Filep Jacob Semuel Karma
|Born||15 August 1959 (age 60)|
|Known for||2004 arrest|
|Parent(s)||Andreas Karma (father)|
Filep Jacob Semuel Karma (born 14 August 1959), commonly known as Filep Karma, is a Papuan independence activist. On 1 December 2004 he helped raise the Morning Star flag at a ceremony in Jayapura, for which he was charged with treason and given a fifteen-year prison sentence. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have protested on his behalf, the former designating him a prisoner of conscience. He was released on 19 November 2015.
Born in 1959 in Jayapura, Papua, Karma was raised in an upper-class family active in local politics. His father, Andreas Karma, was a civil servant educated by the Dutch who had continued to work in the Indonesian government after independence, serving as a regent of Wamena, and Constant Karma, one of Filep Karma's cousin, served as deputy governor of Papua.
Filep Karma was influenced as a child by a midnight raid on his home by Indonesian soldiers who broke the family's furniture. He later studied at Sebelas Maret University for a time in Solo, Java which he earning undergraduate degree and becoming a civil servant like his father. In 1997, he traveled to Manila to study for a year at the Asian Institute of Management. He was unable to finish his studies.
Karma has two children.
Flag-raisings and prison terms
On 2 July 1998, he led a ceremony to raise the West Papuan flag in Biak, following which, activists clashed with police, resulting in injuries to a dozen officers. The Indonesian military occupied Biak Island four days later and fired on the activists; Karma has alleged that more than 100 protesters were killed and buried on nearby islands, though a precise death toll is unknown. Human Rights Watch protested the Indonesian government's actions, noting that in the months that followed, it "continuously failed to carry out a serious investigation of these incidents, or hold accountable the perpetrators of abuses against the people in Biak". Karma himself was wounded in both legs by rubber bullets. He was then arrested, tried, and sentenced to six-and-a-half years' imprisonment for treason; the sentence was overturned on appeal after Karma had been in prison for ten months.
On 1 December 2004, he participated in a second flag-raising ceremony, marking the anniversary of Papuan independence from the Dutch. Indonesian security forces were again alleged to have fired into the crowd, killing pro-independence activists, and Karma was again arrested on charges of treason against the Indonesian state, this time along with fellow activist Yusak Pakage.
At Karma's trial, the judge mocked his Christian beliefs and gave him triple the sentence that the prosecution had requested. Karma is serving this fifteen-year sentence in Abepura Prison in Jayapura. Pakage was imprisoned on a ten-year sentence, which he served until early release in 2010. After the trial, Karma's lawyers reportedly found a dog's severed head on their doorstep accompanied by a note reading "Kill Karma".
Reports of abuse and international attention
In August 2008, 40 members of the US Congress sent a letter to Indonesia calling for Pakage and Karma's release, in response to which a 100-person rally protested in front of the US Embassy in Jakarta.
In 2009, the Asian Human Rights Commission stated that guards had beaten Karma for returning late from a prison leave on 1 February, breaking his glasses and tearing one of his eyelids. In 2010, Karma was allowed to give an interview to a local radio station, in which he stated that he had been regularly abused by prison authorities: "I have been punched, kicked, pulled. But what hurts more is the mental torture we are subjected to." A spokesman for Indonesia's Foreign Ministry responded to the BBC News that "allegations of prisoner abuse were always investigated and dealt with properly."
In May 2010, prison officials denied the request of Karma's doctors to take him to Jakarta for proper medical treatment, and Amnesty International again issued an alert for his safety. In December 2010, Karma was transferred to a Jayapura police station following a riot at the prison, causing Human Rights Watch to reiterate its call for him and his fellow political prisoners to be freed, and to protest his lack of access to legal counsel. He was soon transferred back to Abepura Prison.
Amnesty International issued another alert on Karma's behalf in April 2012, when the organization alleged that prison officials were refusing to provide him medical treatment for a possible tumor. He received treatment in September of that year.
- "Filep Karma, Jailed for Raising a Flag". Amnesty International. 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Indonesia releases prominent Papuan pro-independence leader from jail". ABC News. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- "Prosecuting Political Aspiration". Human Rights Watch. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Michael Holtz (16 November 2011). "Despite political reform, Indonesia abuses persist". – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- Richard Chauvel (6 April 2011). "Filep Karma and the fight for Papua's future". inside.org.au/. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Indonesia releases 2 Papuan political prisoners". The Jakarta Post. Associated Press. 8 July 2010. Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "Protester killed at independence rally in Papua". Associated Press. 9 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2012. (subscription required)
- "Filep Karma and Yusak Pakage: imprisoned and beaten". Asian Human Rights Commission. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Rebecca Henschke (3 August 2010). "Papua activist Filep Karma 'abused in prison'". BBC News. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Indonesia 'must address Papua discontent'". BBC News. 3 August 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "INDONESIA: DENIAL OF MEDICAL CARE FOR FILEP KARMA: HEALTH PROFESSIONAL ACTION". Amnesty International. 5 May 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Indonesia: Explain Transfer of Imprisoned Activists". Human Rights Watch. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Amnesty urges Indonesia to give medical treatment to prisoner of conscience". Radio New Zealand. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Prisoner of Conscience Receives treatment". Amnesty International. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- on YouTube (in Indonesian)