complained about fifth-generation claims for the Super Hornet: "The whole point to fifth generation is the synergy of stealth, fusion and complete situational awareness. The point about fifth-generation aircraft is that they can do their mission anywhere – even in sophisticated integrated air defense [IADS] environments. If you fly into heavy IADS with a great radar and sensor fusion, but no stealth, you will have complete situational awareness of the guy that kills you." Michael “Ponch” Garcia of Raytheon has said that the addition of their AESA radars to the Super Hornet provides "90 percent of your fifth-generation capability at half the cost." And a top Boeing official has called their newest 4.5 generation fighters "stealth killers".
In response to the use of the "fifth generation" term, Eurofighter has made a fifth-generation checklist placing different weights on the various capabilities, and arguing that the application of the label to strike aircraft such as Lockheed-Martin's F-35 is ill-advised, and even inconsistent with the aircraft's specifications. Meanwhile, Eurofighter adds "net-enabled operations" as a noteworthy requirement and de-emphasizes full-scope low observability as only one factor in survivability. In the same article Eurofighter GmbH appear to acknowledge the remarkable performance of Lockheed Martin's F-22 aircraft, while demonstrating that labels as simple as "fifth generation" may easily be devised to serve the interests of the writer.
Richard A. Bitzinger of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, a former consultant for the American RAND Corporation think tank, suggests that Western Europe's "failure" to develop a fifth-generation jet fighter may reduce these former leaders in the market to also-ran status as the world's attention shifts to the competition between the United States and Asian powers. Canadians Alex Wilner and Marco Wyss of the Center for Security Studies claim that Europe's failure to "keep up" with the F-35 may make the European jet fighter manufacturers close up shop. However, Europe may return with a trans-national 'sixth-generation' UCAV, assuming that the political entanglements can be evaded. The European Defence Agency has warned that the European $60 billion industry could collapse by 2020.
The Russian Defense Ministry defines fifth-generation as including "stealth technology, supersonic cruising speed, highly-integrated avionics, electronics and fire-control systems".
Fifth-generation fighters in service or with flying prototypes
|F-22||USA||1997||195||in service||2005||150 M||18.87||13.56||78.04||19,700 kg||29,410 kg||38,000 kg||CTOL|
|F-35A||USA||2006||90||in service||2016||105 M (LRIP lot 5)||15.67||10.70||42.70||13,300 kg||22,470 kg||31,800 kg||CTOL|
|F-35B||USA||2008||40||in service||2015||113 M (LRIP lot 5)||15.61||10.70||42.70||14,700 kg||27,300 kg||STOVL|
|F-35C||USA||2010||20||testing||2018||125 M (LRIP lot 5)||15.67||13.10||62.10||15,800 kg||31,800 kg||CATOBAR|
|Sukhoi PAK FA||Russia||2010||8||testing||2018||54 M||19.80||14.00||78.80||18,500 kg||29,270 kg||37,000 kg||CTOL|
|J-20||China||2011||9||in service (LRIP)||2017||110 M||20.36||13.47||73.00||19,390 kg||32,090 kg||36,288 kg||CTOL|
|F-22||USA||Classified||1,963||2,960||20,000||2||232 kN||312 kN||1.08||2D|| 0.0001-0.4|
|F-35A||USA||1,930||1,362||2,220||18,288||1||125 kN||191 kN||0.87||none|| 0.005–0.3|
|F-35B||USA||1,930||1,362||1,670||18,288||1||125 kN||191 kN||0.90||STOVL||0.005–0.3|
|F-35C||USA||1,930||1,362||2,520||18,288||1||125 kN||191 kN||0.75||none||0.005–0.3|
|Sukhoi PAK FA||Russia||2,440||1,700||3,500||20,000||2||186 kN||294 kN||1.02||3D|| 0.3–0.5|
|J-20||China||20,000||2||162 kN||245 kN||0.94|
Armament and Avionics
range 1 m² target
|F-22||USA||8||4||Yes||-||-||240 km||Missile warning|
|F-35A||USA||4||7 ||Yes||-||-||150 km||Full|
|Sukhoi PAK FA||Russia||6||6||Yes||Yes||Yes||Forward arc|
|J-20||China||6 or 8||4||Yes||Full|
|FC-31||China||4 or 6||6|
5G Design and Development
Proposed 5G fighters
- "F-35 Lightning II: Defining the Future" (PDF). Lockheed Martin. 2012.
- "5th Generation Fighters". Lockheed Martin. Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
- Cohen, Ariel (14 January 2009). "Russia trails U.S. in pursuit of a fifth-generation jet". United Press International.
- Laird, Robbin F. (March 2009). "A 21st-century Concept of Air and Military Operations" (PDF). Defense Horizons. National Defense University (66). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2009.
