Fire of Moscow (1812)

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Fire of Moscow
Part of the French invasion of Russia
Fireofmoscow.jpg
The Moscow fire depicted by Viktor Mazurovsky
Date14 September 1812
Location55°45′N 37°38′E / 55.75°N 37.63°E / 55.75; 37.63
Result Most of Moscow destroyed by fire
Belligerents
 First French Empire  Russian Empire
Commanders and leaders
First French Empire Napoleon
Moscou on the map, see also Attrition warfare against Napoleon
Moscou on the map, see also Attrition warfare against Napoleon
1817 map, Areas of Moscow destroyed by the fire in red

The 1812 Fire of Moscow persisted from 14 to 18 September 1812 and all but destroyed the city. The Russian troops and most of the remaining residents had abandoned the city of Moscow on 14 September 1812 just ahead of French Emperor Napoleon's troops entering the city after the Battle of Borodino.[1]

Causes[edit]

Napoleon watching the fire of Moscow from the walls of the Kremlin
A 19th-century caricature (lubok) of Napoleon meeting Satan after the Fire of Moscow, by Ivan Alekseevich Ivanov

Search had been made for the fire engines since the previous day, but some of them had been taken away and the rest put out of action...The Poles reported that they had already caught some incendiaries and shot them, ...they had extracted the information that orders had been given by the governor of the city and the police that the whole city should be burnt during the night.[2]

Before leaving Moscow Count Rostopchin is supposed to have given orders to the head of police (and released convicts) to have the Kremlin and major public buildings (including churches and monasteries) set on fire. During the following days the fires spread. According to Germaine de Staël, who left the city a few weeks before Napoleon arrived, it was Rostopchin who ordered to set his own mansions on fire, so no Frenchmen should lodge in it.[3] Today, the majority of historians blame the initial fires on the Russian strategy of scorched earth.

Furthermore, a Moscow police officer was captured trying to set the Kremlin on fire where Napoleon was staying at the time; brought before Napoleon, the officer admitted he and others had been ordered to set the city on fire after which he was bayonetted by guardsmen on the spot on the orders of a furious Napoleon.[4]

The catastrophe started as many small fires, which promptly grew out of control and formed a massive blaze. The fires spread quickly since most buildings in Moscow were made of wood. And although Moscow had had a fire brigade, their equipment had previously either been removed or destroyed on Rostopchin's orders. The flames spread into the Kremlin's arsenal, but the fire was put out by French Guardsmen. The burning of Moscow is reported to have been visible up to 215 km away.[5]

Tolstoy, in his War and Peace, not only a novel, but mixed with chapters on history and philosophy, suggests that the fire was not deliberately set, either by the Russians or the French, but was the natural result of placing a deserted and mostly wooden city in the hands of invading troops, when fires would have started nearly every day even with the owners present and a fully functioning police department, what was not the case, and that the soldiers will start fires–from smoking their pipes, cooking their food twice a day, and burning enemy's possessions in the streets. Some of those fires will inevitably get out of control. Without an efficient firefighting action, these individual building fires will spread to become neighborhood fires, and ultimately a citywide conflagration.

Timeline of events[edit]

