Finnish Government

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Finnish government
Finnish: Suomen valtioneuvosto
Swedish: Finlands statsrådet
Finnish Government logo.png
Overview
Established27 November 1917; 101 years ago (1917-11-27)
StateRepublic of Finland
LeaderPrime Minister of Finland
Appointed byPresident of Finland
Main organPrime Minister's Office
Ministries12 (list)
Responsible toParliament of Finland
Annual budget55.8 billion[1] (2018)
HeadquartersGovernment Palace
Snellmaninkatu 1 A, Helsinki, Finland
Websitegovernment.fi
Coat of arms of Finland.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Finland

The Finnish government (Finnish: Suomen valtioneuvosto; Swedish: Finlands statsrådet; lit. Finland's council of state)[2][3] is the executive branch and cabinet of Finland, which directs the politics of Finland and is the main source of legislation proposed to the Parliament. In the incumbent Sipilä Cabinet, the government comprises 17 ministers leading 12 ministries under collective ministerial responsibility and representing Finland in the Council of the European Union.

Majority coalition governments have become the foundation of the Finnish government; apart from a few historical exceptions, a government is usually assembled by the representatives of two major parties and a number of smaller parties.[4]

Composition[edit]

The Finnish government is the most important executive body of Finland and synonymous with both the decision-making organ composed of the ministers as well as the combined organ of the ministers and the President of Finland.[5][6][7] Its supreme powers are based on Section 3, Chapter 1 of the Constitution of Finland (and the subordinate Government Act of 2003[8]):

The governmental powers are exercised by the President of the Republic and the Government, the members of which shall have the confidence of the Parliament.[9]

The Government is led by the prime minister, considered practically the most powerful single office holder in Finland and often the leader of the largest political party. The government is composed of 12 ministries plus the Prime Minister's Office. Each ministry is commonly led by one or two ministers, who sit in the cabinet. The cabinet itself proposes the number of ministers and their roles which the Parliament (Finnish: eduskunta; Swedish: riksdag) confirms, and it is usual to do so even in mid-election season. There are no senior or junior ministers, and ministers without portfolio are no longer permitted under the 2000 constitution. Although ministers' portfolios are divided among the participating political parties, the cabinet has collective ministerial responsibility, and the ministers are expected to follow a government programme agreed upon during government formation talks. Ministers are not required to be Members of Parliament (MPs), although they often are. Each minister is assisted by a secretary of state (Finnish: valtiosihteeri; Swedish: statssekreterare), who serve at the pleasure of the minister.[5][6][7]

Ministerial committees[edit]

The prime minister may sit with a subsection of the cabinet in a ministerial committee, when it is not necessary or desirable to have the entire government convene. There are government-specific and optional ministerial committees and four legally mandatory ministerial committees:[5][6][7]

  • Ministerial Finance Committee (raha-asiainvaliokunta);
  • Ministerial Committee on Foreign and Security Policy (ulko- ja turvallisuuspoliittinen ministerivaliokunta; officially since 1922 and unofficially before that);
  • Ministerial Committee on Economic Policy (talouspoliittinen ministerivaliokunta; officially since 1977 and unofficially before that); and
  • Ministerial Committee on European Union Affairs (Euroopan unionia koskevien asioiden ministerivaliokunta; established in 1995 to replace the Ministerial Committee on European Economic Community Affairs).

Legislation[edit]

Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.

The government initiates the majority of legislation. A proposed act (Finnish: laki; Swedish: lag) is drafted in the respective ministry under the direction of its minister, after which it is reviewed by the Government and forwarded as a government proposal (Finnish: hallituksen esitys; Swedish: regeringens proposition) to Parliament for processing and possible amendments. However, since coalition governments have become the norm in Finland, the parties represented in the Government usually form the majority in the parliament, making the process somewhat more harmonious. Since 1957, all governments have been majority governments. Before a proposal is adopted into law, it must be confirmed by the President of Finland. As such, the president has the power of a delaying veto as a check against majority politics and potential violations of international agreements. Periods of cohabitation, wherein the president and the government represent different political positions, can create strife. The president's veto can be overridden by the Parliament, although this is in practice not done. Parties can also agree to not to vote along party lines but to leave the decision to individual MPs, although this is uncommon.[5]

Besides law, the government issues decrees (Finnish: valtioneuvoston asetus; Swedish: statsrådets förordning) as delegated legislation. Decrees clarify, specify, and guide the implementation of an act of Parliament, but cannot contradict it. They are similar to US standing executive orders. A typical example is specifying the actual monetary sums for benefits described in general terms in an act.[5] Decrees form an important body of law alongside acts of parliament.

