Firefighting in the United States
||This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. (April 2013)|
As of 2011[update] there are around 1,100,000 firefighters serving in 30,145 fire departments nationwide and responding to emergencies from 55,400 fire stations. Of those firefighters, 31% or 344,000 were career firefighters and 69% or 756,000 were volunteers.
Fire departments responded to 30,100,000 calls for service in 2011. Two-thirds of those, 19,800,000, were for medical help, 7.6% (2,400,000) were false alarms, and only 4.6% (1,400,000) were for actual fires.
Since at least 1980, calls for fires have decreased as a proportion of total calls and in absolute numbers from 3,000,000 to 1,400,000 in 2011, while in the same period medical calls have increased from 5,000,000 to 19,800,000.
The professionalization of American firefighting was largely a result of three factors: the steam fire engines, the fire insurance companies, that demanded the municipalization of firefighting, and an ideology which suggested that payment of wages would naturally result in improved service. Paid firefighters may be union or non-union. Union American firefighters are represented and united in the International Association of Fire Fighters with headquarters in Washington, D.C.[dubious ] However, many municipalities still rely on volunteer, paid on call, or part-time firefighters. These non full-time firefighters are rarely union, and their interests are represented by the National Volunteer Fire Council.
The United States Fire Administration provides national leadership to local fire services. The fire departments report fires and other incidents according to the National Fire Incident Reporting System, which maintains records of the incidents in a uniform manner. The National Fire Protection Association sets and maintains minimum standards and requirements for firefighting duties and equipment. The suppression of wildfires is regulated by the United States Department of Agriculture, US Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. This is done through the National Wildland Coordination Center.
The two million fire calls that American fire departments respond to each year represent the highest figures in the industrialized world. Each year thousands of people die, tens of thousands of people are injured, and property damage reaches billions of dollars. Indirect costs, such as temporary lodging expenses, lost time at work, medical expenses, and psychological damages are equally alarming (The United States Fire Administration 1996). According to American Red Cross statistics, the annual losses from floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and other natural disasters combined in the United States average just a fraction of those from fires. House fires in particular are one of the most common tragedies facing emergency disaster workers in recent history. According to the US Fire Administration, the United States has a more severe fire problem than generally perceived. In inner city Pennsylvania neighborhoods, house fires have greatly increased, especially in socially and economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. An alarming trend in these specific house fires is that sixty percent of these houses do not have working smoke detectors. Additionally, these households are prone to using supplemental heating devices and substandard extension cords that are not Underwriters Laboratories (UL) compliant. UL compliant extension cords are labeled with valuable information as to the use, size, and rating of the cord (Dunston, 2008, p. 2).
Firefighting in the United States can be traced back to the 17th century when, after a great conflagration in Boston in 1631, the Massachusetts Bay Colony passed a law banning smoking in public places.
New Amsterdam established the colonies' first firefighting system in 1647. Fire wardens inspected the houses and chimneys, fining for potential hazard. An eight-man team called a rattle watch patrolled the streets at night. When a fire was detected, they shook wooden rattles to alert townspeople. In 1711 the concerned Americans formed the so-called mutual fire societies of approximately twenty members each. When fire struck a society member, other members rushed for assistance. The first water-pumping engines were imported to New York in the 1730s. In 1736 Benjamin Franklin founded the first American volunteer fire company in Philadelphia. Such companies were soon organized in other colonies. Among those who served as volunteer firefighters were George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, John Hancock, Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. Volunteer firefighters were honored with frequent stanzas in urban newspapers and made the subject of heroizing prints by the popular American printmaking firm Currier & Ives. Nathaniel Currier, of Currier & Ives, also surviving as a volunteer firefighter in New York City during the 1850s. In 1818 the first known female firefighter Molly Williams rose to prominence in New York, when she took her place with the men on the drag ropes and pulled the pumper to the fire through the deep snow.