Commemorative Bandanna: Burning of Moscow (1812) Printed in England - "Conflagration of Moscow Seen from the Kremlin, on the entrance of the French Army, the 14th of Sept 1812"
Liturgy in the Saint Euplo church of Moscow in presence of French soldiers, 27 September 1812.
  • 8 September – Russian army began retreating east from Borodino.[6] They camped outside Mozhaysk.
  • 9 September - When the village of Mozhaysk was captured, the Grande Armée rested for two days to recover.
  • 10 September, the main quarter of the Russian army was situated in Bolshiye Vyazyomy.[7] The owner was Dmitry Golitsyn, one of his generals. Russian sources suggest Mikhail Kutuzov wrote a number of orders and letters to Fyodor Rostopchin about saving the city or the army.[8][9]
  • 11 September - Tsar Alexander signed a document that Kutuzov was promoted General Field Marshall, the highest military rank. Napoleon wrote Marshal Victor to hurry to Moscow.
  • 12 September [O.S. 31 August] 1812 the main forces of Kutuzov departed from the village, now Golitsyno and camped near Odintsovo, 20 km to the west, followed by Mortier and Joachim Murat's vanguard.
  • 12 September – Napoleon Bonaparte, who suffered from a cold and lost his voice, slept in the main manor house of Bolshiye Vyazyomy (on the same sofa in the library) within one day.[10]
  • 13 September - Napoleon left the manor house and headed east.[11] Napoleon and Poniatovsky also camped near Odintsovo and invited Murat for dinner.
  • 13 September - Russian army set camp at Fili; Russian vanguard lodged nearby in Dorogomilovo. On Sunday afternoon the Russian military council at Fili discussed the risks and agreed to abandon Moscow without fighting. Leo Tolstoy wrote Rostopchin was invited also and explained the difficult decision in a remarkable chapter. The troops started at once. "They were passing through Moscow from two o'clock at night, till two in the afternoon and bore away with them the wounded and the last of the inhabitants who were leaving."[12] Beginning of civilian flight from Moscow, organized by Miloradovich; Kutuzov kept a low profile during the retreat.
  • 14 September – The Russian army crossed the Moskva river near Sparrow Hills and marched through Moscow into an southeast bound road to Ryazan, followed by masses of civilians.[13] Napoleon arrived at Poklonnaya Hill. After a ceasefire Murat's corps was the first to ride through the city, taking the Kremlin in the afternoon, leaving the inhabitants enough time to depart. First fires broke out in the evening[1] but they did not slow down the French invasion of the city.
  • 15 September – More wind and massive fires. Napoleon arrived at Kremlin.[14] At nine in the evening a ball of fire exploded. Fires in various quarters of the town. The wind changed direction and reached hurricane strength. Six or seven thousand little shops caught fire again.[15]
  • 16 September – Firestorm threatens Kremlin. Watching the fire from Kremlin Hill Napoleon relocated to suburban and empty Petrovsky Palace.[14][16]
  • 16 September - Sergeant Bourgogne: "Orders had been given to shoot everyone found setting fire to houses. This order was executed at once. A little open space next to the Place du Gouvernement was called by us the Place des Pendus, as here a number of incendiaries were shot and hung on the trees."[17]
  • 18 September – Fire destroyed 3/4 of the city and settled down; when it began to rain Napoleon returned to Kremlin.[18] He lost sight of Kutuzov.
  • 20 September, Napoleon proposed peace to the Tsar. The fires subsided on the 21st; the captured arsonists were executed.
  • 21 September Kutuzov changed direction and turned west along the Pakhra river
  • 23 September came the order for the two battalions of the 33rd Regiment to break away. On 25 September, in collaboration with German infantrymen and French dragoons, it had to sweep the area around Malye Vyaziomy.[19]
  • On the 24th, dinners were held, with promotions and ribbons, and a theatre was set up. On the 27th, a ball was held. Everyone put on their newly acquired clothes and drank rum punch. First snow, the army was suffering from famine and the cold.[20]
  • 28 September - A large supply of foodstuffs was seized at Malye Vyaziomy and loaded onto 26 wagons. They were pursued by Cossacks who managed to take 15 wagons.[21]
  • 29 September - Marat and his cavalry arrived at Winkovo and settled near a lake.[22] Rostopchin owned an estate near Tarutino, Russia. Robert Wilson was with him, when Rostopchin set fire to his estate.[23]
  • 4 October - A plan to march to Saint Petersburg was given up; absolute lack of forage, limited cavalry and artillery as horsed died on the spot. Murat is forced to withdraw into a ravine. A network of Cossacks and armed peasants were killing all isolated men.[24]
  • Each side avoid ed the other and seemed no longer to wish to get into a fight. Barclay de Tolly interrupted his service for five months and settled in Nizhny Novgorod.[25]
  • 5 October - On order of Napoleon the French ambassador Jacques Lauriston leaves Moscow to meet Kutuzov at his headquarters near Tarutino. Kutuzov agrees to meet, despite the orders of the Tsar.
  • 7 October- Although the weather was fine and the temperature mild, not a single courier from Moscow reached Vilnius, due to a lack of horses.[26]
  • 8 October, Murat personally asked Miloradovich to let his cavalry go foraging.[27]
  • 15 October, Napoleon ordered to evacuate the 12,000 sick and wounded to Smolensk.[28]
  • 16 October, Kutuzov and his entire staff arrived at Tarutino? He wanted to go even further in order to control three roads from Kaluga, so that Napoleon could not turn south.

    Kutuzov's food supplies and reinforcements were mostly coming up through Kaluga from the fertile and populous southern provinces, his new deployment gave him every opportunity to feed his men and horses and rebuild their strength. He refused to attack; he was happy for Napoleon to stay in Moscow for as long as possible, avoiding complicated movements and manoeuvres.[29]

    Kutuzov avoided frontal battles involving large masses of troops. This tactic was sharply criticised by Chief of Staff Bennigsen and others, but also by the Autocrat and Emperor Alexander.
  • On the 18th, at dawn, Murat's camp was by surprise attacked in a forest known as Battle of Winkovo; supported by Kutuzov from his headquarters. Murat lost 12 guns, 3,000 men and 20 of his baggage carts. Bennigsen asked Kutuzov to provide troops for the pursuit. However, the General Field Marshall refused.
  • 19 October – After 36 days the French army (around 108,000) left Moscow at seven in the morning. Napoleon's goal was to get around Kutuzov, but on the 24th he was stopped and forced to go north.

