Finno-Permic languages

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Northern Fennoscandia, Baltic states, Southwestern, Southeastern, and Ural region of Russia
Linguistic classificationUralic
Finno permic updated.png
The Finno-Permic languages

The Finno-Permic languages (also Finno-Permian and Fenno-Permic/Permian), or sometimes just Finnic, are a proposed subdivision of the Uralic languages which comprises the Baltic Finnic languages, Sami languages, Mordvinic languages, Mari language, Permic languages and likely a number of extinct languages. In the traditional taxonomy of the Uralic languages, Finno-Permic is estimated to have split from Finno-Ugric around 3000–2500 BC, and branched into Permic languages and Finno-Volgaic languages around 2000 BC.[1] Nowadays the validity of the group as a taxonomical entity is questioned.[2]

The term Finnic languages has often been used to designate all the Finno-Permic languages,[3][4] based on an earlier belief that Permic languages would be much more closely related to the Baltic Finnic languages than to the Ugric languages.[1] (In Finnish scholarly usage, Finnic most often refers to the Baltic-Finnic languages alone.[5])

Interpretation of grouping the Finnic/Finno-Permic languages can vary among different scholars, though most variations treat Permic as a primary division. The following proposals for classification are listed by Ruhlen (1987)[3] and by Angela Marcantonio (2002):[6]

Collinder, 1965 Austerlitz, 1968[7] Sauvageot & Menges, 1973 Harms, 1974 Voegelin & Voegelin, 1977[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Taagepera, Rein (1999). The Finno-Ugric republics and the Russian state. pp. 32–33. ISBN 0-415-91977-0.
  2. ^ Salminen, Tapani (2002). "Problems in the taxonomy of the Uralic languages in the light of modern comparative studies".
  3. ^ a b Ruhlen, Merritt (1987). A Guide to the World's Languages: Volume I, Classification. Stanford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-8047-1250-6.
  4. ^ "Finno-Ugric languages". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2013.
  5. ^ See "The Finnic languages" by Johanna Laakso in The Circum-Baltic languages: typology and contact, p. 180.
  6. ^ Marcantonio, Angela (2002). The Uralic Language Family: Facts, Myths and Statistics. p. 57. ISBN 0-631-23170-6.
  7. ^ Austerlitz, Robert (1968). "L'ouralien". In Martinet, André (ed.). Le langage. Austerlitz lists Samic as an independent branch of Uralic.
  8. ^ Voegelin, C. F.; Voegelin, F. M. (1977). Classification and Index of the World's Languages. New York/Oxford/Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 341–343.

Further reading[edit]

  • Abondolo, Daniel, ed. (1998). The Uralic Languages. London and New York. ISBN 0-415-08198-X.