Eleusine coracana

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Eleusine coracana
Finger millet 3 11-21-02.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Chloridoideae
Tribe: Eragrostideae
Genus: Eleusine
Species: E. coracana
Binomial name
Eleusine coracana
  • Cynodon coracanus Raspail
  • Cynosurus coracanus L.
  • Eleusine cerealis Salisb. nom. illeg.
  • Eleusine dagussa Schimp.
  • Eleusine luco Welw. nom. inval.
  • Eleusine ovalis Ehrenb. ex Sweet nom. inval.
  • Eleusine pilosa Gilli
  • Eleusine reniformis Divak.
  • Eleusine sphaerosperma Stokes nom. illeg.
  • Eleusine stricta Roxb.
  • Eleusine tocussa Fresen.

Eleusine coracana is an annual plant widely grown as a cereal in the arid areas of Africa and Asia. Earliest records of its cultivation in India show that it was cultivated in the Hallur region of Karnataka in the later Iron Age. It remains one of the main ingredients of the staple diet in Karnataka.

It is commonly known as finger millet,[2] African finger millet,[3] caracan millet,[3] and koracan.[3] The name ragi (ರಾಗಿ) is originally the name of finger millet in Kannada. In Tamil it is called kEzhvaragu (கேழ்வரகு). E. coracana is native to the Ethiopian Highlands where it is called dagusa.[4][5] It is very adaptable to higher elevations and is grown in the Himalaya up to 2,300 metres in elevation.


According to K. T. Achaya, the Ragi originated in East Africa, and came to India around 2000 BCE; it has been found in an Indian archaeological site dated to 1800 BCE.[6]

Now the Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar and a few others produce ragi. Karnataka is the top producer of Ragi and has 58% share in India's export of this crop.[citation needed].


Eleusine coracana is often intercropped with legumes such as peanuts (Arachis hypogea), cowpeas (Vigna sinensis), and pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), or other plants such as Niger seeds (Guizotia abyssinica).

Although statistics on individual millet species are confused, and are sometimes combined with sorghum, it is estimated that finger millet is grown on approximately 38,000 km2.

India is a major cultivator of finger millet with a total cultivated area of 15870 km2. The state of karnataka is the leading producer of finger millet, known as ragi in the region, accounting for 58% of India's ragi production.[7]


Once harvested, the seeds keep extremely well and are seldom attacked by insects or moulds. The long storage capacity makes finger millet an important crop in risk-avoidance strategies for poorer farming communities.


Finger millet is especially valuable as it contains the amino acid methionine, which is lacking in the diets of hundreds of millions of the poor who live on starchy staples such as cassava, plantain, polished rice, or maize meal. Finger millet can be ground and cooked into cakes, puddings or porridge. The grain is made into a fermented drink (or beer) in Nepal and in many parts of Africa. The straw from finger millet is used as animal fodder. It is also used for a flavored drink in festivals.

Nutritional value of finger millet per 100g [8]

Protein 7.6g
Fat 1.5g
Carbohydrate 88g
Calcium 370mg
Vitamins - A: 0.48mg
Thiamine (B1): 0.33mg
Riboflavin (B2): 0.11mg
Niacin: (B3) 1.2mg
Fiber 3g

Growing finger millet to improve nutrition[edit]

A farmer harvesting millet by hand in her field
Growing finger millet in Africa has been encouraged by some international development programs.

The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), a member of the CGIAR consortium, partners with farmers, governments, researchers and NGOs to help farmers grow nutritious crops, including finger millet. This helps their communities have more balanced diets and become more resilient to pests and drought. For example, the Harnessing Opportunities for Productivity Enhancement of Sorghum and Millets in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (HOPE) project is increasing yields of finger millet in Tanzania by encouraging farmers to grow improved varieties. Finger millet is very high in calcium, rich in iron and fibre, and has a better energy content than other cereals. These characteristics make it ideal for feeding to infants and the elderly.[9] mng

Preparation as food[edit]

A grocery shop selling ragi in Tamil Nadu
Finger millet in its commonly consumed form as a porridge

In India[edit]

Ragi mudde and bhajji with sambar and chutney

In India, finger millet (locally called by various name including ragi (ರಾಗಿ), kezhvaragu and nachani (नाचणी) is mostly grown and consumed in Karnataka, Rajasthan,[10] Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Maharashtra, Garhwal and Kumaon (Uttarakhand), Dang District (Gujarat)[11] and Goa.[12][13] Ragi flour is made into flatbreads, including thin, leavened dosa and thicker, unleavened roti. Ragi grain is malted and the grains are ground. This ground flour is consumed mixed with milk, boiled water or yoghurt.