Budget[edit]

Government funds can be spent only in the framework of the state budget (Finnish: valtion talousarvio; Swedish: statsbudgeten), which must be confirmed by Parliament. The government drafts the annual budget and introduces it to Parliament for discussion and approval. If the Government requires more funds mid-year, they have to submit an additional budget proposal to the Parliament.[5] For 2018, the central government budget was €55.8 billion, not including municipal budgets and non-departmental bodies like state-owned enterprises.[10]

Incumbent government[edit]

The current Sipilä cabinet is Finland's 74th government, which was inaugurated on 29 May 2015.[11] It consists of 17 ministers and 3 centre-right parties: Centre Party, National Coalition Party, and Blue Reform.[11]

Ministers[edit]

The incumbent ministers and their associated portfolios are listed below.[12][13]

Portfolio Minister Took office Left office Party
Prime Minister's Office
Prime minister Juha Sipilä29 May 2015IncumbentCentre
Deputy prime minister Petteri Orpo28 June 2017IncumbentNational Coalition
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Minister for foreign affairs Timo Soini29 May 2015IncumbentBlue Reform
Minister for foreign trade and development Anne-Mari Virolainen6 February 2018IncumbentNational Coalition
Minister for Nordic cooperation Anne Berner29 May 2015IncumbentCentre
Ministry of Justice
Minister of justice Antti Häkkänen5 May 2017IncumbentNational Coalition
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment
Minister of economic affairs Mika Lintilä29 December 2016IncumbentCentre
Minister of employment Jari Lindström29 May 2015IncumbentBlue Reform
Minister of housing and energy Kimmo Tiilikainen5 May 2017IncumbentCentre
Ministry of the Interior
Minister of the interior Kai Mykkänen6 February 2018IncumbentNational Coalition
Ministry of Defence
Minister of defence Jussi Niinistö29 May 2015IncumbentBlue Reform
Ministry of Finance
Minister of finance Petteri Orpo22 June 2016IncumbentNational Coalition
Minister of local government and public reforms Anu Vehviläinen29 May 2015IncumbentCentre
Ministry of Education and Culture
Minister of education Sanni Grahn-Laasonen29 May 2015IncumbentNational Coalition
Minister for European affairs, culture and sport Sampo Terho5 May 2017IncumbentBlue Reform
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Minister of agriculture and forestry Jari Leppä5 May 2017IncumbentCentre
Ministry of Transport and Communications
Minister of transport and communications Anne Berner29 May 2015IncumbentCentre
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health
Minister of social affairs and health Pirkko Mattila25 August 2016IncumbentBlue Reform
Minister of family affairs and social services Annika Saarikko10 July 2017IncumbentCentre
Ministry of the Environment
Minister of the environment Kimmo Tiilikainen5 May 2017IncumbentCentre

List of governments[edit]

The following is a list of all Finnish Governments since 1917.[14]

Government Took office Seats Parties
Svinhufvud's senate 27 November 1917 103/200 Young Finnish Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish Party
Agrarian League
Paasikivi's senate 27 May 1918 103/200 Young Finnish Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish Party
Agrarian League
Ingman's cabinet 27 November 1918 77/200

77/108

National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
National Progressive Party
K. Castrén's cabinet 17 April 1919 90/200 Swedish People's Party
National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Vennola's cabinet 15 August 1919 68/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Erich's cabinet 15 March 1920 118/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Vennola's second cabinet 9 April 1921 68/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Cajander's cabinet 2 June 1922
Kallio's cabinet 14 November 1922 60/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Cajander's second cabinet 18 January 1924
Ingman's second cabinet 31 May 1924 122/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Tulenheimo's cabinet 31 March 1925 82/200 Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Kallio's second cabinet 31 December 1925 82/200 Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Tanner's cabinet 13 December 1926 52/200 Social Democratic Party
Sunila's cabinet 17 December 1927 52/200 Agrarian League
Mantere's cabinet 22 December 1928 10/200 National Progressive Party
Kallio's third cabinet 16 August 1929 60/200 Agrarian League
Svinhufvud's second cabinet 4 July 1930 132/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Sunila's second cabinet 21 March 1931 132/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Kivimäki's cabinet 14 December 1932 85/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Kallio's fourth cabinet 7 October 1936 60/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Cajander's third cabinet 3 March 1937 164/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Ryti's cabinet 1 December 1939 165/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Ryti's second cabinet 27 March 1940 190/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
Rangell's cabinet 4 January 1941 198/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
Patriotic People's Movement
Linkomies' cabinet 5 March 1943 190/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
Hackzell's cabinet 8 September 1944 190/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
U. Castrén's cabinet 21 October 1944 190/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
Paasikivi's second cabinet 17 November 1944 165/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Finnish People's Democratic League
Paasikivi's third cabinet 17 April 1945 171/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Finnish People's Democratic League
Pekkala's cabinet 26 March 1946 162/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Finnish People's Democratic League
Fagerholm's cabinet 29 August 1948 54/200 Social Democratic Party
Kekkonen's cabinet 17 March 1950 75/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Kekkonen's second cabinet 17 January 1951 129/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Kekkonen's third cabinet 20 October 1951 119/200 Agrarian League
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Kekkonen's fourth cabinet 9 August 1953 66/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Sakari Tuomioja's cabinet 17 November 1953 53/200
Törngren's cabinet 5 May 1954 120/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Kekkonen's fifth cabinet 20 October 1954 107/200 Agrarian League
Social Democratic Party
Fagerholm's second cabinet 3 March 1956 120/200 Agrarian League
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Sukselainen's cabinet 27 April 1957 79/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People'Party
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders
Finnish People's Party
von Fieandt's cabinet 29 November 1957
Kuuskoski's cabinet 26 April 1958
Fagerholm's third cabinet 29 September 1958 152/200 Social Democratic Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Finnish People's Party
Swedish People's Party
Sukselainen's second cabinet 13 January 1959 62/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Miettunen's cabinet 14 August 1961 48/200 Agrarian League
Karjalainen's cabinet 13 April 1962 114/200 Agrarian League
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders
Swedish People's Party
National Coalition Party
Finnish People's Party
Lehto's cabinet 18 December 1963
Virolainen's cabinet 12 October 1964 112/200 Centre Party
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish People's Party
Paasio's cabinet 27 May 1966 152/200 Finnish People's Democratic League
Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders
Centre Party
Koivisto's cabinet 22 March 1968 164/200 Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders
Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish People's Democratic League
Aura's cabinet 14 May 1970
Karjalainen's second cabinet 15 August 1970 144/200 Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Aura's second cabinet 29 October 1971
Paasio's second cabinet 23 February 1972 55/200 Social Democratic Party
Sorsa's cabinet 4 October 1972 109/200 Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Social Democratic Party
Liinamaa's cabinet 13 June 1975
Miettunen's second cabinet 30 November 1975 152/200 Finnish People's Democratic League
Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Social Democratic Party
Miettunen's third cabinet 29 October 1976 58/200 Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Sorsa's second cabinet 15 May 1977 152/200 Finnish People's Democratic League
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Koivisto's second cabinet 26 May 1979 133/200 Finnish People's Democratic League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Sorsa's third cabinet 19 February 1982 133/200

