including multi-racial persons
1.1% of the U.S. population (2010))
|Regions with significant populations|
California (1,474,707)Hawaii (342,095), Illinois (139,090), Texas (137,713), Washington (137,083), New Jersey (126,793), New York (126,129), Nevada (123,891), Florida (122,691), Virginia (90,493), Maryland (56,909), Arizona (53,067) Alaska (25,424)
|English and other Philippine languages such as Tagalog (Filipino), Cebuano, Ilocano, Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Bicolano, Waray and Chavacano|
|65% Roman Catholicism, 21% Protestantism, 8% Irreligion, 1% Buddhism[not in citation given]|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Asian Americans, Overseas Filipinos, Filipino Canadians, Filipinos in Hawaii|
Filipino Americans (Filipino: Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent. The term Filipino American is sometimes shortened to "Fil-Ams", or "Pinoy". According to Filipino American historian Dawn Mabalon, the earliest appearance of the term Pinoy (alt. Pinay), was in a 1926 issue of the Filipino Student Bulletin. The article that featured the terms, is titled, "Filipino Women in U.S. Excel in Their Courses: Invade Business, Politics." Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines.
Filipinos in North America were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until the early 20th Century when the Philippines was ceded by Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. Philippine independence was recognized by the United States on July 4, 1946. Immigration was reduced significantly during the 1930s, except for those who served in the United States Navy, and increased following immigration reform in the 1960s.
The 2010 Census counted 3.4 million Filipino Americans, while the United States Department of State in 2011 estimated the total at 4 million, or 1.1% of the U.S. population. the total at 4 million, or 1.1% of the U.S. population. They are the country's second largest self-reported Asian ancestry group after Chinese Americans according to 2010 American Community Survey. They are also the largest population of Overseas Filipinos. Significant populations of Filipino Americans can be found in California, Hawaii, the New York metropolitan area and Washington, New Jersey, Illinois, and Texas.
In areas of sparse Filipino population, they often form loosely-knit social organizations aimed at maintaining a "sense of family", which is a key feature of Filipino culture. These organizations generally arrange social events, especially of a charitable nature, and keep members up-to-date with local events. Organizations are often organized into regional associations. The associations are a small part of Filipino American life. Filipino Americans formed close-knit neighborhoods, notably in California and Hawaii. A few communities have "Little Manilas", civic and business districts tailored for the Filipino American community.
Reflecting its 333 years of Spanish rule, many Filipinos adopted Hispanic surnames, and celebrate fiestas. Some Filipinos retain Philippine surnames, such as Bacdayan or Macapagal, while others derive from Japanese, Indian, and Chinese and reflect centuries of trade with these merchants preceding European and American rule.
Filipino and English are constitutionally established as official languages in the Philippines, and Filipino is designated as the national language, with English in wide use. Many Filipinos speak American English due to American colonial influence in the country's education system. Among Asian Americans in 1990, Filipino Americans had the smallest percentage of individuals who had problems with English. Although only 12.2% of all ethnic Chinese in the Philippines have a varieties of Chinese as their mother tongue. Nevertheless, the vast majority (77%) still retain the ability to understand and speak Philippine Hokkien as a second or third language.
Tagalog is the fifth most-spoken language in the United States, with 1.262 million speakers. Many of California's public announcements and documents are translated into Tagalog. Tagalog is also taught in some public schools, as well as in higher education. Other significant Filipino languages are Ilocano and Cebuano. Other languages spoken in Filipino American households include Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Bicolano and Waray . However, fluency in native languages tends to be lost among second- and third-generation Filipino Americans. In 2000, among U.S.-born Filipino Americans, three quarters responded that English is their primary language.
The Philippines is 90% Christian, one of only two such countries in Asia, along with East Timor. Following the European discovery of the Philippines by Ferdinand Magellan, Spaniards made a concerted effort to convert Filipinos to Catholicism; outside of the Muslim Sultanates in the Philippines, missionaries were able to covert large numbers of Filipinos. and the majority are Roman Catholic, giving Catholicism a major impact on Filipino culture. Other denominations include Protestants (Aglipayan, Episcopalian, and others), nontrinitarian (Iglesia ni Cristo and Jehovah's Witnesses), Muslims, Buddhist or nonreligious; religion has served as a dividing factor within the Philippines and Filipino American communities.
As Filipinos began to migrate to the United States, Filipino Roman Catholics were often not embraced by their American Catholic brethren, nor were they sympathetic to a Filipino-ized Catholicism. This led to creation of ethnic-specific parishes. The first-ever American Church for Filipinos, San Lorenzo Ruiz Church in New York City, is named after the first saint from the Philippines, San Lorenzo Ruiz. This was officially designated as a church for Filipinos in July 2005, the first in the United States, and the second in the world, after a church in Rome.
The number of Filipino restaurants does not reflect the size of the population. Although American cuisine influenced Philippine cuisine, it has been criticized by non-Filipinos. Even on Oahu where there is a significant Filipino American population, Philippine cuisine is not as noticeable as other Asian cuisines. On television, Philippine cuisine has been criticized, such as on Fear Factor, and praised, such as on Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations, and Bizarre Foods America.
Filipino American chefs cook in many fine dining restaurants, including Cristeta Comerford who is the executive chef in the White House, though many do not serve Filipino cuisine in their restaurants. Reasons given for the lack of Philippine cuisine in the U.S. include colonial mentality, lack of a clear identity, a preference for cooking at home and a continuing preference of Filipino Americans for cuisines other than their own. Philippine cuisine remains prevalent among Filipino immigrants, with restaurants and grocery stores catering to the Filipino American community, including Jollibee, a Philippines-based fast-food chain.
Filipino-Americans, similar to other people of color, undergo experiences that are unique to their own identities. These experiences derive from both the Filipino culture and American cultures individually and the dueling of these identities as well. These stressors, if great enough, can lead Filipino-Americans into suicidal behaviors. Members of the Filipino community learn early on about kapwa, which is defined as “interpersonal connectedness or togetherness.” The sense of kapwa helps build a strong sense of connection with one’s family.
With kapwa, many Filipino-Americans have a strong sense of needing to repay their family members for the opportunities that they have been able to receive. An example of this is a new college graduate feeling the need to find a job that will allow them to financially support their family and themself. This notion comes from “utang na loob,” defined as a debt that must be repaid to those who have supported the individual. This asserts that opportunities such as having a job in the United States only flourishes because of the previous adversities that one’s support system has overcome in order to provide for the current job holder.
