Financial District, Manhattan

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Financial District
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan viewed from New York Harbor, near the Statue of Liberty, October 2013
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan viewed from New York Harbor, near the Statue of Liberty, October 2013
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°42′29″N 74°00′40″W / 40.708°N 74.011°W / 40.708; -74.011Coordinates: 40°42′29″N 74°00′40″W / 40.708°N 74.011°W / 40.708; -74.011
Country United States
State New York
City New York City
Borough Manhattan
Community DistrictManhattan 1[1]
Area
 • Total1.17 km2 (0.453 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total57,627
 • Density49,000/km2 (130,000/sq mi)
Economics
 • Median income$125,565
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
ZIP codes
10004, 10005, 10006, 10038
Area code212, 332, 646, and 917

The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, also known as FiDi,[3] is a neighborhood located on the southern tip of Manhattan island in New York City. It is bounded by the West Side Highway on the west, Chambers Street and City Hall Park on the north, Brooklyn Bridge on the northeast, the East River to the southeast, and The Battery on the south.

The City of New York was created in the Financial District in 1624, and the neighborhood roughly overlaps with the boundaries of the New Amsterdam settlement in the late 17th century.[4] The district comprises the offices and headquarters of many of the city's major financial institutions, including the New York Stock Exchange and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Anchored on Wall Street in the Financial District, New York City has been called both the most financially powerful city and the leading financial center of the world,[5][6][7][8][9] and the New York Stock Exchange is the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization.[10][11] Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Financial District, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, NASDAQ, the New York Board of Trade, and the former American Stock Exchange.

The Financial District is part of Manhattan Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10004, 10005, 10006, and 10038.[1] It is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department.

Description[edit]

1847 map showing the street layout and ferry routes for lower Manhattan

The Financial District encompasses roughly the area south of City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan but excludes Battery Park and Battery Park City. The former World Trade Center complex was located in the neighborhood until the September 11, 2001 attacks; the neighborhood includes the successor One World Trade Center. The heart of the Financial District is often considered to be the corner of Wall Street and Broad Street, both of which are contained entirely within the district.[12] The northeastern part of the financial district (along Fulton Street and John Street) was known in the early 20th century as the Insurance District, due to the large number of insurance companies that were either headquartered there, or maintained their New York offices there.

Although the term is sometimes used as a synonym for Wall Street, the latter term is often applied metonymously to the financial markets as a whole (and is also a street in the district), whereas "the Financial District" implies an actual geographical location. The Financial District is part of Manhattan Community Board 1, which also includes five other neighborhoods (Battery Park City, Civic Center, Greenwich South, Seaport, and Tribeca).[1]

Architecture[edit]

The Financial District's architecture is generally rooted in the Gilded Age, though there are also some art deco influences in the neighborhood. The area is distinguished by narrow streets, a steep topography, and high-rises[13] Construction in such narrow steep areas has resulted in occasional accidents such as a crane collapse.[14] One report divided lower Manhattan into three basic districts:[13]

  1. The Financial District proper—particularly along John Street
  2. South of the World Trade Center area—the handful of blocks south of the World Trade Center along Greenwich, Washington and West Streets
  3. Seaport district—characterized by century-old low-rise buildings and South Street Seaport; the seaport is "quiet, residential, and has an old world charm" according to one description.[13]
The Chamber of Commerce Building at 65 Liberty Street, one of many historical buildings in the district

Federal Hall National Memorial, on the site of the first U.S. capitol and the first inauguration of George Washington as the first President of the United States, is located at the corner of Wall Street and Nassau Street.

The Financial District has a number of tourist attractions such as the South Street Seaport Historic District, newly renovated Pier 17, the New York City Police Museum, and Museum of American Finance. National Museum of the American Indian, Trinity Church, St. Paul's Chapel, and the famous bull. Bowling Green is the starting point of traditional ticker-tape parades on Broadway, where here it is also known as the Canyon of Heroes. The Museum of Jewish Heritage and the Skyscraper Museum are both in adjacent Battery Park City which is also home to the Brookfield Place (formerly World Financial Center).

