Fire drill

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Students practicing a fire drill in a smoke trailer with a firefighter assisting them. This is aimed at teaching the children proper procedures for evacuating the building in a real life fire or emergency situation.
A fire alarm notification appliance widely used in the United States and Canada, pictured is a Wheelock MT-24-LSM. Fire drills often use fire alarms.

A fire drill is a method of practicing how a building would be evacuated in the event of a fire or other emergencies. In most cases, the building's existing fire alarm system is activated and the building is evacuated by means of the nearest available exit as if an emergency had actually occurred. Fire drill procedures may vary depending on the building type, such as hospitals or high rise buildings, where occupants may be relocated within the building as opposed to evacuating the building. Generally, the evacuation is timed to ensure that it is fast enough, and problems with the emergency system or evacuation procedures are identified to be remedied.

In addition to fire drills, most buildings have their fire alarm systems checked on a regular basis to ensure that the system is working. Fire alarm tests are often done outside normal business hours so as to minimize disruption of building functions; in schools, they are often done when students and staff are not around or during the holidays where specialist fire alarm engineers test alarms in the building for repair if needed.

History of fire drills[edit]

A group of students from James Madison University evacuate their dorm rooms in response to a fire drill

The purpose of fire drills in buildings is to ensure that everyone knows how to exit safely as quickly as possible if a fire, smoke, carbon monoxide or other emergency occurs and to familiarize building occupants with the sound of the fire alarm.[1]

Before regular fire drills were instituted, an infamous fire broke out at the private Catholic school Our Lady of the Angels in 1958, in Chicago.[2] Children on the second floor were trapped there, with neither teachers nor pupils knowing how to get out of the building safely. Many children jumped out of windows, and many were killed as they could not make their way to an exit.[2] Although the school had passed a fire inspection two months before, and had the number of fire exits and fire extinguishers required at the time, it lacked smoke detectors or adequate fire alarms, and was overcrowded.[2]

The need for fire drills was recognized; monthly fire drills were put in place after the Our Lady of the Angels fire. It was found in a later study that education on fire also helped to prevent it: people started to learn more about what started fires, and what to do in the case of one starting. They were also aware of the hazards that allow a fire to start. Within a year of the fire, many of the hazardous conditions found in Our Lady of the Angels had been eliminated in thousands of schools around the United States.

Other improvements in fire safety[edit]

After the fire at Our Lady of the Angels, state regulations required that there had to be fire alarm street boxes no more than one hundred feet from the front of the building. The General Assembly of Illinois also passed life safety codes in response to the fire at Our Lady of the Angels. Things such as more control over waste disposal, proper storage of combustible supplies, more frequent fire drills and inspections were put in place.[3] Other reforms from the fire include the city of Chicago modifying the Municipal Building Code of Chicago, affecting fire safety of schools as well as other buildings with two or more stories.[2] To prevent fires and deaths caused by fires, schools must have an evacuation plan in place, and make sure that all the proper fire alarms and warnings work. Teachers must take charge of the situation and be a leader. Teachers should also consider the number of students that they have. They need enough space and time to get all of the students out quickly, and safely. Teachers should also be the ones that are looking out for causes of fires, in order to try and stop it from happening.[4]

Fire drill regulations[edit]

Many jurisdictions require that fire drills be conducted at certain intervals. This is the case in educational institutions, and also other workplaces and buildings. The frequency of such drills and what must be done during them may be laid down in statutes.[citation needed]

United States[edit]

In the United States, school fire drill regulations are set by individual states.

Most states require that schools conduct a fire drill once per month:

Some states require that schools conduct a specific number of drills over the course of the entire school year, or that a certain number of drills must be conducted within a certain period of time:

  • Vermont
  • Virginia[43]
  • Some states specify a greater frequency of fire drills at the beginning of the school year:

    Until regulations changed on November 1, 2010, New Jersey was unique in its requirement that schools conduct two fire drills per month.[45] Under later requirements one of the two fire drills was replaced by a monthly security drill.[16]

    United Kingdom[edit]

    The National Union of Teachers requires that all schools, colleges and universities and any other education establishment perform a fire evacuation drill every term.[46] It is required that most schools perform a fire drill at the start of the academic year.[47] According to UK fire regulations, any new buildings that were built after the fire safety regulations changed in 2005, each room should have at least one fire alarm device such as a bell, a sounder (siren) or smoke /heat alarm installed in every room. Regular safety checks such as testing fire alarms or smoke alarms and fire extinguishers should be performed weekly and does not require building evacuation.[48] According to the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005, all workplaces must have an emergency plan specifying staff actions, evacuation plans and arrangements for contacting the fire brigade.[49]

    New Zealand[edit]

