Nordic Resistance Movement

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Nordic Resistance Movement
Leader Simon Lindberg (SWE)
Haakon Forwald (NOR)
Antti Niemi (FIN)
Founder Klas Lund (SWE)
Haakon Forwald (NOR)
Esa Henrik Holappa (FIN)
Founded 1997 (Sweden)
1997 or 1998 (Norway)
2006 or 2007 (Finland)
2016 (Iceland)
2017 (Denmark)
Banned 30 November 2017 (FIN)
Ideology Neo-Nazism[2][3]
Ultranationalism[4]
Pan-Nordism[5]
Hard Euroscepticism[6]
Anti-homosexuality[7]
Political position Far-right

The Nordic Resistance Movement, NRM (Swedish: Nordiska motståndsrörelsen; NMR, Norwegian: Nordiske motstandsbevegelsen; NMB, Finnish: Pohjoismainen Vastarintaliike; PVL, Danish: Den nordiske modstandsbevægelse; NMB, Icelandic: Norræna mótstöðuhreyfingin) is a Pan-Nordic neo-Nazi[8] movement and in Sweden, a political party. It is established in Sweden, Norway, Finland,[9] and Denmark,[10] and also has members in Iceland. It has been banned in Finland, but the ban has been appealed.[11][12] The NRM has been described as a terrorist organization by a researcher at the Swedish Defence University due to their aim of abolishing democracy along with their paramilitary activies and weapons caches.[13]

Formation and structure

In December 1997, Klas Lund and some other former members of the White Aryan Resistance (Swedish: Vitt Ariskt Motstånd, also known as VAM) – a militant neo-Nazi network active from 1991 to 1993 – having been released from prison after being convicted of robberies and manslaughter, among other things,[14] formed the Swedish Resistance Movement (Svenska Motståndsrörelsen or SMR) together with individuals working with the neo-Nazi magazine Folktribunen and members of Nationell Ungdom ("National Youth"), a neofascist and openly racist organisation.[15][16][17][18]

In 2016, the Nordic Resistance Movement was formed, with separate affiliates in Sweden, Finland, and Norway; a Danish affiliate was later disbanded. The Nordic Resistance Movement advocates an immediate stop to what they call mass immigration to the Scandinavian countries, and repatriation of people that are not of Northern European or of closely related descent. It also advocates Nordic self-sufficiency and withdrawal from the European Union.[19]

On 28 February 2018, The Verge reported that Discord had shut down a number of neo-Nazi and alt-right servers, including that of the Nordic Resistance Movement, from their private chat platform, for abuse of their Terms of Service.[20]

Sweden

The Swedish Resistance Movement was founded by Klas Lund, its present leader is Simon Lindberg, and its political wing is managed by Pär Öberg. It is known for its opposition to non-white immigration to Sweden.[21] Svenska motståndsrörelsen is considered a central actor in Sweden's white power movement.[22] The aim of Nordic Resistance Movement is to establish a Nordic neo-Nazi government by revolution or elections.[22] The organization says its fight will require bloodshed.[23]

SMR has praised Adolf Hitler[24] and Corneliu Codreanu in their publications. Their main tactics are distributing leaflets and making public speeches in inner-city areas in support of neo-Nazism, denouncing immigration. They also publish the Nationellt Motstånd magazine.[25]

In November 2003 the Swedish Security Service raided homes of leading members, among them Lund, who was later sentenced to prison for illegal possession of firearms.[26]

In May 2006, the Swedish Resistance Movement announced that the National Youth organisation and all its activities and members had been merged with the SRM.[27]

In December 2013, armed NRM members attacked an anti-racist demonstration in Stockholm which resulted in riots and clashes. Many were arrested afterwards.[28]

In the 2014 Swedish election, two members of the NRM were elected to Sweden Democrats seats in the municipal councils in Ludvika and Borlänge. In what has been described as a "coup"[29] their names were added to Sweden Democrats' ballots that were open for additions.[30][31]

Late in 2015, the NRM was registered as a political party in Sweden, headed by the organization's spokesman, Pär Öberg.[32][33][34][35]

Three men with ties to Swedish NRM were sentenced to prison for respectively eight and a half years, five years, and one and a half years on 7 July 2017 for three bombings in Göteborg which took place in November 2016 and January 2017. One person received life-threatening injuries at the bombing of a refugee centre in Västra Frölunda.[2] The men have appealed the verdict.[3]

On 30 September 2017, NRM staged a march with roughly 500 members taking part[36] in Sweden's second largest city Göteborg, timed to coincide with the annual Göteborg Book Fair.[37] Fighting broke out between NRM and counterdemonstrators. Twenty-two NRM members including the organisation's leader Simon Lindberg were arrested on suspicion of violent public disorder, and one counter-demonstrator was arrested on suspicion of attacking a police officer.[38] Swedish Jews were outraged at the demonstration, which took place on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur and was originally planned to pass near a synagogue. The march was re-routed and shortened following a court ruling.[36]