With kapwa and utang na loob as strong forces enacting on the individual, there is an “all or nothing” mentality that is being played out. In order to bring success back to one’s family, there is a desire to succeed for one’s family through living out a family’s wants as opposed to one’s own true desires. This can manifest as one entering a career path that s/he is not passionate in, but select in order to help support their family.
Despite many of the stressors for these students deriving from family, it also becomes apparent that these are the reasons that these students are resilient. When family conflict rises in Filipino-American families, there is a negative association with suicide attempts. This suggests that though family is a presenting stressor in a Filipino-American’s life, it also plays a role for their resilience. In a study conducted by Yusuke Kuroki, family connectedness, whether defined as positive or negative to each individual, served as one means of lowering suicide attempts. There is a need for more research to be done to further identify specific resiliency factors surrounding family for Filipino-Americans.
Filipino sailors were the first Asians in North America. The first recorded presence of Filipinos in what is now the United States dates back to October 1587 around Morro Bay, California, with the first permanent settlement in Louisiana in 1763, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration began in the early 20th century when, for a period following the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the Philippines was a territory of the United States. During the 1920s, a majority of Filipino workers who arrived in the United States lacked necessary training. After independence in 1946, Filipino American numbers continued to grow. The population of Filipino immigrant workers, as well the quality of their skills, improved following the passing of the Immigration Act of 1965.
Filipino Americans have traditionally been socially conservative, particularly with "second wave" immigrants. In the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election Republican president George W. Bush won the Filipino American vote over John Kerry by nearly a two-to-one ratio, which followed strong support in the 2000 election. However, during the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, Filipino Americans voted majority Democratic, with 50% to 58% of the community voting for President Barack Obama and 42% to 46% voting for Senator John McCain. The 2008 election marked the first time that a majority of Filipino Americans voted for a Democrat presidential candidate.
According to the 2012 National Asian American Survey, conducted in September 2012, 45% of Filipinos were independent or nonpartisan, 27% were Republican, and 24% were Democrats. Additionally, Filipino Americans had the largest proportions of Republicans among Asian Americans polled, a position normally held by Vietnamese Americans, leading up to the 2012 election, and had the lowest job approval opinion of Obama among Asian Americans. In a survey of Asian Americans from thirty seven cities conducted by the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, it found that of the Filipino American respondents, 65% voted for Obama.
Due to scattered living patterns, it is nearly impossible for Filipino American candidates to win an election solely based on the Filipino American vote. Filipino American politicians have increased their visibility over the past few decades. Ben Cayetano, former governor of Hawaii, became the first governor of Filipino descent in the United States. The number of Congress-members of Filipino descent doubled to numbers not reached since 1937, two when the Philippine Islands were represented by non-voting Resident Commissioners, due to the 2000 Senatorial Election. In 2009 three Congress-members claimed at least one-eighth Filipino ethnicity; the largest number to date. Since the resignation of Senator John Ensign in 2011 (the only Filipino American to have been a member of the Senate), and Representative Steve Austria (the only Asian Pacific American Republican in the 112th Congress) choosing not to seek reelection and retire, Representative Robert C. Scott is the only Filipino American in the 113th Congress.
The Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 (Republic Act No. 9225) made Filipino Americans eligible for dual citizenship in the United States and the Philippines. Overseas suffrage was first employed in the May 2004 elections in which Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was reelected to a second term.
By 2005, about 6,000 people had become dual citizens of the two countries. This act allow Filipino Americans to invest in the Philippines, through land purchases, which are limited to Filipino citizens and, with some limitations, former citizens.), vote in Philippine elections, retire in the Philippines, and participate in representing the Philippine flag. In 2013, for the Philippine general election there were 125,604 registered Filipino voters in the United States and Caribbean, of which only 13,976 voted.
Dual citizens have been recruited to participate in international sports events including athletes representing the Philippines who competed in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, and the Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.
Filipinos remain one of the largest immigrant groups to date with over 40,000 arriving annually since 1979. The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has a preference system for issuing visas to non-citizen family members of U.S. citizens, with preference based generally on familial closeness. Some non-citizen relatives of U.S. citizens spend long periods on waiting lists. Petitions for immigrant visas, particularly for siblings of previously naturalized Filipinos that date back to 1984, were not granted until 2006. As of 2012, over 450 thousand Filipinos were on the visa wait list, second only to Mexico and after Filipinos the third is India, fourth is Vietnam and the fifth is China. Filipinos have the longest waiting times for family reunification visas, as Filipinos disproportionately apply for family visas; this has led to visa petitions filed in July 1989 still waiting to be processed in March 2013.
In 2009, the Department of Homeland Security estimated that 270,000 Filipino were "unauthorized immigrants". This was an increase of 70,000 from a previous estimate in 2000. In both years, Filipinos accounted for 2% of the total. As of 2009[update], Filipinos were the fifth-largest community of illegal immigrants behind Mexico (6.65 million, 62%), El Salvador (530,000, 5%), Guatemala (480,000, 4%), and Honduras (320,000, 3%). In January 2011, the Department of Homeland Security estimate of "unauthorized immigrants" from the Philippines remained at 270,000. Filipinos who reside in the United States illegally are known as "TnT's" (tago nang tago translated to "hide and hide") within the Filipino community.
Filipino Americans may be mistaken for members of other racial/ethnic groups, such as Latinos or Pacific Islanders; this may lead to "mistaken" discrimination that is not specific to Asian Americans. Filipino Americans additionally, have had difficulty being categorized, termed by one source as being in "perpetual absence".
In the period, prior to 1946, Filipinos were taught that they were American, and presented with an idealized America. They had official status as United States nationals. When ill-treated and discriminated by other Americans, Filipinos were faced with the racism of that period, which undermined these ideals. Carlos Bulosan later wrote about this experience in America is in the Heart. Even pensionados, who immigrated on government scholarships, were treated poorly.
In Hawaii, Filipino Americans often have little identification with their heritage, and it has been documented that many disclaim their ethnicity. This may be due to the "colonial mentality", or the idea that Western ideals and physical characteristics are superior to their own. Although categorized as Asian Americans, Filipino Americans have not fully embraced being part of this racial category due to marginalization by other Asian American groups and or the dominant American society. This created a struggle within Filipino American communities over how far to assimilate. The term "white-washed" has been applied to those seeking to further assimilate. Those who disclaim their ethnicity lose the positive adjustment to outcomes that are found in those who have a strong, positive, ethnic identity.
