A file is a military term for a number of troops drawn up in line ahead, i.e. one behind the other in a column. The number of files is the measure of the width of a formation of troops in several ranks one behind the other.
Files are useful when troops don't know where the enemy is, since there are overlapping fields of fire from each soldier, and cover from a possible flanking attack. Files are at a disadvantage when there are heavy weapons nearby, supported by infantry, especially machine guns and tanks.
Ancient Greek use
- McNab, p. 55.
- Schwartz, p. 9
- Holbrook, p. 10.
- United States Army, p. 9.
- Duparcq, p. 16.
- Royal military panorama, p. 149.
- Royal military panorama, or, Officers' companion 3. 1813. OCLC 8007063.
- Duparcq, Edouard Le Barre (1863). Elements of Military Art and History: Comprising the History and Tactics of the Separate Arms; the Combination of the Arms; and the Minor Operations of War. D. Vand Nostrand. OCLC 3104705
- Holbrook, John (1826). Military Tactics: Adapted to the Different Corps in the United States, According to the Latest Improvements. E. A. Clark. OCLC 3139910
- McNab, Chris (2007). Combat Techniques: An Elite Forces Guide to Modern Infantry Tactics. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-36824-1
- Schwartz, Richard B. (2008). Tactical Emergency Medicine. Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-7332-4
- United States Army (2001). "Basic Formations, Movement Techniques, and Hand-and-Arm Signals" (PDF). global.security.org. Retrieved 15 June 2015.