On 19 April 2018, fireworks were thrown at the U.S. embassy in Stockholm during a protest against the bombing of Syria. One NRM man was arrested.[39]

On 6 July 2018, members of the NRM assaulted two pro-Israel activists in Gotland.[40][41]

Electoral results

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/- Notes
2018 2,106 0.03 (18)
0 / 349
Increase [42]

Finland

Suomen Vastarintaliike ("Finnish Resistance Movement") is the Finnish branch of the Nordic Resistance Movement. It was founded by Esa Henrik Holappa, who would later abandon neo-Nazism and leave the group.[43][44][45] Its current leader is Antti Niemi.[46] One of the main tactics has been the planting of propaganda stickers and posters. The members also participate in combat training arranged by the organization.[47] The organisation is also increasingly violent, among other actions attacking anti-racism and gay pride demonstrations.[48]

On 30 November 2017, the Pirkanmaa District Court banned the Nordic Resistance Movement in Finland. The organisation was banned as it 'flagrantly violated the principles of good practice', according to the court.[11] The ban has been appealed and is not legally binding. A request by the police for a temporary ban was turned down.[12]

Norway

Norske Motstandsbevegelsen ("Norwegian Resistance Movement") is the Norwegian chapter of the Nordic Resistance Movement, founded and chaired by Haakon Forwald.[49][50]

Iceland

There have been a few newspaper article on ties of the movement to Iceland,[51][52][53] and it has a token website under Icelandic domain.

Former Muslim Society of Iceland chairperson Salmann Tamimi describes "a frightening experience" when confronted by two men who began talking about a demonstration held by the Icelandic National Front (INF) ("while it had counterprotestors who outnumbered them almost 4 to 1").[54]