Of the ten largest immigrant groups, Filipino Americans have the highest rate of assimilation. with exception to the cuisine; Filipino Americans have been described as the most "Americanized" of the Asian American ethnicities. However, even though Filipino Americans are the second largest group among Asian Americans, community activists have described the ethnicity as "invisible", claiming that the group is virtually unknown to the American public, and is often not seen as significant even among its members.
This description has also been used in the political arena, given the lack of political mobilization. In the mid-1990s it was estimated that some one hundred Filipino Americans have been elected or appointed to public office. This lack of political representation contributes to the perception that Filipino Americans are invisible.
The concept is also used to describe how the ethnicity has assimilated. Few affirmative action programs target the group although affirmative action programs rarely target Asian Americans in general. Assimilation was easier given that the group is majority religiously Christian, fluency in English, and high levels of education. The concept was in greater use in the past, before the post-1965 wave of arrivals.
The term "invisible minority" has been used to describe Asian Americans as a whole, and the term "model minority" has been applied to Filipinos as well as other Asian American groups. Filipino critics allege that Filipino Americans are ignored in immigration literature and studies.
As with fellow Asian Americans, Filipino Americans are viewed as "perpetual foreigners", even for those born in the United States. This has resulted in physical attacks on Filipino Americans, as well as non-violent forms of discrimination.
During World War II, some 250,000 to 400,000 Filipinos served in the United States Military, in units including the Philippine Scouts, Philippine Commonwealth Army under U.S. Command, and recognized guerrillas during the Japanese Occupation. As of January 2013[update], ten thousand surviving Filipino American veterans of World War II lived in the United States, and a further fourteen thousand in the Philippines, although some estimates found eighteen thousand or fewer surviving veterans.
The U.S. government promised these soldiers all of the benefits afforded to other veterans. However, in 1946, the United States Congress passed the Rescission Act of 1946 which stripped Filipino veterans of the promised benefits. One estimate claims that monies due to these veterans for back pay and other benefits exceeds one billion dollars. Of the sixty-six countries allied with the United States during the war, the Philippines is the only country that did not receive military benefits from the United States. The phrase "Second Class Veterans" has been used to describe their status.
Many Filipino veterans traveled to the United States to lobby Congress for these benefits . Since 1993, numerous bills have been introduced in Congress to pay the benefits, but all died in committee.
Representative Hanabusa submitted legislation to award Filipino Veterans with a Congressional Gold Medal. Known as the Filipino Veterans of World War II Congressional Gold Medal Act, it was referred to the Committee on Financial Services and the Committee on House Administration. As of February 2012 had attracted 41 cosponsors.
In the late 1980s, efforts towards reinstating benefits first succeeded with the incorporation of Filipino veteran naturalization in the Immigration Act of 1990. Over 30,000 such veterans had immigrated, with mostly American citizens, receiving benefits relating to their service.
Similar language to those bills was inserted by the Senate into the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 which provided a one time payment of at least 9,000 USD to eligible non-US Citizens and 15,000 USD to eligible US Citizens via the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation Fund. These payments went to those recognized as soldiers or guerrillas or their spouses. The list of eligibles is smaller than the list recognized by the Philippines. Additionally, recipients had to waive all rights to possible future benefits. As of March 2011, 42 percent (24,385) of claims had been rejected; By September 2012, that number was further reduced to some 24 thousand, using the "Missouri list" (the Approved Revised Reconstructed Guerilla Roster kept by the National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) in St Louis, MO.)
In the 113th Congress, Representative Joe Heck reintroduced his legislation to allow documents from the Philippine government and the U.S. Army to be accepted as proof of eligibility. Known as H.R. 481, it was referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. In 2013, the U.S. released a previously classified report detailing guerrilla activities, including guerrilla units not on the "Missouri list".
In September 2012, the Social Security Administration announced that non-resident Filipino World War II veterans were eligible for certain social security benefits; however an eligible veteran would lose those benefits if they visited for more than one month in a year, or immigrated.
Congress established Asian Pacific American Heritage Month in May to commemorate Filipino American and other Asian American cultures. Upon becoming the largest Asian American group in California, October was established as Filipino American History Month to acknowledge the first landing of Filipinos on October 18, 1587 in Morro Bay, California. It is widely celebrated by Fil-Ams.
|January||Winter Sinulog||Philadelphia, PA|
|January||Sinulog Festival||St. Louis, MO|
|May||Asian Pacific American Heritage Month||Nationwide, USA|
|May||Asian Heritage Festival||New Orleans, LA|
|May||Filipino Fiesta and Parade||Honolulu, HI|
|May||FAAPI Mother's Day||Philadelphia, PA|
|May||Flores de Mayo||Nationwide, USA|
|June||Philippine Independence Day Parade||New York, NY|
|June||Philippine Festival||Washington, D.C.|
|June||Philippine Day Parade||Passaic, NJ|
|June||Pista Sa Nayon||Vallejo, CA|
|June||New York Filipino Film Festival at The ImaginAsian Theatre||New York, NY|
|June||Empire State Building commemorates Philippine Independence||New York, NY|
|June||Philippine–American Friendship Day Parade||Jersey City, NJ|
|June 12||Fiesta Filipina||San Francisco, CA|
|June 12||Philippine Independence Day||Nationwide, USA|
|June 19||Jose Rizal's Birthday||Nationwide, USA|
|July||Fil-Am Friendship Day||Virginia Beach, VA|
|July||Pista sa Nayon||Seattle, WA|
|July||Philippine Weekend||Delano, CA|
|August 15 to 16||Philippine American Exposition||Los Angeles, CA|
|August 15 to 16||Annual Philippine Fiesta||Secaucus, NJ|
|August||Summer Sinulog||Philadelphia, PA|
|August||Historic Filipinotown Festival||Los Angeles, CA|
|August||Pistahan Festival and Parade||San Francisco, CA|
|September 25||Filipino Pride Day||Jacksonville, FL|
|September||Festival of Philippine Arts and Culture (FPAC)||Los Angeles, CA|
|October||Filipino American History Month||Nationwide, USA|
|October||Filipino American Arts and Culture Festival (FilAmFest)||San Diego, CA|
|November||Chicago Filipino American Film Festival (CFAFF)||Chicago, IL|
|December 16 to 24||Simbang Gabi Christmas Dawn Masses||Nationwide, USA|
|December 25||Pasko Christmas Feast||Nationwide, USA|
|December 30||Jose Rizal Day||Nationwide, USA|
- "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- American FactFinder - Results
- "PCT1 TOTAL POPULATION: Universe:Total population, 2010 Census Summary File 2". 2010 Census. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Melen McBride, RN, PhD. "HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE OF FILIPINO AMERICAN ELDERS". Stanford University School of Medicine. Stanford University. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths, Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
Religious Affiliations Among U.S. Asian American Groups - Filipino: 89% Christian (21% Protestant (12% Evangelical, 9% Mainline), 65% Catholic, 3% Other Christian), 1% Buddhist, 0% Muslim, 0% Sikh, 0% Jain, 2% Other religion, 8% Unaffiliated[not in citation given]
"Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
Filipino Americans: 81% All Christian (61% Catholic, 17% Protestant), 10% Unaffiliated, 4% Muslim, 3% Buddhist[not in citation given]
- "Fil-Am: abbreviation Filipino American.", allwords.com, Date accessed: 29 April 2011
- Mabalon, Dawn, Little Manila is in the Heart (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013), 20, 37.
