About 200, see text
The genus Scrophularia of the family Scrophulariaceae comprises about 200 species of herbaceous flowering plants commonly known as figworts. Species of Scrophularia all share square stems, opposite leaves and open two-lipped flowers forming clusters at the end of their stems. The genus is found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but concentrated in Asia with only a few species in Europe and North America.
Some species in this genus are known to contain potentially useful substances, such as iridoids, and several Scrophularia species, such as the Ningpo figwort or Chinese figwort (S. ningpoensis), have been used by herbal medicine practitioners around the world. The name Scrophularia comes from scrofula, a form of tuberculosis, because several species have been used in herbal medicine for this disease.
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- Culpeper, Nicholas. Culpeper's complete herbal: a book of natural remedies for ancient ills. Wordsworth Editions, 1995.
- Garran, Thomas Avery. Western Herbs According to Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Practitioner's Guide. Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2008.