References

  1. ^ Holmqvist, Simon (2017-06-06). "Nationaldagsreflektion: Vilken fana ska vi samlas under?". www.nordfront.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-04-05. 
  2. ^ a b Nazister döms till fängelse för bombdåden i Göteborg, Aftonbladet, 7 July 2017, accessed 1 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b Nazister vill frikännas efter bombdomarna, Göteborgsposten, 28 July 2017, accessed 1 September 2017.
  4. ^ Sputnik. "Right-Wing March Backfires on Finnish Nationalists, Brings Money to Opponents". sputniknews.com. 
  5. ^ https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2382438/white-supremacist-nordic-resistance-movement-unite-scandinavia-far-right/ "Inside the violent and rapid increasing white supremacist Nordic Resistance Movement which aims to unite Scandinavia with 'revolution' into a single far-right republic"
  6. ^ "How the expansion of the European Union has facilitated the rise of the New Right in Austria and the United Kingdom". 18 June 2017. 
  7. ^ "Neo-Nazi organization to march in Fredrikstad - Norway Today". 30 April 2017. 
  8. ^ Akerstedt, Ida (30 September 2017). "'We expect CHAOS' Neo-Nazi group descend on Swedish city as police arrest protestors". express.co.uk. 
  9. ^ "New report: Neo-Nazis in the North - Hate Speech International". www.hate-speech.org. 
  10. ^ "Nynazistisk forening forsøger at hverve medlemmer i Ribe" (in Danish). Jydske Vestkysten. 18 March 2018. 
  11. ^ a b "Finnish court bans Neo-Nazi movement". yle.fi. Yle News. 30 November 2017. A court in Tampere has prohibited the Nordic Resistance Movement, a group linked with violent racist activities in Finland. 
  12. ^ a b "Court blocks police move to temporarily ban neo-Nazi group". Yle Uutiset. Retrieved 2018-02-18. 
  13. ^ Ankersen, Dag (2017-05-04). "Terrorforskare: "NMR definitivt en terrorgrupp"". ETC (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-07-23. 
  14. ^ "Gun-Britts son blev offer för nazistvåldet - Nyheter - Expressen". 
  15. ^ "Fakta Sv. Motståndsrörelsen/Nationell Ungdom" (in Swedish). =Expo. 
  16. ^ https://www.expressen.se/gt/fran-vitt-ariskt-motstand-till-nordiska-motstandsrorelsen/ "From White Aryan Resistance to Nordic Resistance Movement"
  17. ^ "Registrerade partibeteckningar". www.val.se. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  18. ^ "Nazisters vapengömma sprängd". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 11 March 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  19. ^ "Information in English". Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  20. ^ Liao, Shannon (February 28, 2018) "Discord shuts down more neo-Nazi, alt-right servers" The Verge
  21. ^ "Adaktusson fortsätter granskningen av nazisterna i Svenska motståndsrörelsen" (in Swedish). TV8. Archived from the original on September 28, 2009. 
  22. ^ a b "Politiskt extremism - Grupper inom vit makt-miljön" (in Swedish). Swedish Security Service. Archived from the original on 2010-08-14. 
  23. ^ "Exklusiv intervju med första avhopparen från nazistgruppen Svenska motståndsrörelsen" (in Swedish). Adaktusson's blogg. Archived from the original on 2009-06-27. 
  24. ^ "Patriot.nu". 2012-03-02. Archived from the original on 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  25. ^ Svenska motståndsrörelsen (29 December 2017). "Nationellt motstånd: trohet, ära, styrka". Nationellt motstånd : trohet, ära, styrka. – via Open WorldCat. 
  26. ^ Stefan Lisinski; Lasse Wierup (25 November 2003). "Nazistledare gripen för vapenbrott" (in Swedish). DN. 
  27. ^ "Fakta Sv. Motståndsrörelsen / Nationell Ungdom". expo.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  28. ^ "Neo-Nazi clashes in Sweden: One year on". 12 December 2014. 
  29. ^ TT. "Kupp ger nazister SD-mandat". SvD.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-12-30. 
  30. ^ "Nazist kuppar in sig på SD-mandat i Ludvika". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 2017-12-30. 
  31. ^ "Nazist tar plats i Borlänges kommunfullmäktige". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-12-30. 
  32. ^ http://www.esisc.org/publications/briefings/radicalization-polarization-and-xenophobia-the-growing-influence-of-the-nordic-resistance-movement-in-sweden-and-finland "Indeed, since 2015 the NRM has been a registered political party in Sweden.
  33. ^ http://kungalvsposten.se/nyheter/nazistparti-vill-ta-plats-i-kungalv/ "The Nazi party, the Nordic Resistance Movement; NRM, will take part in the municipal elections in Kungälv next autumn"
  34. ^ https://www.svt.se/nyheter/inrikes/forskare-nordiska-motstandsrorelsen-ar-en-valdsam-sekt "For a few years, the Nordic Resistance Movement has been a political party, and holds seats in both Ludvika and Borlänge Municipal Councils"
  35. ^ https://www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/a/vRlzw/nazister-kommer-till-almedalen "The Nazi and Antisemitic party 'The Nordic Resistance Movement; NRM' will for the first time take part in the Politicians' Week in Almedalen, reports Gotlands Allehanda".
  36. ^ a b "Dozens of neo-Nazis arrested after violent clashes in Sweden", RT News, 30 September 2017, accessed 1 October 2017.
  37. ^ "Sweden’s literati wrestle with the far right", Politico Europe, 29 September 2017, accessed 1 October 2017.
  38. ^ "NMR-ledaren Simon Lindberg anhållen efter nazimarschen", Aftonbladet, 1 October 2017, accessed 1 October 2017.
  39. ^ "Fireworks thrown at Stockholm US embassy during neo-Nazi protest". 19 April 2018. 
  40. ^ "Neo-Nazis assault two pro-Israel activists in Sweden". 
  41. ^ Nazi threat stalks bucolic swedish political fest, Bloomberg.com, 8 July 2018. Accessed 2018-08-15.
  42. ^ "Röster - Val 2018". data.val.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 17 September 2018. 
  43. ^ https://www.hate-speech.org/a-neo-nazi-leader-breaks-off/ Hate Speech International - "A neo-Nazi leader no more"
  44. ^ https://www.nrk.no/norge/_-jeg-omfavnet-hitlers-tanker-1.12957059 NRK - "I embraced Hitler's thoughts"
  45. ^ http://expo.se/2016/han-var-ledare-for-nordiska-motstandsrorelsen-i-finland---nu-talar-han-ut_7096.html Expo - "He was the leader of the Nordic Resistance Movement in Finland - Now he speaks up"
  46. ^ https://varisverkosto.com/2017/06/repentant-leader-manslaughter-and-nazi-march-year-2016-for-finlands-nordic-resistance-movement/ Varisverkosto - "Repentant leader, manslaughter, and Nazi march - Year 2016 for Finland's Nordic Resistance Movement"
  47. ^ "Extreme right radicals seeking more visible presence in Finland". Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  48. ^ "Researcher: Jyväskylä knife attack no surprise". Retrieved 1 October 2017. 
  49. ^ "Røykenbøringen Haakon Forwald først i nazidemonstrasjon i Sverige". 1 May 2017. 
  50. ^ "VG+". pluss.vg.no. 
  51. ^ "Nordic neo-nazis set their sights on Iceland". Retrieved 2018-07-16. 
  52. ^ grapevine.is (2016-08-04). "Swedish Neo-Nazis Come To Iceland, Seeking Recruits - The Reykjavik Grapevine". The Reykjavik Grapevine. Retrieved 2018-07-16. 
  53. ^ "Nordic Resistance Movement (NRM)". Counter Extremism Project. Retrieved 2018-07-16. 
  54. ^ grapevine.is (2016-09-16). "Neo-Nazis Reportedly Threaten Icelandic Muslim - The Reykjavik Grapevine". The Reykjavik Grapevine. Retrieved 2018-07-16.