- Marina Claudio-Perez (October 1998). "Filipino Americans" (PDF). The California State Library. State of California. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
Filipino Americans are often shortened into Pinoy Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by the early Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines. Others claim that it implies "Filipino" thoughts, deeds and spirit.
- Mercene, Floro L. (2007). Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. The University of the Philippines Press. p. 161. ISBN 971-542-529-1. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
Rodel Rodis (25 October 2006). "A century of Filipinos in America". Inquirer. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- Rodel Rodis (25 October 2006). "A century of Filipinos in America". Inquirer. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- "Labor Migration in Hawaii". UH Office of Multicultural Student Services. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- "Introduction, Filipino Settlements in the United States" (PDF). Filipino American Lives. Temple University Press. March 1995. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- Yengoyan, Aram A. (2006). "Christianity and Austronesian Transformations: Church, Polity, and Culture in the Philippines and the Pacific". In Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James J.; Tryon, Darrell. The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Comparative Austronesian Series. Australian National University E Press. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-920942-85-4. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State And Society In The Philippines. State and Society in East Asia Series. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7425-1024-1. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
Natale, Samuel M.; Rothschild, Brian M.; Rothschield, Brian N. (1995). Work Values: Education, Organization, and Religious Concerns. Volume 28 of Value inquiry book series. Rodopi. p. 133. ISBN 978-90-5183-880-0. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
Munoz, J. Mark; Alon, Ilan (2007). "Entrepreneurship among Filipino immigrants". In Dana, Leo Paul. Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship: A Co-evolutionary View on Resource Management. Elgar Original Reference Series. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 259. ISBN 978-1-84720-996-2. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Tyner, James A. (2007). "Filipinos: The Invisible Ethnic Community". In Miyares, Ines M.; Airress, Christopher A. Contemporary Ethnic Geographies in America. G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 264–266. ISBN 978-0-7425-3772-9.Filipino Americans at Google Books
- Carlo Osi (26 March 2009). "Filipino cuisine on US television". Mind Feeds. Inquirer Company. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
In the United States, the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese cultural groups often bond for organizational purposes, while Filipinos in general have not. Ethnically Filipino Americans are divided into Pampangeno, Ilocano, Cebuano, Tagalog, and so forth.
- Guevarra, Jr., Rudy P. (2008). ""Skid Row": Filipinos, Race and the Social Construction of Sapce in San Diego" (PDF). The Journal of San Diego History. City of San Diego. 54 (1). Retrieved 26 April 2011.
Lagierre, Michel S. (2000). The global ethnopolis: Chinatown, Japantown, and Manilatown in American society. New York, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-312-22612-1. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Sterngass, Jon (2006). Filipino Americans. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- Posadas, Barbara Mercedes (1999). The Filipino Americans. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-313-29742-7. Filipino Americans at Google Books
Lee, Jonathan H. X.; Nadeau, Kathleen M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 334. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.Filipino Americans at Google Books
- Bryan, One (2003). Filipino Americans. ABDO. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-57765-988-4.Filipino Americans at Google Books
- Harold Hisona (14 July 2010). "The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan". Philippine Almanac. Philippine Daily. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
Varatarācaṉ, Mu (1988). A History of Tamil Literature. Histories of literature. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1–17. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Leupp, Gary P. (2003). Interracial Intimacy in Japan. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 52–3. ISBN 0-8264-6074-7.
- Fong, Rowena (2004). Culturally competent practice with immigrant and refugee children and families. Guilford Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-57230-931-9. Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
Andres, Tomas Quintin D. (1998). People empowerment by Filipino values. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 17. ISBN 978-971-23-2410-9. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
Pinches, Michael (1999). Culture and Privilege in Capitalist Asia. Routledge. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-415-19764-9.&pg=298 Filipino Americans at Google Books
Roces, Alfredo; Grace Roces (1992). Culture Shock!: Philippines. Graphic Arts Center Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-55868-089-0. Filipino Americans at Google Books
- Don T. Nakanishi; James S. Lai (2003). Asian American Politics: Law, Participation, and Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7425-1850-6.
- Teresita Ang-See, "Chinese in the Philippines", 1997, Kaisa, pg. 57.
- "Statistical Abstract of the United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
- "Language Requirements" (PDF). Secretary of State. State of California. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Valerie Malabonga. "Heritage Voices: Programs - Tagalog" (PDF). Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "Ilokano Language & Literature Program". Communications department. University of Hawaii at Manao. 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Joyce Newman Giger (14 April 2014). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment and Intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-323-29328-0.
- Potowski, Kim (2010). Language Diversity in the USA. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-521-76852-8. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, ed. (2002). Gender, Ethnicity, and Religion: Views from the Other Side. Fortress Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-8006-3569-5. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Bankston III, Carl L. (2006). "Filipino Americans". In Gap Min, Pyong. Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues. Sage focus editions. 174. Pine Forge Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Professor Susan Russell. "Christianity in the Philippines". Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Cindy Kleinmeyer (June 2004). "Religions in Southeast Asia" (PDF). Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
Gonzales, Joseph; Sherer, Thomas E. (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Geography. Penguin. p. 334. ISBN 978-1-59257-188-8. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-118-01977-1. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Laderman, Gary; León, Luís D. (2003). Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-57607-238-7. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "Chapel of San Lorenzo Ruiz". Philippine Apostolate / Archdiocese of new York. Archived from the original on 2008-08-03. Retrieved 2007-08-30.