In India, Ragi(ರಾಗಿ) recipes are hundreds in number and even common food stuffs such as dosa, idly and laddu are made out of ragi.

Western and Konkan Region[edit]

Pappad made of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) in Gujarat

In Goa ragi is very popular and satva, pole (dosa), bhakri, ambil (a sour porridge) are very common preparations. Nachani Ladus are common in some families.

In Maharashtra, bhakri (भाकरी in Marathi; also called ಭಕ್ರಿ bhakri in Northern Karnataka), a type of flat bread is prepared using finger millet (ragi) flour. Bhakri is called ರಾಗಿ ರೊಟ್ಟಿ (ragi rotti in Kannada) in Northern districts of Karnataka.

In South India[edit]

In Karnataka, ragi is generally consumed in the form of ragi mudde (balls) (ರಾಗಿ ಮುದ್ದೆ ragi mudde in Kannada). It is the staple diet of many residents of South Karnataka, especially in the rural areas. Mudde is prepared by cooking the ragi flour with water to achieve a dough-like consistency. This is then rolled into 'balls' of desired size and consumed with huli (sambar), Saaru(ಸಾರು), or curries. Mudde (ಮುದ್ದೆ)is cut into biteable sizes using fingers, dipped in the curry preparation and swallowed wholly without biting into the pieces. Ragi is also used to make roti, idli, dosa and conjee. In the malnad region of Karnataka, the whole ragi grain is soaked and the milk is extracted to make a dessert known as "Keelsa".

In Tamil Nadu, ragi is called kezhvaragu (கேழ்வரகு) or just keppai (கேப்பை). Ragi is dried, powdered and boiled to form a thick mass that is allowed to cool. This is the famed kali or keppai kali. This is made into large balls to quantify the intake. It is taken with sambar or thick spicy lentil soups flavored with tamarind extracts. For children, ragi is also fed with milk and sugar (malt). It is also made in the form of pancakes with chopped onions and tomatoes. Kezhvaragu is used to make puttu with jaggery/sugar and adai (by making a thick paste (sweet or salt is used) and tapping it flat on a hot skillet). Apart from that, ragi has its medicinal uses for sinus and severe cold by applying boiled kezhvaragu flour cooled to skin bearable warmth on the forehead.

In Telangana state, ambali - is consumed in the morning as a breakfast.

In Andhra Pradesh, ragi sankati or ragi muddha (రాగి సంకటి in Telugu) - ragi balls - are eaten in the morning with a chilli, onions, sambar (dish) or meat curry.

In Kerala, putu a traditional breakfast dish, is usually made with rice powder with grated coconut and steamed in a cylindrical steamer. The preparation is also made with ragi powder, which is more nutritive.

Central & Northern India[edit]

In the tribal and western hilly regions of Odisha, ragi or (ମାଣ୍ଡିଆ) mandiaa is a staple food. The porridge and pitha made of ragi are more popular among village folk.

In the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, "koda" (कोदा ) or maddua (मंडुआ) is made into thick rotis (served with ghee), and also made as a dish - badi (बाड़ी) - similar to halwa but without sugar. In the Kumaon region of northern India, ragi is traditionally fed to women after child birth.

In South and Far East Asia[edit]

In Nepal[edit]

In Nepal, a thick dough made of millet flour (ḍhĩḍo ढिंडो) is cooked and eaten by hand. The dough, on other hand, can be made into thick bread spread over flat utensil and heating it. Fermented millet is used to make a beer (jããḍ जाँड) and the mash is distilled to make a liquor (rakśi रक्शी). Its use in holy Hindu practices is barred especially by upper castes.

In Sri Lanka[edit]

In Sri Lanka, finger millet is called kurakkan and is made into kurakkan roti - an earthy brown thick roti with coconut and thallapa - a thick dough made of ragi by boiling it with water and some salt until like a dough ball. It is then eaten with a very spicy meat curry and is usually swallowed in small balls, rather than chewing. It is also eaten as a soup (kurrakan kenda) and as a sweet called 'Halape'.

In Vietnam[edit]

In northwest Vietnam, finger millet is used as a medicine for women at childbirth. A minority use finger millet flour to make alcohol (bacha alcohol is a good drink of the H'mong minority).

As Health Food[edit]

In southern parts of India, pediatricians recommend finger-millet-based food for infants of six months and above because of its high nutritional content, especially iron and calcium. Home-made ragi malt is a popular infant food.

Holy Deity food[edit]

In Tamil Nadu, ragi is considered to be the holy food of Amman, otherwise known as "Goddess Kali". Every small or large festival of this goddess is celebrated with women making ragi porridge in the temples and distributing it to the poor and needy. This porridge is called Koozh - a staple diet in farming communities, eaten along with raw onions & green chillies.

