Film industry

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The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film studios, cinematography, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution; and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel.

Though the expense involved in making movies almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies. Advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve. Hollywood is the oldest film industry of the world[1] and the largest in terms of box office gross and number of screens.

Modern film industry[edit]

Currently, the largest markets by box office are United States, China, United Kingdom, Japan and India; and the countries with the largest number of film productions are India, Nigeria, and the United States. Other centers include Hong Kong and in Europe the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Germany are the countries that lead movie production.[2] The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of US$38.3 billion in 2015. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were: Asia-Pacific with US$14.1 billion, North America with US$11.1 billion and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa with US$9.7 billion.[3]

Distinct from the centers are the locations where movies are filmed. Because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in countries other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U.S. movies are filmed in Canada, many Nigerian movies are filmed in Ghana, while many Indian movies are filmed in the Americas, Europe, Singapore etc.

United States[edit]

The cinema of the United States, often generally referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The United States cinema(Hollywood) is the oldest film industry in the world which originated more than 121 years ago and also the largest film industry in terms of revenue. Hollywood is the primary nexus of the U.S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the American Film Institute, LA Film School and NYFA being established in the area.[4] However, four of the six major film studios are owned by East Coast companies. The major film studios of Hollywood including Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures and Lightstorm Entertainment are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world, such as Gone with the Wind (1939), Star Wars (1977), Titanic (1997), and Avatar (2009). Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world. Only The Walt Disney Company — which owns the Walt Disney Studios — is fully based in Southern California.[5] And while Sony Pictures Entertainment is headquartered in Culver City, California, its parent company, the Sony Corporation, is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Most shooting now takes place in California, New York, Louisiana, Georgia and North Carolina. Hollywood is the most popular film industry with the highest number of screens, and is the highest grossing film industry in the world. Between 2009-2015, Hollywood consistently grossed $10 billion (or more) annually.[6] Hollywood's award ceremony, the Academy Awards, officially known as The Oscars, is held by Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) every year and a total of 2,947 Oscars have been awarded since the inception of the award.[7]

The earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana by Charles Francis Jenkins which makes United States cinema the earliest cinema in the whole world. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family, friends and reporters. The film featured a vaudeville dancer performing a Butterfly Dance. Jenkins and his new partner Thomas Armat modified the Phantoscope for exhibitions in temporary theaters at the Cotton States Exposition in the fall of 1895. The Phantoscope was later sold to Thomas Edison, who changed the name of the projector to Edison's Vitascope.

Nestor studio, 1911

Nestor Studios was Hollywood's first movie studio, founded on October 27, 1911 It was built by David Horsley for Nestor Motion Picture Company. It was then owned and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley. The first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern. Other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestor's move west. The California weather allowed for year-round filming and the ambitious studio operated three principal divisions under its Canadian-born general manager, Al Christie. Other filmmakers began opening studios in the Hollywood area. The Horsleys operated the Nestor Studios at the Sunset and Gower location until May 20, 1912, when the Universal Studios was formed, headed by Carl Laemmle. Nestor, along with several other motion picture companies, including Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures (IMP), was merged with Universal.

China[edit]