Fr. Diaz (1 August 2005). "Church of Filipinos opens in New York". The Manila Times. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Cowen, Tyler (2012). An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies. Penguin. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-101-56166-9. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
Yet, according to one source, there are only 481 Filipio restaurants in the country;
- Shaw, Steven A. (2008). Asian Dining Rules: Essential Strategies for Eating Out at Japanese, Chinese, Southeast Asian, Korean, and Indian Restaurants. New York, New York: HarperCollins. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-06-125559-5. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Dennis Clemente (1 July 2010). "Where is Filipino food in the US marketplace?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Woods, Damon L. (2006). The Philippines: a global studies handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 250. ISBN 978-1-85109-675-6. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Sokolov, Raymond (1993). Why We Eat What We Eat: How Columbus Changed the Way the World Eats. New York, New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-671-79791-1. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "A Brief History of Filipinos in Hawaii". Center for Philippine Studies. University of Hawaii-Manoa. 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Carpenter, Robert; Carpenter, Robert E.; Carpenter, Cindy V. (2005). Oahu Restaurant Guide 2005 With Honolulu and Waikiki. Havana, Illinois: Holiday Publishing Inc. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-931752-36-7. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- KATRINA STUART SANTIAGO (8 June 2011). "Balut as Pinoy pride". GMA. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
The balut is one claim to fame we're uncertain about, seeing as it is equated with hissing cockroaches on Fear Factor. Talk about bringing us back to the dark ages of being the exotic and barbaric brown siblings of America.
- Carlo Osi (26 March 2006). "Filipino cuisine on US television". Global Nation. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- Keli Dailey (9 February 2012). "Andrew Zimmern's eating through San Diego". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
"Tita's sisig, best I have ever tasted . San Diego Philippine (sic) food is crazy good," he tweeted.
- Amy Scattergood (25 February 2011). "Off the menu". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Laudan, Rachel (1996). The food of Paradise: exploring Hawaii's culinary heritage. Seattle: University of Hawaii Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-8248-1778-7. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Melanie Henson Narciso (2005). Filipino Meal Patterns in the United States of America (PDF) (Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree). University of Wisconsin-Stout. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- Kristy, Yang (30 July 2011). "Filipino Food: At Least One Reason to Envy California". Dallas Observer. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
Bray, Jared (2 February 2011). "Filipino Cuisine a New Hit in Salt Lake City". ABS-CBN. North America Bureau. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
Berndes, Barry (1981). The SAN DIEGAN - 41st Edition. The SAN DIEGAN. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-890226-13-8. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
Vergara, Benito (2008). Pinoy Capital: The Filipino Nation in Daly City. Asian American history and culture. Temple University Press. pp. 41, 149. ISBN 978-1-59213-664-3. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
Tovin Lapan (3 December 2009). "Training day at Tita's Kitchenette". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Krean Given (13 November 2012). "In Southern California, Filipino restaurants crowd the strip malls". Boston Globe. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
Marc Ballon (16 September 2002). "Jollibee Struggling to Expand in U.S.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Kuroki, Yusuke (2015). "Risk Factors for Suicidal Behaviors Among Filipino Americans: A Data Mining Approach". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 85: 34–42.
- Mendoza, Perkinson, S. Lily, Jim (2003). "Filipino "Kapwa" in Global Dialogue: A Different Politics of Being-With the "Other"". Intercultural Communication Studies. 12: 177–194.
- Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Samura, Michelle (2014). "Wrestling with expectations: An Examination of How Asian American College Students Negotiate Personal, Parental, and Societal Expectations". Journal of College Student Development. 56: 602–618.
- Ocampo, Anthony Christian (2016). The Latinos of Asia: How Filipino Americans Break the Rules of Race. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. horizontal tab character in
|title=at position 55 (help)
- Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
Most people think of Asians as recent immigrants to the Americas, but the first Asians—Filipino sailors—settled in the bayous of Louisiana a decade before the Revolutionary War.
- "Historic Site, During the Manila". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989" (PDF). Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
Some of the Filipinos who left their ships in Mexico ultimately found their way to the bayous of Louisiana, where they settled in the 1760s. The film shows the remains of Filipino shrimping villages in Louisiana, where, eight to ten generations later, their descendants still reside, making them the oldest continuous settlement of Asians in America.
Loni Ding (2001). "1763 FILIPINOS IN LOUISIANA". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
These are the "Louisiana Manila men" with presence recorded as early as 1763.
Ohamura, Jonathan (1998). Imagining the Filipino American Diaspora: Transnational Relations, Identities, and Communities. Studies in Asian Americans Series. Taylor & Francis. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Fil-Ams in the U.S.". FACSPS. Retrieved 2016-11-10.
- Thomas Chen (26 February 2009). "WHY ASIAN AMERICANS VOTED FOR OBAMA". PERSPECTIVE MAGAZINE. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
A survey of Filipino Americans in California—the second largest Asian American ethnic group and traditionally Republican voters
- Vergara, Benito (2009). Pinoy Capital: The Filipino Nation in Daly City. Asian American History & Culture. Temple University Press. pp. 111–12. ISBN 978-1-59213-664-3.
- Jim Lobe (16 September 2004). "Asian-Americans lean toward Kerry". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 2011-06-28. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Bendixen & Associates and The Tarrance Group (14 September 2004). "National Poll of Asian Pacific Islanders on the 2004 Election". New American Media. Pacific News Service. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Gus Mercado (November 10, 2008). "Obama wins Filipino vote at last-hour". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
A pre-election survey of 840 active Filipino community leaders in America showed a strong shift of undecided registered voters towards the Obama camp in the last several weeks before the elections that gave Senator Barack Obama of Illinois a decisive 58-42 share of the Filipino vote.
- Mico Letargo (19 October 2012). "Fil-Ams lean towards Romney – survey". Asian Journal. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
In 2008, 50 percent of the Filipino community voted for President Barack Obama (the Democrat candidate back then) while 46 percent voted for Republican Senator John McCain.
- Thomas Chen (26 February 2009). "Why Asian Americans Voted for Obama". PERSPECTIVE. Harvard University. Archived from the original on 2010-04-30. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "In The Know: 2.6 million Filipino-Americans". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Ujala Sehgal; Glenn Magpantay (17 January 2013). "New Findings: Asian American Vote in 2012 Varied by Ethnic Group and Geographic Location". Press release. Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Reimers, David M. (2005). Other Immigrants: The Global Origins Of The American People. NYU Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-8147-7535-6. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Edmund M. Silvestre (18 January 2009). "A Fil-Am on Capitol Hill". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
There are now three members of U.S. Congress with Filipino lineage: Rep. Robert "Bobby" Scott, an African-American representing Virginia's 3rd congressional district; and Sen. John Ensign of Nevada.