As Beverage[edit]

Ragi malt porridge is made from finger millet which is soaked and shadow dried, then roasted and ground. This preparation is boiled in water and given to children, patients, adults, etc. This is a good substitute for milk powder-based beverages.

Common names for finger millet[edit]

  • Arabic: tailabon لدخن
  • Chinese: 穇子 (Traditional), 䅟子 (Simplified), cǎnzi (pinyin); also 龍爪稷 and 鴨腳粟 (Traditional)
  • Danish: Fingerhirse
  • Dhivehi: ބިންބި Binbi
  • English: Finger millet, African millet, Koracan, Natcheny, Ragi
  • Ethiopia: dagussa (Amharic), tokuso (Soddo), barankiya (Oromo)
  • French: eleusine cultivee, coracan, koracan
  • German: Fingerhirse
  • India:
    • Assamese: মৰুবা ধান maruba dhan
    • Gujarati: બાવટો bavato; નાચણી nachni; નાગલી nagali
    • Hindi): मड़ुआ madua/marua; मंडुआ mandua; मड़ुवा maruwa/maduwa; मंडवा mandwa; रागी ragi
    • Kannada: ರಾಗಿ ragi
    • Kumaon: maddua
    • Garhwal: कोदा koda; चूना "choona"
    • Konkani: नांचणी nanchani; नासणे/नाचणे nasne/nachne
    • Maithili, (Bihar, especially in Mithila region): madua
    • Malayalam: പഞ പുലൽ ragi;muthary/kuvaraku/kurumbullu/panjipul
    • Marathi: नाचणी nachani; नागली nagali
    • Odia: ମାଣ୍ଡିଆ mandia
    • Pahari, Himachal Pradesh: कोद्र kodra
    • Punjabi: ਮੁੰਡਲ mandal/mandhul/mundal
    • Rajasthani: नाचणी nachni; रागी ragi
    • Sanskrit: मधुलिका madhulika; मट्टकम् mattakam; नृत्यकुण्डलक nrityakundala
    • Tamil: ஆரியம் aariyam'; கேழ்வரகு kezhvaragu; கேப்பை keppai, ராகி raagi
    • Telugu: రాగి ragi; తమిదలు tamidalu
    • Urdu: منڐوا mandwa; مڙوا maruwa; راگی ragi
  • Japan: 四国稗 シコクビエ shikoku hie shikokubie
  • Kenya: wimbi (Swahili), kal (Dholuo), ugimbi (Kikuyu and Meru), obori (Kisii)
  • Korea: 수수 susu
  • Nepal: कोदो kodo; मड़ुवा maruwa
  • Nigeria: tamba (Hausa)
  • Rwanda: uburo
  • Sri Lanka: කුරක්කන් kurakkan (Sinhala)
  • Sudan: tailabon (Arabic), ceyut (Bari)
  • Tanzania: Mbege, Mwimbi, Wimbi, Ulezi (Swahili)
  • Tibetan: bras ma du lun ga
  • Uganda: Bulo
  • Vietnam: Hong mi, Chi ke
  • Zambia: Kambale, lupoko, mawele, majolothi, amale, bule
  • Zimbabwe: Rapoko, zviyo, njera, rukweza, mazhovole, uphoko, poho



  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 8 January 2015. 
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ a b c "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  4. ^ A.C. D'Andrea, D.E. Lyons, Mitiku Haile, E.A. Butler, "Ethnoarchaeological Approaches to the Study of Prehistoric Agriculture in the Ethiopian Highlands" in Van der Veen, ed., The Exploitation of Plant Resources in Ancient Africa. Kluwer Academic: Plenum Publishers, New York, 1999.
  5. ^ Eleusine coracana
  6. ^ K.T. Achaya (2003). The Story of Our Food. Universities Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-81-7371-293-7. 
  7. ^ Govt of India - Ministry of Agriculture Report on Ragi harvest
  8. ^ "Eleusine coracana - (L.)Gaertn.". Plants For A Future. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  9. ^ Alina Paul Bossuet, Nourishing Communities Through Holistic Farming http://exploreit.icrisat.org/page/sorghum/882/249. ICRISAT. Downloaded 26 January 2014.
  10. ^ Rajasthan: by Gopal K. Bhargava, Shankarlal C. Bhatt,p 319
  11. ^ https://dangdp.gujarat.gov.in/dang/english/jilla-vishe/general-outline.htm
  12. ^ Ragi is one of the important crop in the Indian state of Goa
  13. ^ "Ragi". Tamilnadu.com. 8 April 2013. 

External links[edit]