Another key anchor for the area is the New York Stock Exchange. City authorities realize its importance, and believed that it has "outgrown its neoclassical temple at the corner of Wall and Broad streets", and in 1998 offered substantial tax incentives to try to keep it in the Financial District.[15] Plans to rebuild it were delayed by the September 11, 2001 attacks.[15] The exchange still occupies the same site. The exchange is the locus for a large amount of technology and data. For example, to accommodate the three thousand persons who work directly on the Exchange floor requires 3,500 kilowatts of electricity, along with 8,000 phone circuits on the trading floor alone, and 200 miles of fiber-optic cable below ground.[16]

Surrounding neighborhood[edit]

During most of the 20th century, the Financial District was a business community with practically only offices which emptied out at night. A report in The New York Times in 1961 described a "deathlike stillness that settles on the district after 5:30 and all day Saturday and Sunday".[13] But there has been a change towards greater residential use of the area, pushed forwards by technological changes and shifting market conditions. The general pattern is for several hundred thousand workers to commute into the area during the day, sometimes by sharing a taxicab[17] from other parts of the city as well as from New Jersey and Long Island, and then leave at night. In 1970 only 833 people lived "south of Chambers Street"; by 1990, 13,782 people were residents with the addition of areas such as Battery Park City[15] and Southbridge Towers.[18] Battery Park City was built on 92 acres of landfill, and 3,000 people moved there beginning about 1982, but by 1986 there was evidence of more shops and stores and a park, along with plans for more residential development.[19]

The Financial District area from Brooklyn. The South Street Seaport is at the lower middle, a little to the right

According to one description in 1996, "The area dies at night ... It needs a neighborhood, a community."[18] During the past two decades there has been a shift towards greater residential living areas in the Financial District, with incentives from city authorities in some instances.[15] Many empty office buildings have been converted to lofts and apartments; for example, the office building of Harry Sinclair, the oil magnate involved with the Teapot Dome scandal, was converted to a co-op in 1979.[18] In 1996, a fifth of buildings and warehouses were empty, and many were converted to living areas.[18] Some conversions met with problems, such as aging gargoyles on building exteriors having to be expensively restored to meet with current building codes.[18] Residents in the area have sought to have a supermarket, a movie theater, a pharmacy, more schools, and a "good diner".[18] The discount retailer named Job Lot used to be located at the World Trade Center but moved to Church Street; merchants bought extra unsold items at steep prices and sold them as a discount to consumers, and shoppers included "thrifty homemakers and browsing retirees" who "rubbed elbows with City Hall workers and Wall Street executives"; but the firm went bust in 1993.[20]

There were reports that the number of residents increased by 60% during the 1990s to about 25,000[15] although a second estimate (based on the 2000 census based on a different map) places the residential population in 2000 at 12,042.[13] By 2001 there were several grocery stores, dry cleaners, and two grade schools and a top high school.[15] There is also a long-standing a barber shop across from the New York Stock Exchange.[21] Additionally, there were more signs of dogwalkers at night and a 24-hour neighborhood, although the general pattern of crowds during the working hours and emptiness at night was still apparent.[13] There were also ten hotels and thirteen museums.[13] Stuyvesant High School moved to its present location near Battery Park City in 1992 and has been described as one of the nation's premier high schools with emphasis on science and mathematics.[13] In 2007 the French fashion retailer Hermès opened a store in the financial district to sell items such as a "$4,700 custom-made leather dressage saddle or a $47,000 limited edition alligator briefcase".[22] However, there are reports of panhandlers like elsewhere in the city.[23] By 2010 the residential population had increased to 24,400 residents.[24] and the area was growing with luxury high-end apartments and upscale retailers.[25]

Street grid[edit]

Street grid as seen from the air in 2009

The streets in the area were laid out prior to the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, a grid plan that dictates the placement of most of Manhattan's streets north of Houston Street. Thus, it has small streets "barely wide enough for a single lane of traffic are bordered on both sides by some of the tallest buildings in the city", according to one description, which creates "breathtaking artificial canyons" offering spectacular views in some instances.[13] Some streets have been designated as pedestrian-only with vehicular traffic prohibited.[22]

Tourism[edit]