Extent of the disaster[edit]

Napoleon within the burning Moscow

...In 1812, there had been approximately 4,000 stone structures and 8,000 wooden houses in Moscow. Of these, there remained after the fires only about 200 of the stone buildings and some 500 wooden houses along with about half of the 1,600 churches, although nearly every church was damaged to some extent...the large number of churches that escaped total destruction by the flames is probably explained by the fact that altar implements and other paraphernalia were made of precious metals, which immediately attracted the attention of the looters. Indeed, Napoleon had a systematic sweep made for the church silver, which ended up in his war chest, the mobile treasury.[1]

Still, the remaining buildings had enough space for the French army. As General Marcellin Marbot reasoned:

"It is often claimed that the fire of Moscow... was the principal cause of the failure of the 1812 campaign. This assertion seems to me to be contestable. To begin with, the destruction of Moscow was not so complete that there did not remain enough houses, palaces, churches and barracks to accommodate the entire army [for a whole month]."[30]

Reconstruction of the city[edit]

Some 18th-century buildings were rebuilt to original plans
Vasily Pushkin house, a typical example of 1810s cheap wooden architecture with neoclassical trim

The process of rebuilding after the fire under governor Dmitry Golitsyn was gradual, lasting well over a decade.[5]

In culture[edit]

Leo Tolstoy describes the fire in his novel War and Peace.

The fire was adapted into 1965–67 Soviet film War and Peace; the film crew planned out the scenes for 10 months and shot the fires with six ground cameras while also filming from helicopters.[31]

Kutuzov, Russian movie (1943) with English subtitles, describes also the Fire of Moscow(1812).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Riehn 1990, p. 285.
  2. ^ Caulaincourt 1935, p. 118.
  3. ^ Stael-Holstein 1821, p. 352.
  4. ^ Ludwig 1927, p. 408.
  5. ^ a b Luhn 2012.
  6. ^ Riehn 1990, p. 260.
  7. ^ Memoiren des königlich preußischen Generals der Infanterie by Ludwig von Wolzogen, p. 151-152
  8. ^ https://www.nivasposad.ru/school/homepages/all_kurs/konkurs2013/web-pages/web/filippov_andreji/html/bolshie_vyazemi.html Russian: Большие Вязёмы
  9. ^ Lieven, D. (2009) Russia against Napoleon, p. 210-211
  10. ^ https://architecturebest.com/usadba-bolshie-vjazemy/ Russian: Усадьба Большие Вяземы
  11. ^ 1812: Napoleon in Moscow by Paul Britten Austin, p. 69-70
  12. ^ War and Peace, book XI
  13. ^ Riehn 1990, p. 290.
  14. ^ a b Riehn 1990, p. 286.
  15. ^ P. Britton Austin, p. 26-28, 233
  16. ^ Zamoyski 1980, p. 300.
  17. ^ Bourgogne 1899, p. 31.
  18. ^ Zamoyski 1980, p. 304.
  19. ^ 1812: Napoleon in Moscow by Paul Britten Austin
  20. ^ P. Britton Austin, p. 73, 85
  21. ^ F.H.A. Sabron (1910) Geschiedenis van het 33e regiment Lichte Infanterie (het Oud-Hollandsche 3e regiment Jagers) onder Keizer Napoleon I, p. 64.]
  22. ^ P. Britton Austin, p. 73, 79
  23. ^ 1812: Napoleon in Moscow by Paul Britten Austin, p. 141-142
  24. ^ P. Britton Austin, p. 93, 102, 104, 152, 174
  25. ^ Lieven, D. (2009) Russia against Napoleon, p. 253, 296
  26. ^ P. Britton Austin, p. 107-108
  27. ^ P. Britton Austin, p. 123
  28. ^ P. Britton Austin, p. 114, 242
  29. ^ Lieven, D. (2009) Russia against Napoleon, p. 214, 252
  30. ^ Marbot 1891, Chapter 21.
  31. ^ Taylor 2019.

References[edit]

  • Riehn, Richard K. (1990). 1812 : Napoleon's Russian campaign. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  • Caulaincourt, Armand-Augustin-Louis de (1935). With Napoleon in Russia: the memoirs of General de Caulaincourt. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  • Zamoyski, Adam (1980). Moscow 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  • Bourgogne, Adrien Jean Baptiste François (1899). Memoirs of Sergeant Bourgogne, 1812-1813. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  • Stael-Holstein, Baroness de (1821). Ten years' exile. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  • Marbot, Baron de (1891). Memoirs of General Baron de Marbot. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  • Ludwig, Emil (1927). Napoleon (PDF). Translated by Paul, Eden; Paul, Cedar (2nd ed.). London, United Kingdom of Great Britain: Unwing Brothers, Ltd. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  • Luhn, Alec (2012). "Moscow's Last Great Fire - Russian Life". www.russianlife.com. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  • Taylor, Ella (2019). "War and Peace: Saint Petersburg Fiddles, Moscow Burns". Retrieved 11 March 2021.

