Figure skating jumps
Figure skating jumps are an element of three competitive figure skating disciplines — men's singles, ladies' singles, and pair skating but not ice dancing. Different jumps are identified by the take-off edge and the number of revolutions completed. There are six kinds of jumps currently counted as jump elements in ISU regulations. Three are edge jumps — the Salchow, loop, and Axel — and three are toe jumps which use the toe picks on the front of the blade — the toe loop, flip, and Lutz. The Axel is the most difficult due to an extra half rotation.
Each jump receives a score according to its base value and grade of execution (GOE). The GOE ranges from +3 to −3 and is weighted according to the jump's base value. Quality of execution, technique, height, speed, flow and ice coverage are considered by the judges. An under-rotated jump (indicated by < ) is "missing rotation of more than ¼, but less than ½ revolution" and receives 70% of the base value. A downgraded jump (indicated by <<) is "missing rotation of ½ revolution or more". A triple which is downgraded is treated as a double, while a downgraded double is treated as a single jump. The ISU defines a fall as a loss of control with the result that the majority of the skater's body weight is not on the blade but supported by hands, knees, or buttocks.
An edge violation occurs when a skater executes a jump on the incorrect edge. The hollow is a groove on the bottom of the blade which creates two distinct edges, inside and outside. The inside edge of the blade is closest to the center of the body, on the arch-side of the foot. The outside edge is on the outer edge of the foot. A flat refers to skating on both edges at the same time, which is discouraged. An unclear edge or edge violation is indicated with an 'e' and reflected in the GOE according to the severity of the problem. Flutz and lip are the colloquial terms for a Lutz and a flip jump with an edge violation, respectively.
In 1982, the International Skating Union enacted a rule stating that a skater may perform each type of triple only once, or twice if one of them is incorporated into a combination or sequence. For a set of jumps to be considered a combination, each jump must take off from the landing edge of the previous jump, with no steps, turns, or change of edge in between jumps. Toe loops and loops are commonly performed as the second or third jump in a combination because they take off from the right back outside edge. To perform a Salchow or flip on the back end of a combination, a half loop (which is actually a full rotation, but lands on a left back inside edge) may be used as a connecting jump. In contrast, jump sequences are sets of jumps which may be linked by non-listed jumps or hops. Sequences are worth 80% of what the same jumps executed in combination would be worth.
Jumps may be rotated in clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. Most skaters are counter-clockwise jumpers.
Scale of values
Each jump has a base value, which is adjusted if the jump is under-rotated (<), and a grade of execution (GoE) from +3 to −3, weighted according to the base value.
The current scale of values is:
|BV if <||GOE +3||GOE +2||GOE +1||GOE −1||GOE −2||GOE −3|
Jumps may be performed with either clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation. The vast majority of skaters rotate all their jumps and spins in the same direction; counter-clockwise jumping is more common than clockwise. All jumps are landed on a back outside edge (except stylized variations on some jumps like the half loop or one-foot Axel). The type and amount of steps before a jump do not affect the jump's definition, but certain jumps have common and recognizable set-ups that help the skater do the element correctly and that also help spectators in identifying the jumps.
Jumps are classified as either edge jumps or toe jumps. An edge jump takes off directly from the edge without assist from the other foot; while in a toe jump, the skater spikes the toe picks of the free foot into the ice at the same time he or she jumps off the edge of the skating foot, providing a kind of pole-vaulting action to convert the skater's horizontal speed over the ice into a vertical leap.
Most jumps have a natural rotation; that is, the approach and landing curves both have the same rotational sense as the jump in the air. A few jumps, notably including the Lutz and Walley, are counter-rotated, with the approach edge having an opposite rotational sense to the rotation in the air and landing curve.
In the modern jumping technique first developed by Gus Lussi and his pupil Dick Button, skaters are taught to jump up first, and then assume a back spin position in the air to complete the rotation. For a jump with counterclockwise rotation, the left leg should be crossed in front of the right at the ankles, with the feet together, the arms pulled into the chest and the head turned to look over the left shoulder. If the legs are crossed above the knee, it is referred to as a wrap, and is considered poor technique, not only because it looks unattractive but because it interferes with the jump's mechanics. For multi-rotational jumps, it is important that the skater assume a "tight" position in the air by holding the arms close to the body, to concentrate their body mass around the axis of rotation and minimize the rotational moment of inertia.
Jumps may also be performed with variations in the arm positions in the air to add difficulty. These variations include one or both arms overhead, both hands on the hips, or arms folded in front of the chest. The variation with one arm overhead is often called a Tano position, after Brian Boitano, who performed a triple Lutz in this position as one of his signature moves.
When landing a jump, skaters uncross the free leg from in front of the landing leg and swing it to the rear. Extending the arms and free leg checks the rotation and allows the skater to flow out of the jump on a strong edge. Ideally, a skater should exit the jump with just as much speed as on the entrance.