The Financial District is a major location of tourism in New York City. One report described lower Manhattan as "swarming with camera-carrying tourists".[26] Tour guides highlight places such as Trinity Church, the Federal Reserve gold vaults 80 feet below street level (worth $100 billion), and the NYSE.[27] A Scoundrels of Wall Street Tour is a walking historical tour which includes a museum visit and discussion of various financiers "who were adept at finding ways around finance laws or loopholes through them".[28] Occasionally artists make impromptu performances; for example, in 2010, a troupe of 22 dancers "contort their bodies and cram themselves into the nooks and crannies of the Financial District in Bodies in Urban Spaces" choreographed by Willi Donner.[29] One chief attraction, the Federal Reserve Building in lower Manhattan, paid $750,000 to open a visitors' gallery in 1997.[26] The New York Stock Exchange and the American Stock Exchange also spent money in the late 1990s to upgrade facilities for visitors.[26] Attractions include the gold vault beneath the Federal Reserve and that "staring down at the trading floor was as exciting as going to the Statue of Liberty".[26]

Demographics[edit]

For census purposes, the New York City government classifies the Financial District as part of a larger neighborhood tabulation area called Battery Park City-Lower Manhattan.[30] Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Battery Park City-Lower Manhattan was 39,699, an increase of 19,611 (97.6%) from the 20,088 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 479.77 acres (194.16 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 82.7 inhabitants per acre (52,900/sq mi; 20,400/km2).[31] The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 65.4% (25,965) White, 3.2% (1,288) African American, 0.1% (35) Native American, 20.2% (8,016) Asian, 0.0% (17) Pacific Islander, 0.4% (153) from other races, and 3.0% (1,170) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.7% (3,055) of the population.[32]

The entirety of Community District 1, which comprises the Financial District and other Lower Manhattan neighborhoods, had 63,383 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 85.8 years.[33]:2, 20 This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.[34]:53 (PDF p. 84)[35] Most inhabitants are young to middle-aged adults: half (50%) are between the ages of 25–44, while 14% are between 0–17, and 18% between 45–64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 11% and 7% respectively.[33]:2

As of 2017, the median household income in Community Districts 1 and 2 (including Greenwich Village and SoHo) was $144,878,[36] though the median income in the Financial District individually was $125,565.[2] In 2018, an estimated 9% of Financial District and Lower Manhattan residents lived in poverty, compared to 14% in all of Manhattan and 20% in all of New York City. One in twenty-five residents (4%) were unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 38% in Financial District and Lower Manhattan, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Financial District and Lower Manhattan are considered high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying.[33]:7

The population of the Financial District has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018,[37] up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.[38]

Political representation[edit]

Local[edit]

In the New York City Council, the Financial District is part of District 1, represented by Democrat Margaret Chin.[39][40]

State[edit]

The Financial District is part of the 26th State Senate district,[41][42] represented by Democrat Brian P. Kavanagh.[43] In the New York State Assembly, most of the neighborhood is in the 65th district, represented by Democrat Yuh-Line Niou, though the extreme northwestern area is part of the 66th district, represented by Democrat Deborah Glick.[44][45][43]

Federal[edit]

As of 2013, the Financial District is located within two congressional districts in the United States House of Representatives.[46][47] Most of the neighborhood is part of New York's 10th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jerrold Nadler, while the extreme northeastern section is part of New York's 12th congressional district, represented by Democrat Carolyn Maloney.[43]

Police and crime[edit]

Financial District and Lower Manhattan are patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the NYPD, located at 16 Ericsson Place.[48] The 1st Precinct ranked 63rd safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. Though the number of crimes is low compared to other NYPD precincts, the residential population is also much lower.[49] With a non-fatal assault rate of 24 per 100,000 people, Financial District and Lower Manhattan's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 152 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.[33]:8

The 1st Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 86.3% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 1 murder, 23 rapes, 80 robberies, 61 felony assaults, 85 burglaries, 1,085 grand larcenies, and 21 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[50]

Fire safety[edit]

The Financial District is served by three New York City Fire Department (FDNY) fire stations:[51]

  • Engine Co. 4/Ladder Co. 15/Decon Unit – 42 South Street[52]
  • Engine Co. 6 – 49 Beekman Street[53]
  • Engine Co. 10/Ladder Co. 10 – 124 Liberty Street[54]

Health[edit]