- Mehta, Aaron (31 July 2015). "Marines Declare F-35B Operational". Defense News. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Insinna, Valerie (2 August 2016). "Air Force Declares F-35A Ready for Combat". DefenseNews. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "编号78272：第二架五位数编号歼-20曝光 部署沧州". news.ifeng.com. 2016-12-12.
- Sweetman, Bill (2004). Ultimate Fighter: Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. Zenith. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7603-1792-1.
- Hehs, Eric (15 May 1998). "F-22 Raptor Design Evolution, Part I". Code One. Lockheed Martin.
- Majumdar, Dave (20 July 2012). "USMC hopes to leverage USAF's F-22 experience when deploying F-35B". FlightGlobal.
- Yoon, Joe (27 June 2004). "Fighter Generations". Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- "Contact: JSF FAQ". JSF.mil. The Pentagon.
No, neither the F135 or F136 engines were designed to supercruise.
- "Trademark serial number 78885922: Fifth-generation fighters". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
- "Trademark serial number 78896843: Fifth-generation fighters wordmark". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
- Majumdar, Dave (24 May 2011). "China, Russia Erode U.S. Stealth Technology Lead". Defense News. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012.
- Unnithan, Sandeep (29 September 2008). "India, Russia to have different versions of same fighter plane". India Today.
- Cohen, Ariel (16 January 2009). "Russia bets on new Sukhoi fighter to match F-35". United Press International.
- "Российский истребитель пятого поколения поднялся в воздух" [Russian fifth generation fighter plane has risen in air]. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 29 January 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- "Russia to test fifth-generation fighter in 2009". Sputnik. RIA Novosti. 6 December 2007.
- Gady, Franz-Stefan (17 June 2015). "Russia to Receive New Fifth-Generation Fighter by 2017". The Diplomat. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "Liogkiy Mnogofunktsionalniy Frontovoi Samolyet (LMFS)" [Light Multi-Function Frontal Aircraft]. GlobalSecurity.org.
- "中国空军副司令首曝：国产第四代战机即将首飞" [Chinese Air Force deputy commander on first exposure: Domestic upcoming fourth-generation fighter first flight]. Phoenix Television News (in Chinese). 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 12 November 2009.
- [面对面]何为荣：剑啸长空 [[Face to face] He Weirong: Swordsman of the sky] (in Chinese). CCTV. 8 November 2011. Archived from the original on 26 January 2010.
- Gates, Robert M. (8 May 2010). "Remarks as Delivered by Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates, Abilene, KS". Defense.gov. U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010.
- Sweetman, Bill (27 December 2010). "China's Stealth Striker". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012.
- "China conducts first test-flight of stealth plane". BBC News. 11 January 2011.
- Lin, Jeffrey; Singer, P. W. (28 December 2015). "Chinese Stealth Fighter J-20 Starts Production". Popular Science. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- Lin, Jeffrey; Singer, P. W. (3 February 2016). "China Stays Ahead in Asian Stealth Race". Popular Science. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- Trimble, Stephen (29 September 2011). "Shenyang "F-60", UCAV stealth models revealed?". Flightglobal.com. The DEW Line. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011.
- Cenciotti, David (22 June 2012). "New Chinese fighter revealed?". The Aviationist.
- "中国第二款隐形战机成功首飞" [China's second stealth fighter article successful maiden flight]. CJDBY.net (in Chinese). 31 October 2012.
- "New Design For India's Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft". Aviation Week. 11 February 2013.
- "DRDO To Complete Feasibility Study For Indian Stealth Fighter Project". Defense News. 11 March 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013.
- "Scientists face uphill task developing India's first 5th generation fighter". Bangalore Mirror. 12 February 2015.
- Pandit, Rajat (8 January 2015). "Make-in-India: Plan to develop 5th-generation fighter aircraft". Times of India. Times News Network.
- "AMCA: India's own fifth generation fighter aircraft". Indian Defense News. 10 January 2015.
- "Jaguar: Decade of the Shamsher". Air International. 35 (4): 177–181. October 1988.
- "AMCA will replace Jaguars, Mig-29, and Mirage-2000: IAF chief Arup Raha". India Defence Research Wing. 4 October 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
- Menon, Jay (21 August 2012). "India And Russia To Ink R&D Phase Of T-50 Program". Aerospace Daily & Defense Report.
- Mathews, Neelam (25 May 2012). "India's Version of Sukhoi T-50 Delayed by Two Years". Aviation International News.
- Dsouza, Larkins (27 October 2008). "Sukhoi/HAL FGFA an Indian Stealth Fighter". Defence Aviation. Retrieved 28 October 2008.