See also: Cinema of China
Old Chinese Cinema in Qufu, Shandong, China

The Cinema of China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese-language cinema together with the Cinema of Hong Kong and the Cinema of Taiwan. Cinema was introduced in China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, The Battle of Dingjunshan, was made in 1905, with the film industry being centered on Shanghai in the first decades. China is the home of the largest film studio in the world, the Hengdian World Studios, and in 2010 it had the third largest film industry by number of feature films produced annually. For the next decade the production companies were mainly foreign-owned, and the domestic film industry was centered on Shanghai, a thriving entrepot and the largest city in the Far East. In 1913, the first independent Chinese screenplay, The Difficult Couple, was filmed in Shanghai by Zheng Zhengqiu and Zhang Shichuan.[8] As the Sixth Generation gained international exposure, many subsequent movies were joint ventures and projects with international backers, but remained quite resolutely low-key and low budget. Jia's Platform (2000) was funded in part by Takeshi Kitano's production house,[9] while his Still Life was shot on HD video. Still Life was a surprise addition and Golden Lion winner of the 2006 Venice International Film Festival. Still Life, which concerns provincial workers around the Three Gorges region, sharply contrasts with the works of Fifth Generation Chinese directors like Zhang Yimou and Chen Kaige who were at the time producing House of Flying Daggers (2004) and The Promise (2005). It featured no star of international renown and was acted mostly by non-professionals. In 2012 the country became the second-largest market in the world by box office receipts. In 2014, the gross box office in China was ¥29.6 billion (US$4.82 billion), with domestic films having a share of 55%. The country is predicted to have the largest market in the world in 2017 or 2018.[10][11] China has also become a major hub of business for Hollywood studios.[12][13] In 2013, China's gross box office was ¥21.8 billion (US$3.6 billion), the second-largest film market in the world by box office receipts[14] whereas in 2014, China's box office gross was $4.8 Billion, being the second largest box office grosser in film industry.[15]

India[edit]

See also: Cinema of India
A scene from Raja Harishchandra (1913) – credited as the first full-length Indian motion picture.

India is the largest producer of films in the world and second oldest film industry in the world which originated around about 103 years ago.[16] In 2009 India produced a total of 2,961 films on celluloid; this figure includes 1,288 feature films.[17] India is the country that produces more films annually and has the largest number of admissions.[18] Indian film industry is multi-lingual and the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and number of films produced and 5th largest in terms of revenue mainly due to having amongst the lowest ticket prices in the world.[19] The industry is viewed mainly by a vast film-going Indian public, and Indian films have been gaining increasing popularity in the rest of the world—notably in countries with large numbers of expatriate Indians. Indian film industry is also the dominant source of movies and entertainment in its neighboring countries of South Asia. Largest film industry in India is the Hindi film industry mostly concentrated in Mumbai (Bombay),[20] and is commonly referred to as "Bollywood", an amalgamation of Bombay, which produces around 20% of films in India. The other largest film industries are Telugu cinema, Tamil cinema, Kannada cinema, Malayalam cinema, and Bangla cinema (Cinema of West Bengal), which are located in Hyderabad, Chennai, Bengaluru (Bengaluru), Kochi, and Kolkata are commonly referred to as "Tollywood"(Telugu), "Kollywood"(Tamil), "Sandalwood"(Kannada), "Mollywood"(Malayalam), "Tollywood"(Bangla). The remaining majority portion is spread across northern, western, and southern India (with Gujarati, Punjabi, Marathi, Oriya,{bhojpuri|bihar} Assamese Cinema). However, there are several smaller centers of Indian film industries in regional languages centered in the states where those languages are spoken. Indian films are made filled with musicals, action, romance, comedy, and an increasing number of special effects. The Indian film industry produces more than 1000 films a year. "Bollywood" is the largest portion of this and is viewed all over the Indian Subcontinent, and is increasingly popular in UK, United States, Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia, Africa, the Gulf countries and European countries. The largest film studio complex in the world is Ramoji Film City is located at Hyderabad , India, which opened in 1996 and measures 674 ha (1,666 acres). Comprising 47 sound stages, it has permanent sets ranging from railway stations to temples.[21]

Turkey[edit]