Preterm and teenage births are less common in Financial District and Lower Manhattan than in other places citywide. In Financial District and Lower Manhattan, there were 77 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 2.2 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide), though the teenage birth rate is based on a small sample size.[33]:11 Financial District and Lower Manhattan have a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 4%, less than the citywide rate of 12%, though this was based on a small sample size.[33]:14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Financial District and Lower Manhattan is 0.0096 milligrams per cubic metre (9.6×10−9 oz/cu ft), more than the city average.[33]:9 Sixteen percent of Financial District and Lower Manhattan residents are smokers, which is more than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.[33]:13 In Financial District and Lower Manhattan, 4% of residents are obese, 3% are diabetic, and 15% have high blood pressure, the lowest rates in the city—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.[33]:16 In addition, 5% of children are obese, the lowest rate in the city, compared to the citywide average of 20%.[33]:12

Ninety-six percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is more than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 88% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," more than the city's average of 78%.[33]:13 For every supermarket in Financial District and Lower Manhattan, there are 6 bodegas.[33]:10

The nearest major hospital is NewYork-Presbyterian Lower Manhattan Hospital in the Civic Center area.[55][56]

Post offices and ZIP codes[edit]

Financial District is located within several ZIP Codes. The largest ZIP Codes are 10004, centered around the Battery; 10005, around Wall Street; 10006, around the World Trade Center; 10007, around City Hall; and 10038, around South Street Seaport. There are also several smaller ZIP Codes spanning one block, including 10045 around the Federal Reserve Bank; 10271 around the Equitable Building; and 10279 around the Woolworth Building.[57]

The United States Postal Service operates four post offices in the Financial District:

Education[edit]

Financial District and Lower Manhattan generally have a higher rate of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. The vast majority of residents age 25 and older (84%) have a college education or higher, while 4% have less than a high school education and 12% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64% of Manhattan residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.[33]:6 The percentage of Financial District and Lower Manhattan students excelling in math rose from 61% in 2000 to 80% in 2011, and reading achievement increased from 66% to 68% during the same time period.[62]

Financial District and Lower Manhattan's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In Financial District and Lower Manhattan, 6% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, less than the citywide average of 20%.[33]:6[34]:24 (PDF p. 55) Additionally, 96% of high school students in Financial District and Lower Manhattan graduate on time, more than the citywide average of 75%.[33]:6

Schools[edit]

The New York City Department of Education operates the following public schools in the Financial District:[63]

Libraries[edit]

The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates two branches nearby. The New Amsterdam branch is located at 9 Murray Street near Broadway. It was established on the ground floor of an office building in 1989.[70] The Battery Park City branch is located at 175 North End Avenue near Murray Street. Completed in 2010, the two-story branch is NYPL's first LEED-certified branch.[71]

Transportation[edit]

The following New York City Subway stations are located in the Financial District:[72]

The largest transit hub, Fulton Center, was completed in 2014 after a $1.4 billion reconstruction project necessitated by the September 11, 2001 attacks, and involves at least five different sets of platforms. This transit hub was expected to serve 300,000 daily riders as of late 2014.[73] The World Trade Center Transportation Hub and PATH station opened in 2016.[74]

MTA Regional Bus Operations also operates several bus routes in the Financial District, namely the M15, M20, M15 SBS, M55 and M103 routes running north-south through the area, and the M9 and M22 routes running west-east through the area. There are also many MTA express bus routes running through the Financial District.[75] The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation operates a free shuttle bus, the Downtown Connection, which circulates around the Financial District during the daytime.[76]

Ferry services are also concentrated downtown, including the Staten Island Ferry at the Whitehall Terminal, NYC Ferry at Pier 11/Wall Street (and Battery Park City Ferry Terminal starting in 2020), and service to Governors Island at the Battery Maritime Building.[77]

Tallest buildings[edit]