External links[edit]

Hub: French invasion of Russia
Russian campaign 1812
Mir Ekau Saltanovka Riga Ostrovno Kobrin Vitebsk Klyastitsy Inkovo Swolna Gorodechno Krasnoi(1) Smolensk Polotsk(1) Valutino Dahlenkirchen Shevardino Borodino Moscow Mesoten Tarutino Polotsk(2) Maloyaroslavets Chashniki Vyazma Liaskowa Smoliani Wolkowisk Kaidanowo Krasnoi(2) Borisov Loschniza Berezina

Further reading[edit]

  • Martin, Alexander, Enlightened Metropolis: Constructing Imperial Moscow, 1762-1855, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.
  • Mikaberidze, Alexander. The Burning of Moscow: Napoleon's Trial by Fire, London. Pen and Sword. 2014.
  • Olivier, Daria, The Burning of Moscow 1812, London. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1966 (JSTOR - The Scholarly Journal Archive review)
  • Rosenstrauch, J.A., "Historische Ereignisse in Moskau im Jahre 1812 zur Zeit der Anwesenheit des Feindes in dieser Stadt" (German-language memoir text), in: И.А. Розенштраух, Исторические происшествия в Москве 1812 года во время присутствия в сем городе неприятеля, М., Новое Литературное Обозрение, 2015, pp. 169–220 - ISBN 978-5-4448-0270-0.
  • Ruchinskaya, Tatiana (1994). "The Scottish architectural traditions in the plan for the reconstruction of Moscow after the fire of 1812: A rare account of the influence of Scottish architect William Hastie on town planning in Moscow". Building Research & Information. 22 (4): 228–233. doi:10.1080/09613219408727386.
  • Schmidt, Albert J. (1981). "The Restoration of Moscow after 1812". Slavic Review 40 (1): 37–48. JSTOR 2496426.
  • Полосин И.И., Кутузов и пожар Москвы 1812 г., «Исторические записки», 1950, т. 34.
  • Холодковский В.М., Наполеон ли поджёг Москву?, «Вопросы истории», 1966, № 4.
  • Тартаковский А.Г., Обманутый Герострат. Ростопчин и пожар Москвы, «Родина», 1992, № 6—7.
  • Chandler, David, The Campaigns of Napoleon New York, Macmillan, 1966[1] Chandler, David G., The Campaigns of Napoleon Access-date=7 March 2021
  • Chambray, George de, Histoire de l'expédition de Russie [2] Chambray, George de, Histoire de l'expédition de Russie access-date=7 March 2021
  • Weider, Ben and Franceschi, Michel, The Wars Against Napoleon: Debunking the Myth of the Napoleonic Wars, 2007 [3] Weider, Ben and Franceschi, The Wars Against Napoleon: Debunking the Myth of the Napoleonic Wars access-date=7 March 2021
  • Wilson, Robert Thomas, Narrative of events during the Invasion of Russia by Napoleon Bonaparte, and the Retreat of the French Army, 1812 [4] Wilson, Robert Thomas, Narrative of events during the Invasion of Russia by Napoleon Bonaparte, and the Retreat of the French Army, 1812 access-date=5 March 2021
  • Carl von Clausewitz, "Der feldzug 1812 in Russland und die befreiungskriege von 1813-15", 1906, [5] Clausewitz, Carl von, Der feldzug 1812 in Russland und die befreiungskriege von 1813-15 access-date=7 March 2021
  • Yevgeny Tarle, "Napoleon's Invasion of Russia", citing Russian edition of: Тарле, Е.В., "Нашествие Наполеона на Россию", гл.VI "Пожар Москвы" at "Е.Б. Рюпке ╚Мюьеярбхе Мюонкенмю Мю Пняяхч╩". Museum.ru. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
  • V. Fillipov, "Dynamics of ethnic and confessional identity of Moscow population", citing Russian edition of: На пути к переписи / Под редакцией Валерия Тишкова — М.: "Авиаиздат", 2003 с. 277–313 "Как менялся этнический состав москвичей". Demoscope.ru. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
  • I.M. Katayeva, "Fire of Moscow", citing Russian edition of "Отечественная война и русское общество", в 7тт, т.4, М, издание т-ва И.Д.Сытина, 1911 "╚Нревеярбеммюъ Бнимю Х Псяяйне Наыеярбн╩. Рнл Iv. Лняйбю Опх Тпюмжсгюу. Онфюп Лняйбш". Museum.ru. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
  • P.V. Sytin, "History of Moscow Streets", citing original Russia edition: Сытин, П.В., "Из истории московских улиц", М, 1948.