Uralic-speaking world

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The Uralic-speaking world is the part of the world where Uralic languages are either official, co-official, or significantly used, comprising the three independent nation states with a national majority that speaks a Finno-Ugric language: Finland and Estonia, which are inhabited by Baltic Finnic peoples, and Hungary, which is majority Magyar.[1]

The Finno-Ugric countries work together in funding research on Finno-Ugric topics and in protecting the minority rights of Finno-Ugric-speaking nations (collectively called Fenno-Ugria) that do not occupy sovereign states.[2] The three countries are represented in the Finno-Ugric Congress.[3][4]

Modern entities[edit]

Independent sovereign states[edit]


Name Capital Founded
 Finland Helsinki 6 December 1917
 Estonia Tallinn 24 February 1918


Name Capital Founded
 Hungary Budapest c. 895

Countries where Finno-Ugric languages have official or co-official status[edit]


Name Capital Language(s)
Finland: Sámi homeland Sajos Sami
 Norway Oslo Sami and Kven
 Sweden Stockholm Finnish, Meänkieli and Sami

The recently extinct Livonian language has special though unofficial status in  Latvia.


Name Capital Language(s)
 Romania Localities with populations over 20% ethnic Hungarian (all in Transylvania) Hungarian
Serbia:  Vojvodina Novi Sad Hungarian


Name Capital Language(s)
Russia:  Komi Syktyvkar Komi
Russia:  Udmurtia Izhevsk Udmurt


Name Capital Language(s)
Russia:  Mari El Yoshkar-Ola Meadow Mari, Hill Mari
Russia:  Mordovia Saransk Erzya, Moksha

Provinces and autonomous regions without official or co-official status[edit]

Country Region Language(s) Administrative center Founded
 Austria  Burgenland Hungarian Eisenstadt 1921
 Norway  Finnmark Northern Sami Vadsø 1576
 Troms Northern Sami Tromsø 1866
 Nordland Sami Bodø 17th century
 Trøndelag Southern Sami Trondheim 1687
 Russia  Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug Khanty, Mansi Khanty-Mansiysk 10 December 1930
 Perm Krai Komi-Permyak Perm 1 December 2005
Republic of Karelia Karelia Republic Karelian, Vepsian, Finnish Petrozavodsk 16 July 1956
 Slovenia Prekmurje Hungarian Murska Sobota Unknown
 Sweden Norrbotten County Meänkieli, Sami Luleå 1810
 Ukraine Mukacheve Raion Hungarian Mukacheve 9 November 1953

Historical states and dynasties[edit]

Hungarian states[edit]

Name Year(s) Capital Map
Hétmagyar confederation 9th century Unknown
Principality of Hungary 895–1000 Esztergom and Székesfehérvár
Árpád Kingdom 1000–1301 Esztergom and Székesfehérvár Kingdom of Hungary 1190.svg
Kingdom of Hungary (1301–1526) 1301–1526 Esztergom, Székesfehérvár and Buda
Eastern Hungarian Kingdom
(vassal under  Ottoman Empire)
Buda (1526–41)
Lippa (1541–42)
Gyulafehérvár (1542–70)
Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary
(since 1804 crownland of the  Austrian Empire)
1526–1867 Buda (1526–1536, 1784–1873)
Pressburg (1536–1783)
KingdomOfHungary Josephinische Landesaufnahme Original Map 1782-1785.jpg
Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)
(vassal under  Ottoman Empire)
1570–1711 Gyulafehérvár (1570–1692)
Nagyszeben (1692–1711)
Transylvanian Principality.svg
Principality of Upper Hungary
(vassal under  Ottoman Empire)
1682–1685 Kassa Central europe 1683.png
Grand Principality of Transylvania
(since 1804 part of the  Austrian Empire)
1711–1867 Nagyszeben (1711–1791, 1848–1861)
Kolozsvár (1791–1848, 1861–1867)
Romania 1859-1878.png
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
(part of  Austria-Hungary)
1867–1918 Budapest Cisleithania, Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg

Note: some of these countries, while not predominantly ethnically Hungarian, were ruled by Hungarians, so they are considered as such here.

Post-World War I states[edit]

Name Year(s) Capital Map
Soviet Republic of Naissaar 1917–1918 Obernargen Naissaar.PNG
Kingdom of Finland 1918–1919 Helsinki Finlandduchy.jpg
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic 1918 Helsinki FinnishCivilWarMapBegin.svg
Estonia Estonia (1918–40) 1918–40 Tallinn Estonian War of Independence, map.JPG
Republic of East Karelia 1918–1920 Uhtua Itä-Karjala.sijainti.png
 First Hungarian Republic 1918–1919 Budapest ArmisticioDeBelgradoYHungría19181919.svg
Estonian Worker's Commune 1918–1919 Narva LocationEstonia.png
North Ingria 1919–1920 Kirjasalo Pohjois.inkeri.sijainti.png
 Hungarian Soviet Republic 1919 Budapest Nepkoztarsasag.png
 Hungarian Republic (1919–20) 1919–1920 Budapest
 Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46) 1920–1946 Budapest Kingdom of Hungary (1942).svg
Banate of Leitha 1921 Oberwart Burgenland in Austria.svg
Finnish Democratic Republic 1939–1940 Terijoki Suomen-kansantasavalta.png
 Second Hungarian Republic 1946–1949 Budapest Ungheria (1945-1949).png
 Hungarian People's Republic 1949–1989 Budapest Hungary 1956-1990.svg

Autonomous regions[edit]

Name Year(s) Capital Map
Autonomous Governorate of Estonia
(under  Russian Republic)
1917–1918 Tallinn Estonia1925physical.jpg
Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under  Soviet Union)
Petrozavodsk Soviet Union - Karelo-Finnish SSR (1940).svg
Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under  Soviet Union)
1934–1990 Saransk
Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under  Soviet Union)
1934–1990 Izhevsk
Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under  Soviet Union)
1936–1990 Syktyvkar
Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under  Soviet Union)
1936–1990 Yoshkar-Ola
Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic
(under  Soviet Union)
1940–1956 Petrozavodsk Soviet Union - Karelo-Finnish SSR (1940).svg
 Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
(under  Soviet Union)
1940–1991 Tallinn Soviet Union - Estonian SSR.svg
Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
(under  Yugoslavia)
1944–1992 Novi Sad Locator map Vojvodina in Yugoslavia and Serbia.svg
Magyar Autonomous Region
(under  Romania)
1952–1968 Târgu Mureș Magyar Autonomous Region.png
Veps National Volost
(under  Russia)
1994–2004 Shyoltozero

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Korkut, Umut (21 April 2009). "Eager, Pragmatic or Reluctant: Can Common Finno-Ugric Ethnic and Linguistic Links Substantiate Intra-EU CFSP Co-Operation?". Retrieved 20 February 2018 – via papers.ssrn.com.
  2. ^ Casen, Marie (30 June 2014). "Udmurt Identity Issues: Core Moments from the Middle Ages to the Present Day". Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics. 8 (1): 91–110. Retrieved 20 February 2018 – via www.jef.ee.
  3. ^ Ruotsala, Helena (20 February 2018). "X Finno-Ugric Congress in Mari El". Ethnologia Fennica. 32: 74–76. Retrieved 20 February 2018 – via journal.fi.
  4. ^ "FennoUgria: World Congresses". ftp.eki.ee. Retrieved 20 February 2018.