Name Image Height
ft (m)
Floors Year Notes
One World Trade Center One World Trade Center cropped2.jpg 1,776 (541.3) 104 2014 Is the sixth-tallest building in the world and the tallest building in the United States since its topping out on May 10, 2013. It is also the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere and the tallest all-office building in the world.[78][79]
3 World Trade Center Three World Trade Center, New York, NY.jpg 1,079 (329) 80 2018 Mixed use; opened in 2018.[80]
4 World Trade Center 4 WTC May 17 2013.jpg 978 (298) 74 2013 Third-tallest building at the rebuilt World Trade Center and in the Financial District. The building opened to tenants in 2013.[81]
70 Pine Street AIB-NYC-gp.jpg 952 (290) 66 1932 22nd-tallest building in the United States; formerly known as the American International Building and the Cities Service Building[82][83] 70 Pine is being transformed into a residential skyscraper with 644 rental residences, 132 hotel rooms and 35,000 square feet of retail [84]
30 Park Place 99 Church St from west jeh.jpg 937 (286) 82 2016 Four Seasons Private Residences and Hotel. Topped-out in 2015 and completed in 2016.[85]
40 Wall Street 40 Wall Street New York City at Sunset C R.jpg 927 (283) 70 1930 26th-tallest in the United States; was world's tallest building for less than two months in 1930; formerly known as the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building; also known as 40 Wall Street[86][87]
28 Liberty Street One Chase Manhattan Plaza 1.jpg 813 (248) 60 1961 [88][89]
50 West Street 50 West Street 23 Oct 2015.png 778 (237) 63 2016 [90][91]
200 West Street GoldmanSachsHeadquarters.JPG 749 (228) 44 2010 Also known as Goldman Sachs World Headquarters[92][93]
60 Wall Street 60 Wall Street building.jpg 745 (227) 55 1989 Also known as Deutsche Bank Building[94][95]
One Liberty Plaza 0013TIARA P1000433.JPG 743 (226) 54 1973 Formerly known as the U.S. Steel Building[96][97]
20 Exchange Place 20 Exchange Place Tower 111.JPG 741 (226) 57 1931 Formerly known as the City Bank-Farmers Trust Building[98][99]
200 Vesey Street World Financial Center.jpg 739 (225) 51 1986 Also known as Three World Financial Center[100][101]
HSBC Bank Building WSTM Mark Frank 0086.jpg 688 (210) 52 1967 Also known as Marine Midland Building[102][103]
55 Water Street 55 Water Street with north wing.JPG 687 (209) 53 1972 [104][105]
1 Wall Street 1 Wall Street.jpg 654 (199) 50 1931 Also known as Bank of New York Mellon Building [106][107]
225 Liberty Street World Financial Center.jpg 645 (197) 44 1987 Also known as Two World Financial Center[108][109]
1 New York Plaza One New York Plaza.jpg 640 (195) 50 1969 [110][111]
Home Insurance Plaza WSTM-CornFedChicks0080.JPG 630 (192) 45 1966 [112][113]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

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  4. ^ "Manhattan, New York – Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park". The Pinnacle List. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
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  6. ^ "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S." Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2015. For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world.
    "PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
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  9. ^ [1] Accessed March 23, 2019.
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  23. ^ Patty Stonesifer and Sandy Stonesifer (January 23, 2009). "Sister, Can You Spare a Dime? I don't give to my neighborhood panhandlers. Should I?". Slate. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
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  25. ^ Michael Stoler (June 28, 2007). "Refashioned: Financial District Is Booming With Business". New York Sun. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
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  27. ^ LIsa W. Foderaro (June 20, 1997). "A Financial District Tour". The New York Times. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  28. ^ T.L. Chancellor (January 14, 2010). "Walking Tours of NYC". USA Today: Travel. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
  29. ^ Aaron Rutkoff (September 27, 2010). "'Bodies in Urban Spaces': Fitting In on Wall Street". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
  30. ^ New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  31. ^ Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  32. ^ Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
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  40. ^ "District 1". New York City Council. March 25, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
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  42. ^ "NY Senate District 26". NY State Senate. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  43. ^ a b c "Elected Officials & District Map". New York State Board of Elections. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
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  45. ^ "New York State Assembly Member Directory". Assembly Member Directory. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  46. ^ Congressional District 10, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
    • Congressional District 12, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  47. ^ New York City Congressional Districts, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  48. ^ "NYPD – 1st Precinct". www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  49. ^ "Downtown: Battery Park, Financial District, SoHo, TriBeCa – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". www.dnainfo.com. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
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