    The New Zealand Fire Service requires all schools and educational facilities to carry out a fire drill (termed a trial evacuation) at least once every six months, unless a shorter period is specified in the school's approved evacuation scheme. Schools need to give the Fire Service 7-10 working days' notice before a fire drill is planned, and must submit a report to the Fire Service within 7-10 working days of the drill; an unplanned alarm activation does not count as a fire drill.[50]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ "How To Conduct A Fire Drill At Work: A Step-by-Step Guide". AlertMedia. 2018-08-17. Archived from the original on 2019-04-26. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
    2. ^ a b c d Cunningham, Thomas (n.d.). "Our Lady of the Angels: A Historical Perspective on School Fires". WithTheCommand.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
    3. ^ Teague, Paul. "Case Histories: Fires Influencing the Life Safety Code" (PDF). nfpa.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
    4. ^ National Fire Protection Association. "Fire Drills at School". nfpa.org. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
    5. ^ Code of Alabama, § 36-19-10, Regulation of fire drills and doors and exits in schools, factories, hospitals, etc. Archived 2010-03-17 at the Wayback Machine
    6. ^ a b "723 ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATION" (PDF). Fairbanks North Star Borough School District. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-02-16. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
    7. ^ Arkansas Code, § 12-13-109. Fire drills.
    8. ^ a b "School Emergency Preparedness Plan - Section 8". 2004-11-20. Archived from [http:}//mcoeweb.marin.k12.ca.us/EmerPrep/plan8.html the original] Check |url= value (help) on 2004-11-20. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
    9. ^ [1] Archived March 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
    10. ^ a b "Standards for Principals and Assistant Principals" (DOC (computing)). District of Columbia Public Schools. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
    11. ^ a b c "Site Based Manager Fall Back and Regroup". Florida Department of Education. Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
    12. ^ "State Regulation of Private Schools - Nebraska". Ed.gov. 2000-01-01. Archived from the original on 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
    13. ^ "Nevada Revised Statutes §392.450". Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-08-05.
    14. ^ "Nevada Revised Statutes §394.170". Archived from the original on 2016-12-24. Retrieved 2007-08-05.
    15. ^ "Fire Code Issues in Educational Occupancies" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
    16. ^ a b "New Jersey Principals And Supervisors Association — Membership News". Njpsa.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
    17. ^ "GS 115C-288". Ncga.state.nc.us. Archived from the original on 2009-07-24. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
    18. ^ a b "Bills try at header" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
    19. ^ 24J Risk Management Operations Manual Archived January 19, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
    20. ^ PDE. "Pre K-12 Schools: Fire Drills and School Bus Evacuations". Pde.state.pa.us. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
    21. ^ a b Rhode Island General Laws, Title 16, § 16-21-4 Archived 2012-03-09 at the Wayback Machine
    22. ^ "Chapter 07-234". Rilin.state.ri.us. 2007-05-23. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
    23. ^ a b "State Fire Marshal's Office: Fire Safety Starts in Schools". www.tn.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-02-16. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
    24. ^ a b c "Fire Drill Requirements". Davis School District. Archived from the original on March 19, 2005. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
    25. ^ a b "School Fire Exit Drill Safety Report" (PDF). Office of the State Fire Marshal. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
    26. ^ Fire Drills in Wisconsin Schools: an Opportunity for Excellence Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine, John Andersen, Wisconsin Department of Commerce Newsletter, November 2003
    27. ^ "Arizona School Emergency Response Plan Minimum Requirements Checklist" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-09-15. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
    28. ^ "§12-45.1-99 w/Amendment" (PDF). Hawaii Administrative Rules, Title 12, Subtitle 7, Chapter 45-1. Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Relations. p. 32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-11-04. Retrieved 2014-11-03.
    29. ^ Governor Blagojevich signs new law to make schools safer Archived 2010-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, Office of the Governor, State of Illinois, August 16, 2005
    30. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2015-04-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    31. ^ "State of Kansas" (PDF). Firemarshall.ks.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-04-15. Retrieved 2019-04-15.
    32. ^ a b "E - Business Management". Cpsb.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
    33. ^ a b Yarmouth School District. "Yarmouth School District - E - Support Services". District.yarmouth.k12.me.us. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
    34. ^ Maryland An. Code 1957, art. 77, § 91; 1978, ch. 22, § 2; 1996, ch. 10, § 16.
    35. ^ School Fire Drills Archived 2006-12-14 at the Wayback Machine, Stephen D. Coan, Massachusetts Department of Fire Services, June 27, 2001
    36. ^ Michigan Compiled Laws, Chapter 29, Act 207 of 1941, Section 29.19 Archived 2010-02-01 at the Wayback Machine
    37. ^ "Minnesota Statutes 299F.30: Fire drill in schools; doors and exits". 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-06-23. Retrieved 2007-06-11.
    38. ^ "Montana Code Annotated 20-1-402". 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
    39. ^ Subsection M of 6.30.2.10 of the New Mexico Administrative Code
    40. ^ "FireDrillFreq_120309". Archived from the original on 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
    41. ^ "ARTICLE IV: SAFETY". Archived from the original on 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
    42. ^ "K-12 Accreditation - South Dakota Department of Education". test.doe.sd.gov. Department of Education, State of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 2018-02-16. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
    43. ^ a b Code of Virginia, § 22.1-137 Archived 2019-09-02 at the Wayback Machine
    44. ^ "Superintendent's Report". Office of Insurance and Safety Fire Commissioner. State of Georgia. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
    45. ^ New Jersey Permanent Statutes, § 18A:41-1
    46. ^ Burton, Liz. "How to Carry Out a Fire Drill in your School". High Speed Training UK Limited. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
    47. ^ "Fire safety in the workplace". Diect Gov. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
    48. ^ "Fire safety in the workplace". Direct Gov. Archived from the original on 2015-09-28. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
    49. ^ "DfES | Teachernet | Emergencies". Teachernet. Archived from the original on 2010-10-07. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
    50. ^ "Guide to evacuation schemes December 2014". New Zealand Fire Service. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2015.