|Bacillus subtilis, Gram stained|
Gibbons and Murray 1978, Murray, 1984
The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, however, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas and Zymophilus, have a porous pseudo-outer membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative. Scientists once classified the Firmicutes to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but have recently defined them to be of a core group of related forms called the low-G+C group, in contrast to the Actinobacteria. They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-like forms (bacillus).
Many Firmicutes produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and the group includes some notable pathogens. Those in one family, the heliobacteria, produce energy through photosynthesis. Firmicutes play an important role in beer, wine, and cider spoilage.
The phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 132 by The All-Species Living Tree Project, with the currently accepted taxonomy based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) , National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and some non validated clade names from Genome Taxonomic Database.
Unassigned Clostridia s.s.
♥ Clade names not lodged at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)
More than 274 genera were considered as of 2016[update] to be within the Firmicutes phylum, notable genera of Firmicutes include:
Bacilli, order Bacillales
Bacilli, order Lactobacillales
Firmicutes make up the largest portion of the mouse and human gut microbiome. The division Firmicutes as part of the gut flora has been shown to be involved in energy resorption, and potentially related to the development of diabetes and obesity.
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