- Bedi, Rahul (22 January 2015). "India, Russia agree to fast-track FGFA programme". Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 26 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "On Putin visit eve, India, Russia to hold talks on delayed FGFA aircraft project". Zee News. Press Trust of India. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Pandit, Rajat (9 March 2015). "Rafale deadlock gives thrust to Russian 5th-gen jet project". Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "India Eyes Russian FGFA As MMRCA Deal Delays". DefenseWorld.net. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "India to invest $25 billion in fifth-generation fighter joint project with Russia — media". Russian News Agency TASS. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Moscow and Delhi to invest $8 billion in 5th generation fighters". RT. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "IAF to go for Smaller fleet of FGFA to keep them Lethal". Indian Defence Research Wing. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Bhat, Aditya (10 February 2016). "India, Russia restart talks on FGFA project, production of Kamov helicopters in India". International Business Times, India Edition. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Dsouza, Larkins (11 January 2008). "Mitsubishi ATD-X ShinShin a Japanese Stealth Fighter". Defence Aviation. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- Bekdıl, Burak (20 March 2013). "Yerli uçak için çok önemli adım" [A very important step for the domestic aircraft]. Hürriyet Daily News (in Turkish).
- Bekdıl, Burak (20 March 2013). "Bets open on Turkey's first fighter aircraft". Hürriyet Daily News.
- "Türkiye, SAAB ile masaya oturdu" [Turkey sat at the table with SAAB]. Dünya (in Turkish). 7 February 2013.
- "Turkey to replace F-16s with local jets". Hürriyet Daily News. 29 March 2013.
- "Yerli savaş uçağı projesi hazır, maliyet 80 milyar dolar" [Indigenous fighter aircraft project is ready, cost $80 billion]. Star (in Turkish). 1 September 2013.
- de Briganti, Giovanni (9 May 2012). "F-35 Reality Check Ten Years On – Part 1: 'Fifth-Generation' and Other Myths". Defense-aerospace.com.
- Neblett, Evan; Metheny, Mike; Liefsson, Leifur Thor (17 March 2003). "Canards" (PDF). AOE 4124 Configuration Aerodynamics. Virginia Tech.
- McHale, John (1 May 2010). "F-35 avionics: an interview with the Joint Strike Fighter's director of mission systems and software". Military & Aerospace Electronics. 21 (5).
- Sherman, Ron (1 April 2006). "F-35 Electronic Warfare Suite: More Than Self-Protection". Avionics. Aviation Today.
- Aronstein, David C.; Hirschberg, Michael J.; Piccirillo, Albert C. (1998). Advanced Tactical Fighter to F-22 Raptor: Origins of the 21st Century Air Dominance Fighter. AIAA. p. 171. ISBN 1-56347-282-1.
- McHale, John (1 February 2010). "F-35 Joint Strike Fighter leverages COTS for avionics systems". Military & Aviation Electronics. 21 (2).
- Johnson, Dani (19 February 2007). "Raptors arrive at Kadena". Air Force Link. U.S. Air Force. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- Drew, Christopher (1 November 2010). "Additional Costs Expected for Lockheed's F-35 Fighter". The New York Times.
- Shalal-Esa, Andrea (4 December 2013). "Pentagon focused on weapons, data fusion as F-35 nears combat use". Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Weir, Fred (29 January 2010). "Russia flexes military power with 'futuristic' fighter jet". The Christian Science Monitor.
- "Russia Starts Flight Tests Of Next-Gen Integrated Avionics Suite Of PAK-FA Fighter Jet". www.defenseworld.net. Digitalwriters Media Pvt. Ltd. 20 April 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Hennigan, W. J. (19 December 2011). "Fatal problems plague the U.S.' costliest fighter jet". Los Angeles Times.
- Flowers, Chelsea (11 July 2012). "An Inside Look at the F-35 Lightning II". U.S. Department of Defense.
- Bellamy, Woodrow, III (11 April 2014). "Wind River Powers F-35 Communications in Flight Test". Avionics. Aviation Today. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- Wells, Jane (13 May 2014). "The US jet fighter that can do it all—maybe". CNBC. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Majumdar, Dave (13 February 2014). "Navy's UCLASS Could Be Air to Air Fighter". USNI News. U.S. Naval Institute.
- Waldron, Greg (26 August 2011). "China's J-20 to be effective capability by 2018 – Pentagon". FlightGlobal.
- Pukhov, Ruslan (1 September 2011). "The Military's Achilles Heel". The Moscow Times.
- Thomas, Geoffrey (28 April 2014). "Stealth jet 'in class of its own'". The West Australian. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Mehta, Aaron (13 October 2014). "The Difference Between 4th and 5th Gen EW". Defense News. Intercepts. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Shaping a New Con-ops: The Impact of the F-22 and F-35". Second Line of Defense. 5 November 2010.
- Clark, Colin (31 January 2011). "Scrap AWACS, JSTARS; Plough Dough Into F-35, Wynne Says". DoD Buzz. Military.com.
