|Northern Fennoscandia, Baltic states, Southwestern, Southeastern, and Ural region of Russia|
The Finno-Permic languages
The Finno-Permic languages (also Finno-Permian and Fenno-Permic/Permian) are a traditional but disputed group of the Uralic languages that comprises the Baltic-Finnic languages, Sami languages, Mordvinic languages, Mari language, Permic languages, and likely a number of extinct languages. In the traditional taxonomy of the Uralic languages, Finno-Permic is estimated to have split from Finno-Ugric around 3000–2500 BC, and branched into Permic languages and Finno-Volgaic languages around 2000 BC. Nowadays the validity of the group as a taxonomical entity is questioned.
The term Finnic languages has often been used to designate all the Finno-Permic languages, based on an earlier belief that Permic languages would be much more closely related to the Baltic Finnic languages than to the Ugric languages. (In Finnish scholarly usage, Finnic most often refers to the Baltic-Finnic languages alone.)
Interpretation of grouping the Finnic/Finno-Permic languages can vary among different scholars, though most variations treat Permic as a primary division. The following proposals for classification are listed by Ruhlen (1987) and by Angela Marcantonio (2002):
|Collinder, 1965||Austerlitz, 1968||Sauvageot & Menges, 1973||Harms, 1974||Voegelin & Voegelin, 1977|
- Taagepera, Rein (1999). The Finno-Ugric republics and the Russian state. pp. 32–33. ISBN 0-415-91977-0.
- Salminen, Tapani (2002). "Problems in the taxonomy of the Uralic languages in the light of modern comparative studies".
- Ruhlen, Merritt (1987). A Guide to the World's Languages: Volume I, Classification. Stanford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-8047-1250-6.
- "Finno-Ugric languages". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2013.
- See "The Finnic languages" by Johanna Laakso in The Circum-Baltic languages: typology and contact, p. 180.
- Marcantonio, Angela (2002). The Uralic Language Family: Facts, Myths and Statistics. p. 57. ISBN 0-631-23170-6.
- Austerlitz, Robert (1968). "L'ouralien". In Martinet, André. Le langage. Austerlitz lists Samic as an independent branch of Uralic.
- Voegelin, C. F.; Voegelin, F. M. (1977). Classification and Index of the World's Languages. New York/Oxford/Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 341–343.