|Headquarters||Findhorn, Moray, Scotland|
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The Findhorn Foundation is a Scottish charitable trust registered in 1972, formed by the spiritual community at the Findhorn Ecovillage, one of the largest intentional communities in Britain. It has been home to thousands of residents from more than 40 countries. The Foundation runs educational programmes for the Findhorn community, and houses about 40 community businesses such as the Findhorn Press and an alternative medicine centre.
Before the Findhorn Foundation in 1972, there was a Findhorn Trust as more people joined Eileen Caddy, Peter Caddy and Dorothy Maclean, who had arrived at the Caravan Park at Findhorn Bay on 17 November 1962. The Findhorn Foundation and surrounding Findhorn Ecovillage community at The Park, Findhorn, a village in Moray, Scotland, and at Cluny Hill in Forres, is now home to more than 400 people.
The Findhorn Foundation and the surrounding community have no formal doctrine or creed. The Foundation offers a range of workshops, programmes and events in the environment of a working ecovillage. The programmes are intended to give participants practical experience of how to apply spiritual values in daily life. Approximately 3000 participants from around the world take part in residential programmes each year.
Findhorn Ecovillage has been awarded UN Habitat Best Practice designation from the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT), and regularly holds seminars of CIFAL Findhorn, a United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), affiliated training centre for Northern Europe.
The founders; early history
In the late 1940s Sheena Govan emerged as an informal spiritual teacher to a small circle that included her then-husband, Peter Caddy, and Dorothy Maclean. Eileen Caddy, as she became, who had a background in the Moral Rearmament (MRA) movement, joined them in the early 1950s. The group's principal focus was dedication to the 'Christ Within' and following God's guidance. In 1957 Peter and Eileen Caddy were appointed to manage the Cluny Hill Hotel near Forres, Maclean joining them as the hotel's secretary. Though now separated from Sheena Govan, whose relationship with Eileen Caddy had deteriorated, they continued with the practices she taught. In the early 1960s, Caddy, along with others who called themselves channellers, believed that they were in contact with extraterrestrials through telepathy, and prepared a landing strip for flying saucers at nearby Cluny Hill.
In late 1962, Caddy's employment with the hotel chain that owned Cluny Hill, at the time he was working in the Trossachs, was terminated. He and Eileen settled in a caravan near the village of Findhorn; an annex was built in early 1963, so that Maclean could live close to the Caddy family. Eileen Caddy's direct relationship with God began with an experience in Glastonbury, where she recorded that she heard a voice say "Be Still and Know that I am God". Peter Caddy followed "an intuitive spontaneous inner knowing" and was influenced by theosophy and MRA, from which he developed methods of positive thinking and other methods he had learned in the Rosicrucian Order Crotona Fellowship.
Maclean initially followed practices from the Sufi group centred on the teachings of Inayat Khan, and from this developed her contact with the divine to focus upon communication with 'nature spirits' which she named as devas. The three of them agreed that Maclean's contacts should be made useful for the growing of food which was supplementing their income (the family at this point being entirely supported by Family Allowance). The Caddys credited the garden's success of producing "exceptionally large vegetables" – on these practices. More conventional explanations have been suggested by locals from outside the community who feel that the garden's successes can be explained by the unique microclimate of Moray or the substantial quantities of horse manure donated by a local farmer.
Many others were involved with varying importance and influences in the early years, from Lena Lamont, part of Sheena Govan's circle, who lived in her caravan with her family and who shunned publicity, to those whom Peter Caddy met as he travelled in British New Age circles: among them Robert Ogilvie Crombie (ROC), who wrote of nature spirits in The Findhorn Garden; Sir George Trevelyan who formed the Wrekin Trust; Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke, Liebie Pugh, and Joan Hartnell-Beavis. Through connections such as these and the distribution of Eileen Caddy's writings in the form of a booklet titled God Spoke to Me (1967), people came to live at the Caravan Park, eventually forming the 'Findhorn Trust' and the 'Findhorn Community'.