In the early days of the fire service, fire departments were, more or less, social organizations in the community. And, being an accepted member meant a certain social status in the community. Remnants of that social status can still be found today in the traditional style firefighter's helmets that resemble top hats worn by the early firefighters. Monies that were used to help fund the organization were obtained by insurance company payouts from fighting fires. Firefighters could easily tell just who had fire insurance and who didn't by fire insurance marks located on the front of the home. Often it was a problem for homeowners who did not have insurance to have the fire department respond to a fire in their home and effectively remove belongings and such because the firefighters knew that there wouldn't be any money in it for them.
By the 1850s and 1860s the reputation of volunteer firefighters hit an extreme low. Amidst accusations of rioting, disorder and inefficiency the majority of volunteer firefighting forces in the United States were being replaced by fire departments. American firefighters built, designed or assigned specifications for their equipment. Particularly, they dedicated themselves to the engines and viewed them as integral to the fire company identity. The first fire companies - the Union Fire Company, the Columbia Fire Company and the Anacostia Fire Company were organized in 1804 to serve the White House, the Capitol and the neighborhood of Anacostia in Washington, D.C. respectively. By the 1840s and 1850s the differences between companies within the same city had become quite significant. In 1853 Cincinnati, Ohio became the first city with a fully paid fire department. In 1855 the Metropolitan Hook and Ladder Company Number 1 Firehouse, Washington's oldest extant firehouse, was built at Massachusetts Avenue.
With few exceptions, firefighters denied African Americans the opportunity to join the companies or form their own ones. As early as 1818 in Philadelphia the local free black community attempted to form the African Fire Association. Meanwhile, some southern cities like Charleston and Savannah relied on African American labor.
Later the specialized life-saving units in American fire departments - the pompier corps - were formed.
In the 20th century, the nature of an American firefighter's job began to change. Not only was structural firefighting still the main purpose of the department, but more specialized training and education, such as for high-rise structure fires, confined space environments and building construction education have been included and emphasized. Other disciplines had been taken on as responsibilities in lifesaving. An example of such is the practice of Paramedicine which debuted in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Presently, most all fire departments across the United States have been trained in and perform technical rescue, vehicle rescue, high-angle rescue, wildland firefighting and hazardous materials incidents. Additionally, most all career departments as well as many volunteer departments have emergency medical assets at their immediate disposal.
Several notable events have killed many firefighters. 343 New York City Fire Department (FDNY) firefighters were killed when the World Trade Center collapsed during the attacks of September 11, 2001. In 2007, the Sofa Super Store fire in Charleston, South Carolina, killed nine firefighters.
In 2011, there were about 1.1 million firefighters in the country. 31% were paid, the remainder volunteer. The nation has seen an increase in paid positions; 8.6% decrease in volunteers from 2008 to 2011.
Fire companies come in several types. Note that the names below are not standard and have numerous local variations.
Engine or Pumper
- A unit that pumps water. Modern engines are almost always "triple-combination" units that have a pump, a tank of water, and hoses. This company has the primary responsibility of supplying water to a scene, to locate and confine the fire, and extinguish the fire.
Truck or Ladder
- A unit that carries ladders and an aerial device to access buildings above ground level. Primarily, the company performs the ladderwork and supplies master streams to the fireground. The company also performs structural ventilation and overhaul, primary and secondary search & rescue, securing of utilities, and often supplies rapid intervention teams.
- A unit that carries a large variety of tools to assist in the search and rescue of victims at an incident such as a fire or traffic collision. It may or may not provide emergency medical response and may or may not transport patients to hospital.
- This type of unit has many different local and regional definitions. In the New York City Fire Department, for example, a Squad is a hybrid company consisting of an apparatus equipped with supplies necessary to perform some levels of rescue operations as well as engine and truck company operations. In some areas it is identical to a Rescue or a Medic company.
- A unit that provides EMS, often at the paramedic level. Many fire services offer some form of EMS and companies may or may not transport patients to hospital.
- Short for quintuple-combination engine. The unit has the three items that an engine does -- pump, tank, hose -- but also carries ground ladders and has an aerial device.
Tanker or Tender
- A unit that has a large water tank. It may or may not also have a pump.