The Turkish film industry is firmly established as the second largest European theatrical growth market and the 7th largest theatrical market in terms of admissions, only superseded by the ‘big 5’ EU markets and the Russian Federation. The Turkish film market also stands out in the pan-European landscape as the only market where national films regularly outperform US films.[22] It had 1.2 million number of admissions in film industry and 87 feature films were released in the year 2013.[23] Because of the exceptional box office success of Turkish films on the domestic market, the estimated 12.9 million admissions generated on non-national European markets only account for 7% of total admissions to Turkish films in Europe (including Turkey) between 2004 and 2013. This is the third lowest share among the 30 European markets for which such data are available and clearly illustrates the strong dependence of Turkish films on the domestic market, a feature which is shared by Polish and Russian films.[24] Over the past ten years an increasing number of Turkish films and filmmakers have been selected for international film festivals and received a large number of awards, like Kış Uykusu (Winter's Sleep) won Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Film in 2014[25] In terms of box office Turkey still ranks behind the Netherlands with just over EUR 200 million as Europe’s eight largest box office market ahead of Sweden and Switzerland with a clear gap to the top 6 markets all of which registered GBO between EUR 504 million (Spain) up to over EUR 1 billion in France, the UK, Germany and the Russian Federation.[26] Cinema going is comparatively cheap in Turkey. In 2013 a cinema ticket cost on average EUR 4.0 in Turkey, and this is estimated to be the lowest average ticket price - measured in Euro - in Europe, marginally cheaper than in several Central and Eastern European markets like Croatia, Romania, Lithuania or Bulgaria.[27] When comparing ticket prices in Euro, one of course has to take into consideration that these comparisons are significantly affected by fluctuations in the exchange rates of the various currencies. Because of devaluation of the Turkish Lira against the Euro, average ticket prices measured in Euro remained fairly stable over the past 10 years.[27]

Nigeria[edit]

Nigerian cinema is Africa's largest movie industry in terms of value and the number of movies produced per year. Although Nigerian films have been produced since the 1960s, the rise of affordable digital filming and editing technologies has stimulated the country's film and video industry. Nigeria's film industry is currently ranked as the 2nd largest film industry in the world (after India) based on the number of films released per year. The film industry is worth over US$3.5 billion.

The movie capital of the country is majorly Lagos. However, regional films are also produced in various parts of the country depending on the language.

Hong Kong[edit]

Zhuangzi Tests His Wife (1913) is credited as the first Hong Kong feature film

Hong Kong is a filmmaking hub for the Chinese-speaking world (including the worldwide diaspora) and East Asia in general. For decades it was the third largest motion picture industry in the world (after Bollywood and Hollywood) and the second largest exporter of films.[28] Despite an industry crisis starting in the mid-1990s and Hong Kong's return to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997 Hong Kong film has retained much of its distinctive identity and continues to play a prominent part on the world cinema stage. Unlike many film industries, Hong Kong has enjoyed little to no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas. It has always been a thoroughly commercial cinema, concentrating on crowd-pleasing genres, like comedy and action, and heavily reliant on formulas, sequels and remakes. Typically of commercial cinemas, its heart is a highly developed star system, which in this case also features substantial overlap with the pop music industry.

Nepal[edit]

Main article: Kallywood

Nepali film does not have a very long movie history, but the industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of the country which makes them the best. It is often referred to as 'Nepali Chalchitra' (which translates to "Nepali movies" in English). The terms Kollywood and Kallywood are also used, as a portmanteau of "Kathmandu" and "Hollywood"; "Kollywood" however is more frequently used to refer to Tamil cinema.[1] Kohinoor movie has been considered the highest grossing movie of all time in Nepali Movie Industry.

The Film Development Board (FDB) was established by the Government of Nepal for the development and promotion of the Nepali film industry. The Board is a liaison to facilitate the conceptualization, making, distribution and exhibition of Nepali films nationally. The Board attempts to bridge the gap between film entrepreneurship and government bureaucracy. The Board is a balance between the people at large, the government, and the process of film making. It is intended to act as the safeguard of the interests of the people, the watchdog of the government, and the advocate of filmmakers.

Pakistan[edit]

First Pakistani film Teri Yaad (1948).

Lollywood (Urdu: لالی وڈ) is a nickname used for the part of Pakistan's film industry based in the city of Lahore. The word "Lollywood" was first coined in the summer of 1989 in the now-defunct magazine Glamour published from Karachi by a gossip columnist Saleem Nasir, in line with the Hindi film industry's nickname Bollywood. Most of the feature films shot in Pakistan are in Urdu, the national language, but may also include films in English, the official language, and regional languages such as Punjabi, Pashto, Balochi, and Sindhi. Lahore was the epicentre of Pakistani cinema and Pakistan's largest film industry is Lollywood.