From 1969, following Eileen's guidance, Peter Caddy slowly devolved his day-to-day command. David Spangler became co-director of Education almost immediately after he arrived in 1970, which resulted in the gradual transformation into a centre of residential spiritual education with a permanent staff of over 100, and the establishment of the Findhorn Foundation in 1972. The following year. David Spangler and Maclean, with several other Findhorn Foundation members, left to found the Lorian Association near Seattle. By 1979 Peter and Eileen's marriage had disintegrated, and he left the Foundation. Eileen Caddy remained, and in 2004 was awarded an OBE. Peter Caddy died in a car crash in Germany on 18 February 1994. Eileen Caddy died at home on 13 December 2006. Maclean continued to give talks and workshops worldwide, visiting Findhorn regularly, and in August 2009 returned to Findhorn to live. She retired from public life in 2010.
A centre of education
The Findhorn Foundation offers a wide variety of courses and conferences; education is its core activity. The Findhorn Foundation College was established in 2001. An ethnographic study in the 1990s looked in detail at the 'Experience Week', which it called "the main entry point into Findhorn's ethos and lifestyle", noted that over 5,000 people attended Findhorn courses annually, and called the Foundation an example of contemporary religious individualism.
A theatre and concert hall known as the Universal Hall was built at the former caravan park site, known as The Park, between the years 1974 and 1984. The musical group The Waterboys, who have performed a number of concerts in the hall, named their album Universal Hall after the structure.
The Foundation has been called a "spiritual utopian community". The community includes an arts centre, shop, pottery, bakery, publishing company, printing company and other charitable organisations. All aim to practice the founding principles of the community and together make up the New Findhorn Association (NFA). The NFA was formed in 1999 to provide a structure for all the people and organisations in the community. It includes people from within a 50-mile radius of The Park, at Findhorn. Each year a council and two listener-conveners are elected by the membership of the NFA, who organise monthly community meetings to decide upon community-wide issues. By 2011, the NFA consisted of "320 members and 30 organisations". These included for example the Findhorn Press, the Phoenix Community Stores, the Trees for Life organisation, and the various educational centres including the Findhorn Foundation itself.[a]
Each department is responsible for its own decisions. There is an 11-person "Management Team" which makes "decisions which affect the organisation as a whole". The Management team consults with the council, which consists of approximately 40 "committed members" who "meet regularly to discuss issues and participate in team-building activities". The management team is "responsible to the Trustees of the Foundation". The Trustees meet 4 times per year.
Decisions are made meditatively by "attunement", where "each person does their best to find an inner state of mind in which goodwill is foremost and any outcome will be one which serves as the best for all." "Most decisions are made unanimously or with a loyal minority." Failing this, decisions can be passed with a 90% majority vote; decisions that do not reach this threshold are given time "for more information to be gathered", and the proposals are presented again later.
Since the 1980s numerous organisations have started up in the vicinity of Findhorn which have an affiliation of some kind with the Findhorn Foundation. These include Ekopia, Moray Steiner School, the Phoenix Community Store, Trees for Life (Scotland) and The Isle of Erraid. Collectively they now form an ecovillage intended to demonstrate a positive model of a viable, sustainable human and planetary future. By 2005, Findhorn Ecovillage had around 450 resident members, and its residents were claimed to have the lowest recorded ecological footprint of any community in the industrialised world, at half of the UK average.
Physically, Findhorn Ecovillage is based at The Park, where the Foundation's belief in sustainability is expressed in the built environment with 'ecological' houses, innovative use of building materials such as local stone and straw bales, and applied technology in the Living Machine sewage treatment facility and electricity-generating wind turbines. The Ecovillage is intended to be a tangible demonstration of the links between the spiritual, social, ecological and economic aspects of life, for use as a teaching resource. It is a founder member of the Global Ecovillage Network (GEN) a non-profit organisation that links together a diverse worldwide movement of autonomous ecovillages and related projects. The Ecovillage project has received Best Practice designation from the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat).