- A unit usually built on a heavy duty pickup chassis with equipment for fighting brush fires. Typically responds with a engine to major fires, though may also respond alone.
Helicopter or air ambulance
- Depending on the department a helicopter may be in use as an air ambulance or a suppression and Fire observation tool for brush fires. Some are even uses for both as in the case of departments like the Los Angeles Fire Department.
Battalion chief sedan
- A command car containing a lower ranking chief officer in command of an area/district of a department usually around 7 stations that responds to large fires, mass casualty incidents, and any emergency with more than one engine responding.
EMS Supervisor or EMS captain sedan
- Similar to a battalion chief sedan the ems captain sedan contains a chief officer for ems which usually responds to large emergencies, and is usually tasked with directing medical resources on scene.
- structural firefighting
- highrise firefighting
- confined space firefighting
- wildland firefighting
- airport firefighting
- rope and technical rescue
- high-angle rescue
- vehicle rescue
- structural collapse rescue
- water rescue
- ice rescue
- Hazardous Materials
- chemical spill
- flammable liquid spill
- Emergency Medical Services
- Patient treatment
- To hospital transport
U.S. firefighters work under the auspices of fire departments (also commonly called fire protection districts, fire divisions, fire companies, fire bureaus, and fire-rescue). These departments are generally organized as local or county government subsidiaries, special-purpose district entities or not-for-profit corporations. They may be funded by the parent government, through millage, fees for services, fundraising or charitable contributions. Some state governments and the federal government operate fire departments to protect their wildlands, e.g., California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE), New Jersey Forest Fire Service, USDA Forest Service – Fire and Aviation Management (see also Smokejumper). Many military installations, major airports and large industrial facilities also operate their own fire departments.
A small number of U.S. fire departments are privatized, that is, operated by for-profit corporations on behalf of public entities. Port Columbus International Airport in Columbus, Ohio is among the largest public entities protected by privatized fire departments.
Most larger urban areas have career firefighters. Most rural areas have volunteer or paid on-call firefighters. Smaller towns and suburban areas may have either. 74% of career firefighters are in departments that protect 25,000 or more people. 95% of volunteer firefighters are in departments that protect fewer than 25,000 people and more than half of these and are in small, rural departments protecting fewer than 2,500 people. Departments range in size from a handful of firefighters to over 11,400 sworn firefighters and 4,600 additional personnel in the New York City Fire Department. These additional personnel include uniformed emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics. Many U.S. fire departments have emergency medical service corps (EMS), which may be structurally separate from or combined with their firefighting operations, including firefighters cross-trained as EMTs and paramedics.
As of 2007[update], there were 1,148,500 firefighters in the United States (not including firefighters who work for the state or federal governments or in private fire departments). Of these, 28% are career and 72% are volunteer. These firefighters operate out of 30,185 fire departments. Career firefighters represent 13% of all departments but protect 62% of the U.S. population. Meanwhile, 87% of fire departments are volunteer or mostly volunteer and protect 38% of the population. Source: U.S. Fire Administration and National Fire Protection Association The Firemen's Association of the State of New York (FASNY) provides information, education and training for the volunteer fire and emergency medical services throughout New York State.
Like U.S. police departments, U.S. fire departments are usually structured in a paramilitary manner. Firefighters are sworn, uniformed members of their departments. Rank-and-file firefighters are equivalent to enlisted personnel; supervisory firefighters are command officers with ranks such as lieutenant, captain, battalion chief, deputy chief and chief. Fire departments, especially larger ones, may also be organized into military-style echelons, such as companies, battalions and divisions. Fire departments may also have unsworn or non-uniformed members in non-firefighting capacities such as administration and civilian oversight, e.g., a board of commissioners. While adhering to a paramilitary command structure, most fire departments operate on a much less formal basis than the military.
Firefighting in the United States is becoming more of a profession than it once was. Historically, especially in smaller departments, little formal training of firefighters was required. Now, most states require both career and volunteer firefighters to complete a certificate program at a fire academy. Associate's, bachelor's and master's degree programs in firefighting disciplines are available at colleges and universities. Such advanced training is becoming a de facto prerequisite for command in larger departments. The U.S. Fire Administration operates the National Fire Academy, which also provides specialized firefighter training.