Indonesia[edit]

The biggest film studios in Southeast Asia has been soft opened on November 5, 2011 on 10 hectares of land in Nongsa, Batam Island, Indonesia. Infinite Frameworks (IFW) is a Singapore-based company (closed to Batam Island) which easy to approach or be approached by international clients and is owned by a consortium with 90 percent of it hold by Indonesian businessman and movie producer, Mike Wiluan.[29] In 2010-2011, due to the substantial increase in value added tax applied to foreign films, cinemas no longer have access to many foreign films, including Oscar-winning films. Foreign films include major box offices from the west, and other major film producers of the world. This has caused a massive ripple effect on the country's economy. It is assumed that this increases the purchase of unlicensed DVDs. However, even copyright violating DVDs now take longer to obtain. The minimum cost to view a foreign film not screened locally, is 1 million Rupiah. This is equivalent to US$100, as it includes a plane ticket to Singapore.[30] Locally made film quality has gone up in 2012, this is attested by the international release of films such as The Raid: Redemption, Modus Anomali, Dilema, Lovely Man, Java Heat, etc.

Egypt[edit]

See also: Cinema of Egypt

Egyptian cinema is the flourishing cinema of the Middle East. Since 1976, Cairo has held the annual Cairo International Film Festival (CIFF), which is accredited by the International Federation of Film Producers Association. Most of today’s Egyptian movies and TV series are produced in the Egyptian Media Production City which is equipped with the latest equipment for shooting in outdoor and indoor studios.[31] It includes about 64 high tech studios. Censorship, formerly an obstacle to freedom of expression, has decreased remarkably. The Egyptian cinema has witnessed a remarkable shift in terms of the taboos it may address. It has begun to tackle boldly issues ranging from sexual issues[32] to heavy government criticism.[33] The 1940s, 1950s and the 1960s are generally considered the golden age of Egyptian cinema. As in the West, films responded to the popular imagination, with most falling into predictable genres (happy endings being the norm), and many actors making careers out of playing strongly typed parts. In the words of one critic, "If an Egyptian film intended for popular audiences lacked any of these prerequisites, it constituted a betrayal of the unwritten contract with the spectator, the results of which would manifest themselves in the box office."[34] Since the 1990s, Egypt's cinema has gone in separate directions. Smaller art films attract some international attention but sparse attendance at home. Popular films, often broad comedies such as What A Lie!, and the extremely profitable works of comedian Mohamed Saad, battle to hold audiences either drawn to Western films or, increasingly, wary of the perceived immorality of film.[35]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Trinidad and Tobago’s film sector began emerging in the late fifties to early sixties and by the late seventies, there were a handful of local productions, both feature film and television.[36] The first full-length feature film to be produced in Trinidad and Tobago was “The Right and the Wrong” (1970) by Indian director/writer/producer, Harbance Kumar. The screenplay was written by the Trinidadian playwright, Freddie Kissoon.[37] The rest of the 20th century saw a couple more feature films being made in the country, with “Bim” (1974), being singled out by Bruce Paddington as "one of the most important films to be produced in Trinidad and Tobago….and one of the classics of Caribbean cinema.”[38] It was one of the first films to feature an almost entirely Trinidadian cast and crew.[39] There was a rise in Trinidadian film production in the 2000s. Movies such as “Ivan the Terrible” (2004), “SistaGod” (2006), “I’m Santana: The Movie” (2012) and “God Loves the Fighter” (2013) were released both locally and internationally. “SistaGod” had its world premiere at the 2006 Toronto International Film Festival.[40]

The Trinidad and Tobago Film Company is the national agency that was established in 2006 to further development of the film industry. Trinidad and Tobago puts on a number of film festivals which are organized by different committees and organizations. These include the Secondary Schools Short Film Festival and Smartphone Film Festival organized by Trinidad and Tobago Film Company. There is also an annual Trinidad and Tobago Film Festival which runs for two weeks in the latter half of September.