Relationships with other NGOs
The Findhorn Foundation is a member of the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations (CONGO), attends the Sustainable Development Committee meetings and is a founding member of the following NGO groups active at the UN Headquarters in New York: The Earth Values Caucus, The Spiritual Caucus, and The NGO Committee on Spirituality, Values and Global Concerns.
A new sustainable development training facility, CIFAL[b] Findhorn was launched in September 2006. This is a joint initiative between The Moray Council, the Global Ecovillage Network, the Findhorn Foundation and UNITAR.
- The phrase "the Findhorn community" thus has at least 3 meanings: the Findhorn Foundation; the NFA; and the people of the village of Findhorn.
- CIFAL stands for "International Training Centre for Authorities and Leaders" (French: 'Centre International de Formation des Autorités et Leaders'".
- The Dictionary of Alternatives: Utopianism and Organization, by Martin Parker, Valerie Fournier, Patrick Reedy. Zed Books, 2007. ISBN 1-84277-333-X. Page 100.
- Findhorn.org Archived 25 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine Findhorn Official website. "[help] unfold a new human consciousness and [create] a positive and sustainable future"
- Christensen, p. 499
- Moray to be base for UN training Archived 22 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 22 September 2006.
- Findhorn Ecovillage. Awarded UN Habitat Best Practice designation, the Ecovillage has a reputation for being at the cutting edge of the sustainability global movement Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- In Perfect Timing: Memoirs of a Man for the New Millennium Peter Caddy 1994
- Obituary of Eileen Caddy Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Telegraph, 19 December 2006
- Roberts, A. Saucers over Findhorn Archived 8 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Fortean Times, accessed 12-08-08.
- Caddy, Peter (1996). In Perfect Timing. Findhorn Press. ISBN 978-1-899171-26-2.
- Obituary of Eileen Caddy Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 08-01-07
- Memoirs of an Ordinary Mystic Dorothy Maclean 2010
- McCarthy, M. Findhorn, the hippie home of huge cabbages, faces cash crisis Archived 8 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine The Independent, 05-06-01
- "R. Olgivie Crombie (1899 – 1975)". Albion. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
His work is recounted in 'The Gentleman and the Faun' (Findhorn Press 2009) and 'The Occult Diaries of R. Ogilvie Crombie' by Gordon Lindsay (Starseed Publications 2011).
- Dawkins, Peter. "Sir George Trevelyan: obituary". Sir George Trevelyan 1906 - 1996. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "About the Findhorn Foundation". Findhorn Foundation. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "No. 57155". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 2003. pp. 15–28.
- MBEs: A-C Archived 2 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 31 December 2003.
- "Dorothy Maclean Home". lorianpress.com. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- Sutcliffe, Steven (2010). "A Colony of Seekers: Findhorn in the 1990s". Journal of Contemporary Religion. 15 (2): 215–231. doi:10.1080/13537900050005985. ISSN 1353-7903.
- "Facilities". The Universal Hall. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- Spielvogel, Jackson (1985). "Findhorn: The Evolution of a Spiritual Utopian Community". The Journal of General Education. 37 (3): 231–244. JSTOR 27797037.
- New Findhorn Community Association Archived 20 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 December 2011
- FAQ: Decision-making Archived 27 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 December 2011
- "The Phoenix". The Phoenix Shop. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
- "Alan Watson Featherstone confirmed as keynote speaker for green events and innovations". A Greener Festival Limited. 13 December 2013. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Findhorn eco-footprint is 'world's smallest'". Sunday Herald. 11 August 2008. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009.
A new expert study says the multinational community's ecological footprint is half the UK average. This means Findhorn uses 50% fewer resources and creates 50% less waste than normal.