A jump that is cheated is one in which the skater either begins or completes the rotation of a jump on the ice instead of in the air. While this error is often not obvious to casual observers, under the ISU Judging System, cheated jumps are heavily penalized, in many cases as much as or more than a fall on a fully rotated jump.
Jumps are referred to by how many times the skater turns in the air. One revolution (one and a half for the Axel) is a "single" jump. Two revolutions (two and a half for the Axel) is a "double" jump. Three revolutions (three and a half for the Axel) is a "triple" jump. Four revolutions (four and a half for the Axel, although this has never been landed in competition) is a "quadruple" or "quad" jump. The first triple jump landed in competition was a loop jump. It was landed by Dick Button in 1952. The first quadruple jump landed in competition was a toe loop jump. It was landed by Kurt Browning in 1988. Currently, men in world-class competition usually attempt a full set of triples and sometimes one or two quadruple jumps in their free skating programs. Triple Axels are rare for ladies, and quadruple jump attempts even more so.
Recalling jumping technique in the 1980s, Orser said, "We'd swing that free leg through, whether it was an Axel or a Salchow or even a toe loop. You'd bring that free leg and you'd climb like you were climbing a stair." More recent skaters tend to keep their feet closer together and to begin rotating sooner.
The following are the six most common figure skating jumps in order from the least to the most difficult, as dictated by increasing point values under the ISU Judging system. All take off from a backwards entrance except the Axel:
- The toe loop jump is a toe jump that takes off from a back outside edge and lands on the same back outside edge (in other words, a toe-pick assisted loop jump, although the mechanics of the two jumps are very different). This is sometimes known in Europe as a cherry flip. Toe loops can be done immediately after other jumps in combinations. As solo jumps, they are most commonly entered from a three turn.
- The Salchow jump (pronounced "sal-kow"), named after its originator Ulrich Salchow, is an edge jump. It takes off from a back inside edge and lands on the back outside edge of the opposite foot. Salchows are most often preceded by a forward outside 3 turn, but a mohawk entrance is not unusual.
- The loop jump is another edge jump, launched from the back outside edge and landing on the same back outside edge. It is also known in Europe as the Rittberger after its inventor, Werner Rittberger. Loops can be done immediately after other jumps in combinations.
- The flip jump is a toe jump that takes off from a back inside edge and lands on the back outside edge of the opposite foot. A flip is usually preceded by a forward outside 3 turn or forward inside mohawk.
- The Lutz jump, named after its originator Alois Lutz, is a toe jump that takes off from a back outside edge and lands on the back outside edge of the opposite foot. The Lutz is a counter-rotated jump, meaning that the takeoff edge travels in a rotational direction opposite to which the skater rotates in the air and lands. Lutzes can often be identified by the long, backward diagonal glide preparation, though this is not necessary to do a Lutz.
- The Axel jump, named after its originator Axel Paulsen, is an edge jump launched on the forward outside edge and landed on the back outside edge of the opposite foot. Because it has a forward takeoff but lands backwards, an Axel actually has half an extra rotation (i.e. a single Axel is 1.5 revolutions, a double is 2.5 revolutions, a triple is 3.5 revolutions, etc.).
B = Backward; F = Forward; I = Inside; O = Outside; E = Edge
|Toe loop||T||Toe||BOE||Same BOE|
There are also a number of other jumps which are usually performed only as single jumps and in elite skating are used as transitional movements or highlights in step sequences. With the exception of the half loop, none of these jumps have assigned point values under the ISU Judging System. These include:
- Bunny hop jump, a non-rotational jump that is typically the first jump learned by beginning skaters.
- Waltz jump, a one-half rotation jump that forms the basis for the Axel jump.
- Ballet jump, a one-half rotation jump with a toe loop entrance.
- Mazurka, a one-half rotation jump with a toe loop entrance and scissor leg action in the air.
- Half flip, a one-half rotation jump with a flip entry and forward toe-pick assisted landing.
- Half Lutz, a one-half rotation jump with a Lutz entry and forward toe-pick assisted landing.
- Falling leaf, a one-half rotation jump with a loop entry and forward toe-pick assisted landing.
- Split jump, with either a flip, Lutz, or loop entry and split or straddle position in the air.
- Stag jump, a variation on the split jump.
- Walley jump, a full-rotation edge jump with a counter-rotated entry from a back inside edge to the back outside edge of the same foot.
- Toe Walley, a variation on the toe loop with an inside edge takeoff.
- Half loop (also known as a "Euler" or "Thoren"), a full-rotation jump with a loop entry but landed on the back inside edge of the opposite foot. When performed in the middle of a combination, a half loop is worth the same as a single loop under the ISU Judging System.
- Half Axel (also known as a "Bell jump"), a one-rotation jump with an Axel entry and a forward landing.
- Delayed Axel, an Axel jump in which the skater delays the rotation in the air.
- Open Axel, an Axel jump in which the skater maintains an open body position in the air instead of pulling in to a back spin position.