History[edit]

Main article: History of film
A still from The Story of the Kelly Gang (Australia, 1906; 80 min.)

The first feature film to be made was the 1906 Australian silent The Story of the Kelly Gang, an account of the notorious gang led by Ned Kelly that was directed and produced by the Melburnians Dan Barry and Charles Tait. It ran, continuously, for eighty minutes.[41] By the time other countries began making feature films, in 1911, a further fifteen feature-length films had been made in Australia.[citation needed]

In the early 1910s, the film industry had fully emerged with D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation. Also in the early 1900s motion picture production companies from New York and New Jersey started moving to California because of the good weather and longer days. Although electric lights existed at that time, none were powerful enough to adequately expose film; the best source of illumination for movie production was natural sunlight. Besides the moderate, dry climate, they were also drawn to the state because of its open spaces and wide variety of natural scenery.

Another reason was the distance of Southern California from New Jersey, making it more difficult for Thomas Edison to enforce his motion picture patents. At the time, Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production and, in the East, movie producers acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents. Thus, movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison's control. If he sent agents to California, word would usually reach Los Angeles before the agents did and the movie makers could escape to nearby Mexico.[citation needed]

Hollywood[edit]

The Hollywood Sign as it appears today

Hollywood is the oldest film industry in the world which was originated 121 years ago. The earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana by Charles Francis Jenkins. The first movie studio in the Hollywood area, Nestor Studios, was founded in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley in an old building on the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street. In the same year, another fifteen Independents settled in Hollywood. Hollywood came to be so strongly associated with the film industry that the word "Hollywood" came to be used colloquially to refer to the entire industry.

In 1913 Cecil B. DeMille, in association with Jesse Lasky, leased a barn with studio facilities on the southeast corner of Selma and Vine Streets from the Burns and Revier Studio and Laboratory, which had been established there. DeMille then began production of The Squaw Man (1914). It became known as the Lasky-DeMille Barn and is currently the location of the Hollywood Heritage Museum.

The Charlie Chaplin Studios, on the northeast corner of La Brea and De Longpre Avenues just south of Sunset Boulevard, was built in 1917. It has had many owners after 1953, including Kling Studios, which housed production for the Superman TV series with George Reeves; Red Skelton, who used the sound stages for his CBS TV variety show; and CBS, who filmed the TV series Perry Mason with Raymond Burr there. It has also been owned by Herb Alpert's A&M Records and Tijuana Brass Enterprises. It is currently The Jim Henson Company, home of the Muppets. In 1969 The Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Board named the studio a historical cultural monument.

The famous Hollywood Sign originally read "Hollywoodland." It was erected in 1923 to advertise a new housing development in the hills above Hollywood. For several years the sign was left to deteriorate. In 1949 the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce stepped in and offered to remove the last four letters and repair the rest.

The sign, located at the top of Mount Lee, is now a registered trademark and cannot be used without the permission of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, which also manages the venerable Walk of Fame.

The first Academy Awards presentation ceremony took place on May 16, 1929, during a banquet held in the Blossom Room of the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel on Hollywood Boulevard. Tickets were USD $10.00[citation needed] and there were 250 people in attendance.

From about 1930 five major Hollywood movie studios from all over the Los Angeles area, Paramount, RKO, 20th Century Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Warner Bros., owned large, grand theaters throughout the country for the exhibition of their movies. The period between the years 1927 (the effective end of the silent era) to 1948 is considered the age of the "Hollywood studio system", or, in a more common term, the Golden Age of Hollywood. In a landmark 1948 court decision, the Supreme Court ruled that movie studios could not own theaters and play only the movies of their studio and movie stars, thus an era of Hollywood history had unofficially ended. By the mid-1950s, when television proved a profitable enterprise that was here to stay, movie studios started also being used for the production of programming in that medium, which is still the norm today.

Bollywood[edit]

See also: Cinema of India
A shot from the first film of the Indian film industry.

Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay), Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; however, it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centres producing films in multiple languages.[42] Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centres of film production in the world.[43][44][45]

Bollywood is formally referred to as Hindi cinema.[46]

The Wrestlers (1899) and The Man and His Monkeys (1899) directed and produced by Harischandra Sakharam Bhatawdekar (H. S. Bhatavdekar) were the first two films made by Indian filmmakers, which were both short films. He was also the first Indian filmmaker to direct and produce the first documentary and news related film titled The Landing of Sir M.M. Bhownuggree.

Pundalik (Shree Pundalik) (1912), by Dadasaheb Torne alias Rama Chandra Gopal, and Raja Harishchandra (1913), by Dadasaheb Phalke, were the first and second silent feature films respectively made in India.[47][48][49][50] By the 1930s the industry was producing more than 200 films per annum.[51] The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931), was a major commercial success.[52] There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. Joymoti (1935 film) by Jyoti Prasad Agarwalla was the first Indian dubbed film, released in Calcutta on 10 March 1935. Till then, all dialogues of all talkies were had to be recorded at locations during the shooting of the film. Through Joymoti (1935 film), dubbing technology was successfully introduced to Indian cinema by Assamese filmmaker Jyoti Prasad Agarwalla.[48]

The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots.[51]

In 1937 Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first colour film in Hindi, Kisan Kanya. The next year, he made another colour film, a version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema.

Statistics[edit]

Largest markets by box office[edit]

Source: Theatrical Market Statistics 2015MPAA

Rank Country Box office (billions) Year Box office
from national films[53]
- World $38.3 2015
1 United States United States
Canada Canada
$11.1 2015
2  China $6.78 2015 55% (2015)[54]
3  United Kingdom $1.9 2015 22.2% (2013)[55]
4  Japan $1.8 2015 58.3% (2014)[56]
5  India $1.6 2015
6  South Korea $1.5 2015 48.0% (2014)[57]
7  France $1.4 2015 33.3% (2013)[58]
8  Germany $1.3 2015
9  Australia $0.9 2015 3.5% (2013)[59]
10  Mexico $0.9 2015 10.8% (2013)[59]
11  Russia $0.8 2015 18% (2013)[60]
12  Italy $0.7 2015 16.9% (2013)[59]
13  Brazil $0.7 2015 30.4% (2013)[59]
14  Spain $0.6 2015 13.9% (2013)[59]
15  Argentina $0.3 2015

Largest markets by number of admissions[edit]

Source:World Film Market Trends - European Audiovisual Observatory

Source:2015年全国电影票房440亿元

Rank Country Number of
admissions (millions)
Year
1  India 9,164.0 2013
2  United States
 Canada
1,364.0 2013
3  China 1,260.0 2015
4  France 208.0 2013
5  Mexico 197.0 2013
6  United Kingdom 176.3 2013
7  Japan 171.3 2013
8  South Korea 168.8 2013
9  Germany 156.3 2013
10  Russia 146.0 2013