- The Earth Values Caucus. United Nations Archived 28 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- The Spiritual Caucus. United Nations Archived 2 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- The NGO Committee on Spirituality, Values and Global Concerns Archived 28 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- McLaren, Tanya (11 October 2011). "CIFAL leader wins international recognition". Forres Gazette.
Early period, to 1985
- For works by Eileen Caddy, Dorothy Maclean, and David Spangler, see those articles.
- Hawken, Paul (1975) The Magic of Findhorn. Harper & Row.
- Sherman, Kay Lynne (1982) The Findhorn Family Cook Book. Random House.
- Various (1975) The Findhorn Garden. Harper & Row. (see below for new edition)
- Various (1980) Faces of Findhorn. Harper & Row.
- Christensen, Karen and Davide Levinson. (2003) Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Sage. ISBN 0-7619-2598-8 Google books
- Burns, B. et al. (2006) CIFAL Findhorn. Findhorn Foundation.
- Caddy, Peter (1994) In Perfect Timing. Findhorn Press.
- Castro, Stephen James (1996) Hypocrisy and Dissent within the Findhorn Foundation: Towards a Sociology of a New Age Community. New Media Books. ISBN 0-9526881-0-7.
- Maclean, Dorothy and Kathleen Thormod Carr (1991) To Honor the Earth. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-062505-99-6
- Miller, Cally and Harley Miller (1995) Sights and Insights: Guide to the Findhorn Foundation Community. Findhorn Press. ISBN 978-1-899171-50-7
- Earl Platts, David (1996) Playful Self-discovery: Findhorn Foundation Approach to Building Trust in Groups. Findhorn Press. ISBN 978-1-899171-06-4
- Earl Platts, David (Ed) (1999) Divinely Human, Divinely Ordinary: Celebrating The Life & Work of Eileen Caddy. Findhorn Press.
- Earl Platts, David (2003) The Findhorn Book of Building Trust in Groups. Findhorn Press.
- Greenaway, John P. (2003) In the Shadow of the New Age: Decoding the Findhorn Foundation. Finderne Publishing. ISBN 978-0-953743-30-8
- Riddell, Carol (1990) The Findhorn Community: Creating A Human Identity for the 21st Century. Findhorn Press. 1997. ISBN 0-905249-77-1.
- Sherman, Kay Lynne (2003) The Findhorn Book of Vegetarian Recipes. Findhorn Press.
- Talbott, John (1993) Simply Build Green. Findhorn Foundation.
- Thomas, Kate (1992) The Destiny Challenge. New Frequency Press.
- Thompson, William Irwin (1974) Passages About Earth. Harper & Row.
- Tolle, Eckhart (2006) Eckhart Tolle's Findhorn Retreat: Finding Stillness Amidst the World. New World Library. (Book with 2 DVDs) ISBN 978-1-57731-509-4
- Walker, Alex (Ed) (1994) The Kingdom Within: A Guide to the Spiritual Work of the Findhorn Community. Findhorn Press. ISBN 0-905249-99-2.
- Various (2008) Findhorn Garden Story: A Brand New Colour Edition of the Black & White Classic. 3rd Edition. Findhorn Press. ISBN 978-1-84409-135-5
- My Dinner With Andre (1981) - Andre Gregory talks about his experience at Findhorn.
- Follow the Rainbow to Findhorn (2010) - A documentary about the Findhorn community
- The Story So Far (2014) - The voices of residents, fellows and visitors to the Foundation over the past 52 years
- A Tour of the Findhorn Foundation Community (2016) - The history, buildings and projects around the community
- The Findhorn Foundation's website
- EcoviIlage Project – overview and background
- New Findhorn Association – website for the community association
- "The Magic Kingdom", article about Findhorn from The Independent, 12 June 2001, online reprint accessed 25.8.2014
- "Follow the Rainbow to Findhorn" IMDB page — IMDB page about the 2010 documentary about the community