Ranks and Insignia
There is no single standard system of rank insignia in use, but certain ranks are common. Many variations in insignia systems make use of the voice trumpet, a type of megaphone, and frequently referred to as a "bugle."
- Firefighter (occasionally private) is the lowest rank. Often, it may be subdivided into grades (such as 1st class, senior, or master firefighter - typically awarded based on seniority), which may or may not be marked on the individual's badge or by uniform rank insignia.
- Driver, engineer, or fire equipment operator are used by many departments. Usually, no insignia is present, but the badge will often note the rank. Some will have multiple grades of this rank.
- Lieutenant is typically used as the lowest "fire officer" rank, usually being marked by a single bugle, often in silver. Some departments instead use a single bar (as in military / police fashion), again, usually in silver. Others may use a single gold bugle or bar. Some departments have multiple grades of lieutenant. An older name for the same rank, still used by some fire departments, is assistant foreman.
- Captain is used in most departments, usually being denoted with a pair of parallel bugles or parallel bars, connected by a thin cross-bar, in either silver or gold. This is frequently used as a senior supervisor of an individual company or station, and sometimes oversees multiple lieutenants, in addition to firefighters. In Philadelphia, for example, a captain of a ladder company is the commanding officer of that firehouse, and the captain of the engine company supervises the medic unit in the station. Although only working on 1 of 4 shifts as the company officer, the captain is the supervising officer of the house overall and is reported to by the lieutenants on the other 3 shifts, even though he/she is not present during those shifts. As with lieutenant, some departments still use the older style, Foreman, instead of captain.
- Senior captain is rarely used, and may be shown as 2 bugles crossed.
- Battalion chief (sometimes division or district chief) is often the highest-ranking shift officer that is always on duty at any given time in a smaller department (i.e., the shift commander); or, in larger departments comprising multiple battalions, one would be assigned to supervise a complement of X amount of companies in each battalion in different parts of the city. (Boston, for example, has 9 district chiefs that operate under 2 division chiefs city-wide, supervising a total of 34 engines, 23 ladders, and 2 heavy rescues - they were recently reduced from 11 total district chiefs due to budget cuts, losing D5 and D10). This is usually the lowest chief rank. Typical insignia is two crossed gold bugles or two stars, although some departments use 3 bugles or 1 star. Some are occasionally identified with an oak leaf like a US military major, as with the FDNY's BC collar insignia.
- Additional chief grades usually exist between chief and battalion chief; usual insignia is 3 or 4 crossed gold bugles or 3 or 4 stars. Common titles include district chief, division chief, assistant chief, and deputy chief.
- Chief is usually the highest rank of a uniformed member in any given department, traditionally shown with 5 gold bugles or 5 stars.
Additional ranks outside the normal chain may exist; sergeants, majors, and inspectors are other ranks used by some departments. According to the 1986 Anchorage Fire Department Explorer Handbook, Anchorage Fire Department used a single gold bugle for inspectors, and both single silver bugle and single gold bar for lieutenants, depending upon assignment.
Many fire departments use cuff stripes as well as bugles or military style insignia on their dress uniforms. Typically, they are the same in number and color as the bugles / stars worn, but variations exist.
Many departments also frequently display seniority Service stripes (hash marks) on the lower left sleeve of a dress uniform jacket, or sometimes long-sleeved uniform shirts, with years of service varying greatly between individual departments (each stripe typically represents anywhere from 2–5 years of service).
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- Michèle Dagenais, Irene Maver, Pierre-Yves Saunier. Municipal services and employees in the modern city, p. 49
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- CAL FIRE - Fire Protection
- Department of Environmental Protection
- Fire and Aviation Management
- USFA Fire Departments
- NFPA :: Research & Reports :: Fire statistics :: The U.S. fire service
- AFDE Post 264 Anchorage Fire Department Explorer Handbook, issued 1986.
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- National Fire Protection Association. U.S. fire department profile through 2003. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association; 2005
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