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana by Charles Francis Jenkins
  2. ^ "European Audiovisual Council" (PDF). European Audiovisual Council, Council of Europe. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  3. ^ Frater, Patrick (April 13, 2016). "Asia Expands Domination of Global Box Office". Variety. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  4. ^ Los Angeles Film Studies
  5. ^ Donckels, William. "Disney Raises SoCal Annual Pass Prices 30% - to Keep Locals "Out"". Technorati.com. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  6. ^ Number of total movies in 2014 are taken from http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=2014
  7. ^ "Oscar Statuette". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 
  8. ^ Carter, David (2010-11-04). East Asian Cinema. Oldcastle Books, Limited. ISBN 9781842433805. 
  9. ^ "A Touch of Sin: Interview with Jia Zhang-ke". Electric Sheep. Retrieved 2015-12-03. 
  10. ^ Frater, Patrick (September 30, 2015). "IMAX China Sets Cautious IPO Share Price". variety.com. Retrieved October 9, 2015. 
  11. ^ Hoad, Phil (December 31, 2013). "Marvel rules, franchises dip, China thrives: 2013 global box office in review". theguardian.com. Retrieved January 11, 2014. 
  12. ^ Patrick Brzeski, Clifford Coonan (April 3, 2014). "Inside Johnny Depp's 'Transcendence' Trip to China". The Hollywood Reporter. As China's box office continues to boom – it expanded 30 percent in the first quarter of 2014 and is expected to reach $4.64 billion by year's end – Beijing is replacing London and Tokyo as the most important promotional destination for Hollywood talent. 
  13. ^ FlorCruz, Michelle (April 2, 2014). "Beijing Becomes A Top Spot On International Hollywood Promotional Tours". International Business Times. The booming mainland Chinese movie market has focused Hollywood's attention on the Chinese audience and now makes Beijing more important on promo tours than Tokyo and Hong Kong 
  14. ^ "China B.O. up 27% in 2013". www.filmbiz.asia. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  15. ^ "Theatrical Market Statistics 2014 - MPAA" (PDF). 
  16. ^ Khanna, "The Business of Hindi Films", 140
  17. ^ "Annual report 2010" (PDF). Central Board of Film Certification, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  18. ^ According to 2014 Theatrical Market Statistics by MPAA
  19. ^ 5th according to http://www.filmcontact.com/americas/united-states/top-10-film-countries-box-office
  20. ^ Raja, Aditi (31 July 2012). "Film industry threatens it might have to move out of 'unsafe' Mumbai". London: Mail Online India. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  21. ^ "Largest film studio". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2016-05-31. 
  22. ^ "Recherche - Observatoire européen de l'audiovisuel". www.obs.coe.int. Retrieved 2015-12-04. 
  23. ^ KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film Industry. European Audiovisual Observatory. p. 59. 
  24. ^ KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film Industry. European Audiovisual Observatory. p. 61. 
  25. ^ KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film Industry. European Audiovisual Observatory. p. 67. 
  26. ^ KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film Industry. European Audiovisual Observatory. p. 71. 
  27. ^ a b KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film Industry. European Audiovisual Observatory. p. 72. 
  28. ^ Gorman, Patrick J. "Hong Kong to Hollywood: A "ridiculous amount of interest" in Hong Kong cinema is redefining Tinseltown". Moviemaker.com. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  29. ^ "Indonesia Now Home to Southeast Asia's Biggest Movie Studios". November 14, 2011. 
  30. ^ http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/indonesia/new-import-policy-will-kill-indonesian-film-industry-noorca/423632
  31. ^ Kandil, Heba. "The Media Free Zone: An Egyptian Media Production City Finesse". TBS. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  32. ^ Krajeski, Jenna. "Acclaimed Movie "678" Shows the Ubiquity of Sexual Harassment in Egypt". Slate.com. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  33. ^ El Deeb, Sarah. "Egypt court sentences 8 to death over prophet film". Associated Press. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  34. ^ Farid, Samir, "Lights, camera...retrospection", Al-Ahram Weekly, December 30, 1999
  35. ^ Farid, Samir, "An Egyptian Story", Al-Ahram Weekly, November 23–29, 2006
  36. ^ "The Film Industry". 
  37. ^ Kissoon, Freddie (27 March 2008). "First Movie". Newsday. 
  38. ^ Paddington, Bruce (November 2004). "Bim, Bim, Sink or Swim". Caribbean Beat (70). 
  39. ^ Mendes-Franco, Janine (9 February 2014). "Bim Fans Go Online". Trinidad and Tobago Guardian. 
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Allen J. Scott (2005) On Hollywood: The Place The Industry, Princeton University Press
  • Robertson, Patrick (1988) The Guinness Book of Movie Facts & Feats. London: Guinness Publishing Limited
  • Arnab Jan Deka (27 Oct 1996) Fathers of Indian Cinema Bhatawdekar and Torney, Dainik Asam
  • Sanjit Narwekar (1995) Marathi Cinema : In Retrospect, Maharashtra Film, Stage & Cultural Development Corporation Ltd
  • Firoze Rangoonwalla (1979) A Pictorial History of Indian Cinema, The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited

External links[edit]