102/200

Finnish People's Democratic League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Sorsa's fourth cabinet 6 May 1983 123/200 Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Finnish Rural Party
Holkeri's cabinet 30 April 1987 131/200 National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish Rural Party
Aho's cabinet 26 April 1991 115/200 Centre Party
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Christian Democrats
Lipponen's cabinet 13 April 1995 145/200 National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Left Alliance
Green League
Lipponen's second Cabinet 15 April 1999 140/200

129/200

National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Left Alliance
Green League (−2002)
Jäätteenmäki's Cabinet 17 April 2003 117/200 Centre Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Vanhanen's cabinet 24 June 2003 117/200 Centre Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Vanhanen's second cabinet 19 April 2007 126/200 Centre Party
National Coalition Party
Green League
Swedish People's Party
Kiviniemi's cabinet 22 June 2010 126/200 Centre Party
National Coalition Party
Green League
Swedish People's Party
Katainen's cabinet 22 June 2011 124/200

112/200

National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Left Alliance (−2014)
Green League
Swedish People's Party
Christian Democrats
Stubb's cabinet 24 June 2014 112/200

102/200

National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Green League (−2014)
Swedish People's Party
Christian Democrats
Sipilä's cabinet
Incumbent
29 May 2015 124/200

105/200

Centre Party
Finns Party (−2017)
National Coalition Party
Blue Reform (2017−)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Valtion talousarvioesitys 2018" [Finnish Budget Proposal 2018]. budjetti.vm.fi. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  2. ^ "About the Government". Finnish Government. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  3. ^ "Finnish Government Glossary". mot.kielikone.fi. Finnish Government Termbank Valter. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018. Government : body which exercises general governmental power and must enjoy the confidence of Parliament, consisting of the prime minister, who is chosen by Parliament and appointed by the President of the Republic, and the other ministers, who are appointed by the president of the republic acting on a proposal by the prime minister
  4. ^ "Governments in chronological order". Valtioneuvosto. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Saukkonen, Pasi (2008). Suomen poliittinen järjestelmä [Political System of Finland]. fi-fe20041404 (in Finnish). University of Helsinki.
  6. ^ a b c Selovuori, Jorma, ed. (1996). Suomen keskushallinnon historia 1809–1996 [History of the Finnish Central Government 1809–1996] (in Finnish). Prime Minister's Office and Edita. ISBN 951-37-1976-6. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Savolainen, Raimo (2011). Valtioneuvoston kanslia 200 vuotta [200 years of the Prime Minister's Office] (PDF) (in Finnish). Prime Minister's Office and Edita. ISBN 978-952-5896-73-2. ISSN 1799-7828.
  8. ^ "Government Act 175/2003". www.finlex.fi. 28 February 2009. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  9. ^ "Finland's Constitution of 1999 with Amendments through 2011" (PDF). constituteproject.org. 23 November 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  10. ^ http://tutkibudjettia.vm.fi/talousarvio
  11. ^ a b "Prime Minister Sipilä's Government". Government of Finland. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  12. ^ "Ministers". Valtioneuvosto. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
  13. ^ "Composition of a certain government, 74. Sipilä". Valtioneuvosto. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  14. ^ "Finnish Governments and Ministers since 1917". Finnish Government. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018.

External links[edit]