Maxwell, Rahasaan (5 March 2012). Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs. Cambridge University Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-107-37803-2. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
These numbers include politicians with only the slightest connection to the Philippines. For example, Bobby Scott of Virginia is commonly considered an African American and his only connection to the Philippines is one maternal grandmother. John Ensign of Nevada only has one Filipino great-grandparent.
- Peter Urban (3 May 2011). "In final speech to Senate, Ensign apologizes to colleagues". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Samson Wong (15 November 2012). "The Party With The Parity". AsianWeek. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Jonathan Strong (17 January 2012). "How Rep. Steve Austria Became a Sacrificial Republican". Roll Call. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
Rachel Weiner (30 December 2011). "Ohio Republican Rep. Steve Austria retiring". Washington Post. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Henni Espinosa (8 November 2012). "Fil-Ams who won and lost in the US elections". ABS-CBN. Milpitas, California. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
Bill Sizemore (7 November 2012). "Results: Scott cruises to re-election in 3rd District". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Martinez, Kathleen Melissa (2007). FINDING A HOME FOR FILIPINO-AMERICAN DUAL CITIZENS: MEMBERSHIP AND THE FILIPINO NATIONAL IDENTITY (PDF) (Master of Arts in Communication, Culture and Technology thesis). Georgetown University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Carlos H. Conde (11 May 2004). "Philippine Elections Are Marred by Violence". New York Times. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
This was also the first time the Philippines allowed absentee voting for Filipinos overseas. About 200,000 of the 350,000 overseas voters cast their votes.
"Number of Overseas Absentee Voters as of March 12, 2004" (PDF). National Statistical Coordination Board. 12 March 2004. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Chen, Edith Wen-Chu (2010). Yoo, Grace J., ed. Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-313-34751-1. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Batas Pambansa Bilang. 185". Chanrobles Law Library. March 16, 1982. Retrieved 2008-06-02. (Section 2)
"Republic Act No. 8179". Supreme Court of the Philippines. March 28, 1996. Retrieved 2008-06-02. (Section 5)
- Nadia Trinidad; Don Tagala (14 May 2013). "Why most Filipinos in US didn't vote". ABS CBN North America Bureau. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Jamal Thalji (16 November 2001). "Student charged in fight will swim at state mee". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Nelson, Shane (2008). "Personal Best". Honolulu Magazine. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Balikbayan Program". Consulate General of the Philippines in Los Angeles. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Introduction: Filipino Settlements in the United States" (PDF). Temple University Press. Temple University. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
Since 1979, over 40,000 Filipinos have been admitted annually, making the Philippines the second largest source of all immigration, surpassed only by Mexico.
- "Immigration Preferences and Waiting Lists". lawcom.com. Retrieved 2008-05-22.
- "Green-card limbo". Manila Times. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-12-15.
- "Annual Report of Immigration Visa Applicants in the Family-sponsored and Employment-based preferences Registered at the National Visa Center as of November 1, 2012" (PDF). Bureau of Consular Affairs. United States Secretary of State. 1 November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- "Families of Filipino World War II vets largely still waiting for visa, dozen years later". Public Radio International. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Hoefer, Michael; Rytina, Nancy; Baker, Bryan C. (January 2010). "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009" (PDF). DHS Office of Immigration Statistics. United States Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- Stoney, Sierra; Batalova, Jeanne (5 June 2013). "Filipino Immigrants in the United States". Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute. ISSN 1946-4037. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- Philip Ella Juico (6 February 2013). "Ex-Star columnist makes mark in US". Philippine Star. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8147-3297-7. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-118-01975-7. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Antonio T. Tiongson; Edgardo V. Gutierrez; Ricardo Valencia Gutierrez; Ricardo V. Gutierrez (2006). Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities and Discourse. Temple University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-59213-123-5.
- M. Licudine v. D. Winter, JR 1086, p. 5 (U.S. District Court for D.C. 2008).
Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-118-01977-1. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Henry Yu. "Asian Americans" (PDF). Department of History. University of British Columbia. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Guerrero, AP; Nishimura, ST; Chang, JY; Ona, C; Cunanan, VL; Hishinuma, ES (2010). "Low cultural identification, low parental involvement and adverse peer influences as risk factors for delinquent behaviour among Filipino youth in Hawai'i" (PDF). International Journal of Social Psychiatry. SAGE journals. 56 (4): 371–387. doi:10.1177/0020764009102772. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Okamura, Jonathan Y. (2008). Ethnicity and inequality in Hawaiʻi. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-59213-755-8. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
Corky Trinidad (11 December 2005). "The vanishing Filipinos". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T. (2009). "Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans". Social Sciences Quarterly. John Wiley & Sons, inc. 90 (2): 428–445. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2009.00625.x. PMC . PMID 20107617.
David, E.J.R. (2008). "A Colonial Mentality Model of Depression for Filipino Americans" (PDF). Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minitorty Psychology. American Psychological Association. 14 (2): 118–127. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.14.2.11. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Okamura, Jonathan Y. (1998). Ng, Franklin, ed. Imagining the Filipino American diaspora: transnational relations, identities, and communities. Taylor & Francis. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
McFerson, Hazel M. (2002). Mixed blessing: the impact of the American colonial experience on politics and society in the Philippines. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-313-30791-1. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Okamura, Jonathan Y. (1998). Ng, Franklin, ed. Imagining the Filipino American diaspora: transnational relations, identities, and communities. Taylor & Francis. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Nadal, Kevin (2010). Filipino American Psychology: A Collection of Personal Narratives. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-470-95136-1. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Haya El Nasser (13 May 2008). "Study: Some immigrants assimilate faster". USA Today. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
N.C. aizenman (13 May 2008). "Study Says Foreigners in U.S. Adapt Quickly". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Amy Scattergood (25 February 2010). "Off the menu". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
That Filipino food has, by and large, not been assimilated into mainstream American cuisine is ironic, given how adept Filipinos historically have been at assimilating into other dominant cultures (the country is Catholic; English is the second official language), and given how assimilated the myriad cuisines have been within the country itself.
- Nakanishi, Don T.; James S. Lai (2003). Asian American politics: law, participation, and policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-7425-1850-6. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- "Asian Americans: Growth and Diversity". Retrieved 15 March 2011.
Bernardo, Joseph (2014). From "Little Brown Brothers" to "Forgotten Asian Americans": Race, Space, and Empire in Filipino Los Angeles (Ph.D.). University of Washington.