- Tuck Axel, an Axel jump in which the skater lifts both knees into a tuck position at the height of the jump.
- Inside Axel (also known as a "Böckl" or "Boeckl"), a one-and-a-half-rotation jump that takes off from the right forward inside edge and lands on the back outside edge of the same foot.
- One-foot Axel (also known as a "Colledge"), a one-and-a-half-rotation jump with a regular Axel takeoff from the left forward outside edge, but landing on the left back inside edge.
- One-foot Salchow, a variation on the Salchow with a landing on a back inside edge.
- One-foot Lutz, a variation on the Lutz with a landing on a back inside edge.
- Toeless Lutz, a counter-rotated edge jump with a takeoff from the back outside edge of the left foot and landing on the back outside edge of the other foot.
- One-and-a-half flip, with a flip entry and forward landing.
- One-and-a-half toe loop, with a toe loop entry and forward landing.
- A flutz is a flawed Lutz jump, that takes off from an inside edge (like a flip jump) instead of the intended outside edge.
- A lip is a flawed flip jump, that takes off from an outside edge (like a Lutz jump) instead of the intended inside edge.
- A toe Axel is a flawed double toe loop jump, in which the skater pre-rotates the jump and takes off by stepping forward onto the toe pick.
- A waxel is a failed Axel attempt, in which the skater slips off the takeoff edge, often resulting in a fall.
Combinations are defined as two or more jumps in which the take-off edge of the second (or third) jump is the same as the landing edge of the first jump. The most common jumps on the back end of a combination are the toe loop and loop because they take off from a back outside edge. Loops are more likely to be judged as under-rotated or downgraded. To execute combinations ending with Salchows or flips, a half loop, which lands on a backward inside edge, is employed as a connecting jump.
In theory, jumps with a counter-rotated entry, such as the Lutz and Walley, can be used as the second jump of combination when preceded by a jump with the opposite rotational sense, such as a combination of a clockwise Walley and counter-clockwise Lutz. In practice, this is rarely attempted because most skaters only train jumps in one direction.
In international competition, a combination of two jumps is a required element for single skaters in the short program. The ISU Judging System restricts combinations in the free skate to a maximum of three jumps.
Jumps that are not directly linked from landing to take-off edge are considered sequences. Sequences often include "decorative" jumps like mazurkas or stag jumps. Long sequences of single and double jumps used to be common in figure skating through the 1980s, but became more rare as skaters instead packed their programs with triple and quadruple jumps. Under the ISU Judging System, jump sequences are worth 80% of what they would be worth if the same jumps were executed in combination, and in some cases carry less value than just doing the most difficult jump in the sequence as a solo jump.
Jumps in pair skating
Side-by-side jumps performed in unison are required elements in competitive pair skating. In lower levels of competition, specific jumps (e.g. double flip) may be required. Elite-level pair skaters usually attempt at least one of: double Axel, triple toe loop, or triple Salchow.
If there is disparity between the jumps of each partner, the element's base value and grade of the jump will be scored on the partner that was less successful, even if the other partner's jump was clean. For example, a side-by-side jumping pass with unequal rotations from each partner is given a base value of the lower number of rotations. A fall by one of the partners is given a grade of execution as if both fell. Additionally, a one-point deduction is given for each partner that fell.
The throw jump is a required element in pair skating. In a throw jump, the lady is assisted on a standard jump by her partner and lands on a back outside edge as if she were jumping alone. Different pairs may use different techniques or holds.
The current scale of values is:
|BV if <||GOE +3||GOE +2||GOE +1||GOE −1||GOE −2||GOE −3|
- "Communication No. 1861: Single & Pair Skating Scale of Values, Levels of Difficulty and Guidelines for marking Grade of Execution" (PDF). International Skating Union. 28 April 2014.
- Earlier: "Communication No. 1724: Single & Pair Skating Scale of Values, Levels of Difficulty and Guidelines for marking Grade of Execution" (PDF). International Skating Union. 3 May 2012.
- "S&P Deductions - Deductions: Who is responsible?" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2010.
- "Technical Panel Handbook Single Skating" (PDF). International Skating Union. 7 August 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013.
- Dumont, Annick; Gailhaguet, Didier (March–April 1991). "Patinage Artistique: Comment gagner à Albertville?" [Figure skating: How to win in Albertville] (PDF) (in French). Revue EPS.
- Thomson, Candus (10 February 2008). "Growing up, falling down". Baltimore Sun.
- Smith, Beverley (April 30, 2015). "World-class coaches work with Canada's rising stars at Development Camp". Skate Canada.
- Rutherford, Lynn (1 February 2013). "Oppegard asks for equal treatment for loops". Icenetwork.
- Brannen, Sarah S. (16 May 2012). "Element of drama: A look at pairs throw jumps". Icenetwork.
- Figure Skating: Championship Techniques. John Misha Petkevich, 1989. ISBN 0-452-26209-7.
- Single Figure Skating. Josef Dĕdič, 1974.
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