- Sweetman, Bill (30 November 2010). "Rivals Target JSF". Aviation Week. Defense Technology International. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010.
- "EO/IR Multi-Sensor Fusion Tracker Algorithm". Navy SBIR. 2011.
- "Elite Engineering: The Brain of the F-35". F35.com. Lockheed Martin. 14 April 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Clark, Colin (11 March 2015). "Threat Data Biggest Worry For F-35A's IOC; But It 'Will Be On Time'". BreakingDefense.com. Breaking Media. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Freedberg, Jr., Sydney J. (7 November 2016). "F-22, F-35 Outsmart Test Ranges, AWACS". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Eshel, David; Fulghum, David (6 August 2012). "Israel, U.S. Agree To $450 Million In F-35 EW Work". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Pitts, Joseph R. (June 2000). "Electronic-Warfare Assets Badly Neglected". National Defense. National Defense Industrial Association.
- Tirpak, John A. (June 2001). "Two Decades of Stealth". Air Force Magazine. 84 (6).
- Minnick, Wendell (22 November 2014). "China's Anti-Stealth Radar Comes to Fruition". DefenseNews.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Laird, Robbin (10 January 2013). "Why Air Force Needs Lots Of F-35s: Gen. Hostage On The 'Combat Cloud'". Breaking Defense.
- Majumdar, Dave; LaGrone, Sam (23 December 2013). "Navy: UCLASS Will be Stealthy and 'Tomcat Size'". USNI News. U.S. Naval Institute. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Eurofighter, 5th Generation; the Debate Heats up". DefenceTalk.com. 20 July 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Sweetman, Bill (December 2009). "Editorial Insight". Defense Technology International: 50.
- Joshi, Saurabh (16 June 2010). "F/A-18 as good as 5th gen: US Navy". StratPost.
- Ferguson, Gregor (23 October 2010). "'Bridging fighter' packs quite a punch". The Australian. National Affairs.
- "F/A18-E/F Super Hornet .... Leading Naval Aviation into the 21st Century". U.S. Navy. 17 August 2009.
- Fulghum, David A. (12 March 2007). "Super Hornet radar not ready for combat, evaluation says". Aerospace Daily & Defense Report. Aviation Week. Retrieved 9 June 2015. (subscription required (. ))
- Erwin, Sandra (24 November 2010). "Joint Strike Fighter Delayed? Not a Big Deal for the U.S. Navy". National Defense. National Defense Industrial Association.
- Ewing, Philip (3 January 2012). "Boeing's iron Eagles, part 2". DoD Buzz. Military.com.
- "What is a 5th Generation Fighter" (PDF). Eurofighter World: 16–17. June 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2010.
- Bitzinger, Richard A. (20 April 2011). "Global Fighter Jets: Asia, The New Centre Of Gravity?". Eurasia News. S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.
- Wilner, Alex; Wyss, Marco (16 May 2011). "Ignore the critics. There is no plane that can compete with the F-35". National Post.
- "A hard pounding, this". The Economist. 2 March 2013.
- Kington, Tom (17 June 2013). "Lack of European Consensus on Future Fighters, UAVs Hurts Industry". Defense News. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015.
- "Russia Must Build Two Variants of 5G Fighter - Rogozin". Sputnik. RIA Novosti. 16 February 2012.
- Mehta, Aaron (31 May 2013). "Pentagon: First F-35s Operational in 2015". Defense News. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013.
- Butler, Amy (30 July 2013). "F-35 Deal Targets Unit Cost Below $100 Million". Aviation Week. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Current Outlook Is Improved, but Long-Term Affordability Is a Major Concern" (PDF). United States Government Accountability Office. March 2013. GAO-13-309.
- "Russia to Start Advanced PAK FA Fighters Production on Schedule in 2017". Sputnik. 10 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Axe, David (31 January 2011). "At What Cost Stealth?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "От истребителя к ракетоносцу" [From fighter to missile]. Voice of Russia (in Russian). 1 March 2010.
The share of modern aircraft models in the Russian Air Force in the next 10 years should be 80%.
- "Radar Cross Section (RCS)". GlobalSecurity.org.
- Lagarkov, Andrey Nikolaevich; Pogosyan, Mikhail Aslanovich (2003). "Фундаментальные и прикладные проблемы: стелс технологии" [Fundamental and applied problems: Stealth technology]. Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences (in Russian). 73 (9): 848. Archived from the original on 28 January 2004.
- Litovkin, Dmitry (29 June 2013). "T-50 fighter to be ready in 2013". Russia & India Report.
- Sweetman, Bill (31 March 2010). "F-35 vs. F-16 Range – The Ghastly Truth". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 31 March 2010.
- Majumdar, Dave (April 6, 2017). "MiG-41: Russia Wants to Build a Super 6th Generation Fighter". The National Interest. The Buzz. Retrieved April 20, 2017.