- Nakano, Satoshi (June 2004). "The Filipino World War II veterans equity movement and the Filipino American community" (PDF). Seventh Annual International Philippine Studies. Center for Pacific And American Studies: 53–81. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Maxwell, Rahsaan (2012). Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs. Cambridge University Press. pp. 205–208, 274. ISBN 978-1-107-00481-8. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Okamura, Jonathan Y. (1998). Imagining the Filipino American diaspora: transnational relations, identities, and communities. Taylor & Francis. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
Sterngass, Jon (2006). Filipino Americans. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Mendoza, Susanah Lily L. (2002). Between the homeland and the diaspora: the politics of theorizing Filipino and Filipino American identities : a second look at the poststructuralism-indigenization debates. Psychology Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-415-93157-1. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Buenavista, Tracy Lachica; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly (2009). "Contextualizing Asian American education through critical race theory: An example of U.S. Pilipino college student experiences" (PDF). New Directions for Institutional Research. 2009 (142): 69–81. doi:10.1002/ir.297. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Sterngass, Jon (2006). Filipino Americans. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Belinda A. Aquino (10 December 2006). "The Filipino Century in Hawaii: Out of the Crucible" (PDF). Center for Philippine Studies. University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "The Invisible Minority". The Harvard Crimson. January 17, 2003.
- "America's 'Invisible' Minority Is Ready for Its Closeup". blogs.voanews.com/. February 23, 2015. External link in
- Nguyen, Mimi Thi (2007). Thuy Linh N. Tu, ed. Alien encounters: popular culture in Asian America. Duke University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8223-3922-9. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
Cropp, Fritz; Frisby, Cynthia M.; Mills, Dean (2003). Journalism across cultures. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwel. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-8138-1999-0. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
Tojo Thatchenkery (31 March 2000). "Asian Americans Under the Model Minority Gaze". International Association of Business Disciplines National Conference. modelminority.com. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
Ho-Asjoe, Henrietta (2009). William Baragar Bateman, ed. Praeger handbook of Asian American health: taking notice and taking action. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-313-34703-0. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Espiritu, Yen Le (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives Across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-520-23527-4. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Baker, Lee D. (2004). Life in America: Identity and Everyday Experience. John Wiley & Sons. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4051-0564-4. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Tiongson, Antonio T.; Gutierrez, Edgardo Valencia (2006). Ricardo Valencia Gutierrez, ed. Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities And Discourse. Temple University Press. pp. 104–105. ISBN 978-1-59213-122-8. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- Evangeline Canonizado Buell; Evelyn Luluguisen; Lillian Galedo; Eleanor Hipol Luis (2008). Filipinos in the East Bay. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7385-5832-5.
Maria Virginia Yap Morales (2006). Diary of the war: World War II memoirs of Lt. Col. Anastacio Campo. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-971-550-489-8.
- "Asian Heritage in the National Park Service Cultural Resources Programs" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Keith Rogers (21 January 2013). "100-year-old Filipino-American veteran dies". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
About 10,000 live in the United States and 14,000 are in the Philippines.
- Joseph Pimental (12 January 2011). "Bill to give Filipino WWII veterans full equality". Asian Journal. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- Josh Levs (23 February 2009). "U.S. to pay 'forgotten' Filipino World War II veterans". CNN. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
Kimberely Jane T. Tan (7 September 2009). "Fil-Am photographer pays tribute to 'America's second-class veterans'". GMA News. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Chen, Edith Wen-Chu (2010). Yoo, Grace J., ed. Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-313-34751-1. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Richard Simon (30 January 2013). "Philippine vets still fighting their battle over WWII". Stars and Stripes. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Committees: H.R.111 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Cosponsors: H.R.111 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Henni Espinosa (17 January 2011). "Filipino Veterans Group Pursues Lawsuits Despite New Equality Bill". Balitang America. Archived from the original on 2011-11-16. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- "World War II Filipino Veteran Rights". Filipino American Curriculum Project. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
- Maze, Rick (2008-01-29). "Senate puts Filipino vet pensions in stimulus" (News Article). Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
Buried inside the Senate bill, which includes tax cuts and new spending initiatives intended to create jobs in the U.S., the Filipino payment was inserted at the urging of Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, the new chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee and a longtime supporter of monthly pensions for World War II Filipino veterans.
- Bayron, Heda (2009-03-25). "Filipino War Veterans Take Advantage of Delayed US Response". Voice Of America. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
"Stimulus Bill Provides $198 Million for Filipino Veterans". Public and Intergovernmental Affairs. United States Depart of Veterans Affairs. 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
- Representative Joe Heck (5 February 2013). "Bidding Farewell to Two Members of the Las Vegas Mighty Five (House of Representatives - February 05,2013)". Thomas. Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
Congress finally acknowledged the dedicated service of many of these denied veterans when it established the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation Fund in 2009.
- Jaleco, Rodney (2009-03-28). "Excluded Fil-Vets Now Eligible for Lump-Sum Money". ABS-CBN. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- Joseph G. Lariosa (9 January 2011). "Filipino Veterans Fairness bill filed at US Congress". GMA News. Archived from the original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
The bill likewise proposes to invalidate the "quit claim" or the waiver of the right of Filipino veterans to receive future benefits, like a lifetime monthly pension, as provided for in the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation (FVEC) of the $787-billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).
- JFAV (23 March 2011). "WW II Filvet to lead delegation to US Congress for full equity". Asian Journal. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
Tarra Quismundo (23 February 2013). "US willing to review Filipino veterans' denied claims". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Dymphina Calica-La Putt (26 September 2012). "Heck introduces bill to aid denied Filipino WWII vets". Asian Journal. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
Dymphna Calica-La Putt (2 February 2013). "Nevada Solon to resubmit bill on Filvets compensation". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Asian Journal. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Committees: H.R.481 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Chuck N. Baker (6 March 2013). "Filipino soldiers who fought for the U.S. now battle for benefits". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Cynthia De Castro (18 September 2012). "Special benefits available for WW II vets outside of US". Asian Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Santos, Hector. "Sulat sa Tanso". Retrieved 2006-08-28.
- "history". Asian Pacific heritage. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
- "Filipino Apostolate" (PDF). Our Lady of Hope Catholic Church. Archdiocese of Philadelphia. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 23, 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "PhilFest 2011". Philippine Cultural Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Asian Heritage Festival 2011". Asian/Pacific American Society. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Tiffany Hill. "Field Guide: Filipino Fun". Honolulu Magazine. Aio. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
Paul Raymund Cortes (3 June 2011). "19 Annual Filipino Fiesta". Philippine Consulate General Honolulu. Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia, Inc". Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia, Inc. 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
FAAPI also continues to hold the annual Mother of the Year celebration (started in 1950s) to honor motherhood on Mothers Day in May.
- "Flores de Mayo at Santacruzan". Center for Southeast Asian Studies Northern Illinois University. Northern Illinois University. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Mark Rabago (26 June 2006). "First-ever Flores de Mayo on Saipan tonight". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Flores de Mayo at the San Gabriel Mission". Asian Journal. 6 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Jose Antonio Vargas (11 June 2006). "Where Everyone Gets to Tagalog". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Washington Concert for Children's Choir". Manila Standard. 16 April 1993. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Rodney J. Jaleco (18 November 2009). "Fil-Am is deputy mayor of US Capital". ABS-CBN North America News Bureau. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Filipino Art Exhibition and Workshop". Events and Programs Schedule. Passaic Public Library. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Jim Belarmino (6 April 1995). "Philippine parade in Passaic, N.J. on June 11". Filipino Reporter. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Vallejo Pista Sa Nayon". Philippine Cultural Committee. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Quinto, Olivia J. "Empire State lights up for Filipinos—again". Archived from the original on 2006-10-18. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
- "Jersey City's Filipino community holds the 19th annual Friendship Day Parade and Festival". The Jersey Journal. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Ricardo Kaulessar (18 July 2010). "Rain on their parades". Hudson Reporter. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"GMA stars grace New Jersey Fil-Am Day parade". The Philippine Star. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Vanessa Cubillo (29 July 2010). "PHOTOS: 2010 Philippine American Friendship Day Parade". Jersey City Independent. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Fiesta Filipina USA". Fiesta Filipina USA. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"San Francisco celebrates a Philippine Independence weekend". Linda B. Bollido. 2 July 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Marconi Calindas (27 June 2009). "RP stars celebrate Independence Day with Fil-Ams". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Golin Harris (30 June 2009). "The Filipino Channel Awards Kapamilya Circle Member 1 Million Philippine Pesos During Wowowee; San Jose Woman Wins At Special U.S. Edition Of Game Show". Business Wire. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Jose Rizal Day in Carson on June 19". Asian Journal. 18 June 2011. Archived from the original on November 16, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Chicago Celebrates 150 years of Dr. Jose P. Rizal". Filipino American Historical Society of Chicago. 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Holton, Paul, ed. (2007). Fodor's Seattle. New York: Random House Digital, Inc. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4000-1854-3. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Filipino Cultural Heritage Society of Washington. "Pagdiriwang Philippine Festival". Festal 2011. Seattle Center. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Angelique Miller (16 May 2008). "Fil-Am Friendship Day slated for July 5". GMA News. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
Patrick K. Lackey (5 July 1992). "Filipinos in are come together on July fourth \ Diverse group seeking unity". The Virginia-Pilot. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Pista Sa Nayon". Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Seafair Highlights: Hollywood-themed parade". The Seattle Times. 28 July 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Evi Sztajino (25 July 2008). "Seafair events to close streets around the city". Seattle Post Intelligencer. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Filipino weekend". United Filipino weekend.com. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
Kasiner, Dorothy (2000). Delano Area 1930–2000. Chicago, Illinois: Arcadia Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7385-0775-0. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Philippine–American Expo". California Examiner. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
Cynthia De Coastro (21 December 2010). "Bernardo Bernardo: A Man of Many Hats". Asian Journal. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Philippine Fiesta". philippinefiesta.com. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
Don Tagala (18 August 2010). "Philippine Fiesta Draws Thousands to the East Coast". Balitang America. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "St. Augustine Church, Philadelphia: Immigration & Filipino Transformation". Scribe Video Center. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
Dr. Vivienne SM. Angeles (1998). ""Sinulog" in Philadelphia". The Pluralism Project. Harvard University. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Historic Filipinotown festival set this week". GMA News. 1 August 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Historic Filipinotown Festival/5KRun". Asian Journal. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Pistahan Parade and Festival". Filipino American Arts Exposition. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
Luis Chong (13 August 2010). "This Weekend: Huge Array of Filipino Eats at S.F.'s Annual Pistahan Festival". SF Weekly. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Filipino Pride Day". We Filipinos Inc. 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
Deirdre Conner (18 June 2009). "Festival highlights Jacksonville's Filipino culture". The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "FilAmArts". The Association for the Advancement of Filipino American Arts and Culture. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "The Filipino American Network's Adobo Festival".
- "FilAmFest". Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- "Chicago Filipino American Film Festival".
- Gonzalez, Joaquin Lucero (2009). Filipino American faith in action: immigration, religion, and civic engagement. New York: NYU Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8147-3197-0. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Christmas: A National Fiesta". Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Espiritu, Yen (1995). Filipino American Lives. Temple University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-56639-317-1.
- Crisostomo, Isabelo T. (1996). Filipino achievers in the USA & Canada: profiles in excellence. Bookhaus Publishers. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-931613-11-1.
- Labrador, Roderick N. Building Filipino Hawai'i (University of Illinois Press, 2015) 170pp
- Bankston III, Carl L. (2005). "Filipino Americans". In Min, Pyong Gap. Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues. Pine Forge Press. pp. 180–202, 368. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5.
- Isaac, Allan Punzalan (2006). American Tropics: Articulating Filipino America. U of Minnesota Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-8166-4274-8.
- Pido, Antonio J. A. (1986). The Pilipinos in America: macro/micro dimensions of immigration and integration. CMS Migration and Ethnicity Series. Center for Migration Studies. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-913256-78-7.
- Tiongson, Antonio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Guiterrez, Edgardo, eds. (2006). Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities and Discourse. Temple University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-59213-121-1.
- Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union, Local 7 Records, 1915–1985; Predominantly 1933–1982. 46.31 cubic feet. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
- Carlos Bulosan Papers, 1914–1976. 4.65 cubic feet, 17 microfilm reels. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
- Chris D. Mensalvas Papers, 1935–1974. .25 cubic feet, 1 sound cassette. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
- Chris D. Mensalvas Photograph Collection, 1937–1956. 1 folder of photographic prints. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
- Trinidad Rojo Papers, 1923–1991. 2.81 cubic feet. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Filipino Americans.|
- Eloisa Gomez Borah (2012). "Americans of Filipino Descent - FAQs". UCLA Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles.
- "FANHS National". Filipino American National Historical Society. 2014.
- "Filipino American Heritage Website". Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program. Smithsonian Institution. 2008.
- de Castro, Christian; Abarquez-de la Cruz, Prosy (9 October 2012). "The Filipino American Library". Filipino American Heritage Institute.
- "Filipino American Reseources". Lemieux Library. Seattle University.
- "Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center". Smithsonian Institution.